PowerPoint Presentation - Cultural Anthropology 7e

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Cultural Anthropology
9th Edition
Serena Nanda
Richard L. Warms
Chapter 1
Anthropology and Human
Diversity
Chapter Outline

Specialization on Anthropology
 What We Learn from Anthropology:
Understanding Human Differences
 Anthropological Approaches to Culture
Goals of Anthropology



Describe, analyze and explain different
cultures.
Show how groups adapted to their
environments and gave meaning to their
lives.
Comprehend the entire human
experience.
Holistic Approach



Considers cultures, history, language and biology
essential to a complete understanding of society.
Separates anthropology from other disciplines, which
focus on one factor, biology, psychology, physiology,
or society, to explain human behavior.
Anthropology seeks to understand human beings as
whole organisms who adapt to their environments
through a complex interaction of biology and culture.
Areas of Specialization





Cultural Anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
Archaeology
Physical Anthropology
Applied Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology

The study of human behavior that is learned
rather than genetically transmitted, and that is
typical of groups of people.
 Society is the set of social relationships
among people within a given geographical
area.
 Culture is the learned behaviors and symbols
that allow people to live in groups.
Examples of Cultural
Anthropology

Political and legal anthropology - concerned
with issues of nationalism, citizenship, the
state, colonialism, and globalism.
 Humanistic anthropology - focused on the
personal, ethical, and political choices facing
humans.
 Visual anthropology - the study of visual
representation and the media.
Linguistic Anthropology
Focus on understanding language and it’s
relation to culture.
– Development of language
– Variation of languages.
– Relationship of language to culture.
– How languages are learned.
 Historical linguists study how languages are
related to each other.

Archaeology


Study of past cultures through their material remains.
Prehistoric societies are those with no usable written
records.
– Artifact - A material remain of a past culture.
• Archaeologists interpret artifact’s function by
precise position in which it was found.
– Features are artifacts that cannot easily be
moved, such as ruins of buildings, burials, and fire
pits.
Question

Examples of artifacts include all except
which one of the following?
a) holiday wreath
b) stone axe
c) rock painting
d) wild raspberries
e) tortilla
Answer: d

Examples of artifacts include holiday wreath,
stone axe, rock painting and tortilla. Wild
raspberries are not artifacts.
Archaeology: Specialties

Urban archaeology
Archaeological investigation of current-day
cities.
 Cultural resource management
Protection and management of archeological,
archival, and architectural resources.
Physical Anthropology
Study humans from a biological perspective.
 Paleoanthropology: Biological processes of
human adaptation.
 Human variation: Physiological differences
among modern humans.
 Primatology: Study of apes for clues about
the human species.
Applied Anthropology

Analyze social, political and economic
problems and develop solutions.
 Example: Cultural anthropologists have been
instrumental in promoting the welfare of tribal
and indigenous peoples.
Indigenous People

Groups of people who have occupied a
region for a long time and are recognized by
other groups as original (or very ancient)
inhabitants.
– They are often minorities with little
influence in the government of the nationstate that controls their land.
Medical Anthropology

Draws upon social, cultural, biological, and
linguistic anthropology to better understand
those factors that influence health and wellbeing.
 It is concerned with the experience of disease
as well as its distribution, prevention, and
treatment.
Forensic Anthropology

Study and identification of skeletized or badly
decomposed human remains.
Question

A museum exhibit of an early one-room school in the
Midwestern U.S. is being planned. Which subfield(s)
of anthropology would be likely to carry out the
research and interpretation of surveyor's maps,
diaries, textbooks, journals, and other historic
artifacts, as well as excavation of the original site?
a) paleontologist and archaeologist
b) archaeologist
c) cultural anthropologist and archaeologist
d) forensic anthropologist and cultural
anthropologist
e) biological anthropologist
Answer: b

A museum exhibit of an early one-room
school in the Midwestern U.S. is being
planned. An archaeologist would be likely to
carry out the research and interpretation of
surveyor's maps, diaries, textbooks, journals,
and other historic artifacts, as well as
excavation of the original site?
Ethnocentrism
Belief that one’s culture is better than all other
cultures.
 Measures other cultures by the degree to
which they live up to one’s own cultural
standards.

Ethnocentrism


When a culture loses value for its people, they may
experience anomie, a condition where social and
moral norms are absent or confused.
Racism is the belief that some human populations
are superior to others because of inherited,
genetically transmitted characteristics.
Question

Some positive aspects of the tendency for members
of societies to be ethnocentric would include which
one of the following?
a) Ethnocentrism often supports existing social
inequality, especially in multicultural societies.
b) Ethnocentrism may reinforce group solidarity and
helps perpetuate cultural values.
c) Ethnocentrism is often associated with racism.
d) Ethnocentrism in technologically advanced
societies reinforces people's ideas about their
own superiority and often, military strength.
Answer: b

Some positive aspects of the tendency for
members of societies to be ethnocentric
would include: Ethnocentrism may
reinforce group solidarity and helps
perpetuate cultural values.
Biological Diversity

Wide diversity in human shapes and colors,
low levels of skeletal and blood type diversity.
 People from the same region tend to share
more traits than they do with people from
distant lands.
 Biopsychological Equality - The fact that all
human groups have the same biological and
mental capabilities.
Racial Classification



Race is socially constructed.
No group of humans is biologically
different from another.
Humans have an equal capacity for
culture.
Racism



The idea that characteristics are caused
by racial inheritance.
Differences among human groups are
the result of culture.
Humans belong to the same species
with the same features essential to life.
Racialism

Ideology that claims there are biologically
fixed races with different moral, intellectual,
and physical characteristics that determine
individual aptitudes and that such races can
be ranked on a single hierarchy.
Cultural Relativism

Understanding values and customs in terms
of the culture of which they are a part.
Emic and Etic Views of
Culture


Emic: Describes the organization and
meaning a culture’s practices have for
its members.
Etic: Tries to determine the causes of
particular cultural patterns that may be
beyond the awareness of the culture
being studied.
Quick Quiz
1.
Which of the following does not characterize
the anthropological approach to the study of
human societies and their cultural traditions?
a) culturally relativistic
b) Holistic
c) Ethnocentric
d) Comparative
e) consideration of evolutionary and
historical context
Answer: c
•
The ethnocentric approach does not
characterize the anthropological approach to
the study of human societies and their
cultural traditions.
2. Which of the following is not a topic with
which present-day biological (physical)
anthropologists are engaged?
a) primate physiology, morphology, and
behavior
b) human variation
c) interaction between biological and
cultural factors in evolution
d) establishing fixed categories of "race"
e) human origins
Answer: d
•
Establishing fixed categories of "race” is
not a topic with which present-day biological
(physical) anthropologists are engaged.
3. The study of how people explain the causes
of ill health, along with the meanings they
attach to it, is an important part of the
subspecialty known as
a) biological anthropology.
b) medical anthropology.
c) paleoanthropology.
d) forensic anthropology.
e) Cultural Resource Management
(CRM).
Answer: b

The study of how people explain the causes
of ill health, along with the meanings they
attach to it, is an important part of the
subspecialty known as medical
anthropology.
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