SBI for TBI Page 1 of 9 Table 2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in

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Table 2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Screening and Brief Intervention Studies
Efficacy Studies
Bazargan-Hejazi et al., 200524
Blow et al., 200625
18 or older; CAGE>=1.
Cognitive impairment precluded
informed consent (was unable to
pass an evaluation assessing
understanding of study procedures);
medical treatment precluded the
conduct of an interview; received
professional alcohol counseling in
past 12 months; in police custody;
did not speak English or Spanish.
19 or older; sustained an injury
involving transfer of energy (E-Code
800-968) in past 24 hours, met
threshold for at-risk drinking defined as
excessive weekly use in past 3 months
(15+ drinks/week for men < 65 years
old; 12+ drinks/week for women < 65
years old and men 65+ years; 9+
drinks/week for women 65+ years old)
or binge drinking at least 4 times in past
month (5+ drinks/occasion for men <
65 years old; 4+ drinks/occasion for
women <65 and men and women 65+).
Unable to provide informed consent;
severely injured (e.g. unconscious);
life-saving procedures needed
immediately (e.g. intubation); BAL >
200 mg/d (for others with BAC<200
mg/d, saliva test was used to assess
competency to receive intervention,
with criteria of reaching BAC<100
mg/d); sustained injuries that were
self-inflicted, chronic without reinjury, or due to sexual assault,
overdose, poisoning, near drowning;
pregnant; in custody; did not speak
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Crawford et al., 200426
Daeppen et al., 200727
Dauer et al., 200628
18 or older; were either suspected to be
consuming an excess of alcohol or had
presented with any of the following:
head injury, any injury due to falls,
assaults, or accidents, collapse, unwell,
gastrointestinal problems, psychiatric
problems, cardiac symptoms; positive
for alcohol misuse based on PAT
(criteria: men--8+ drinks/occasion at
least once a week; women--6+
drinks/occasion, or patient believed that
ED visit was due to alcohol-related
Did not provide informed consent;
not alert and oriented; currently
receiving alcohol services or
requesting assistance with alcohol
problems; previously enrolled in the
study; not a resident of Greater
London; unable to speak English
sufficiently to complete
18 or older; sustained an injury;
screened positive for hazardous alcohol
use (NIAAA guidelines*)
Did not consent; intoxicated; had a
medical condition that precluded
interview; received alcohol-related
treatment in past 12 months.
18 or older; presented after traffic
crash; BAC>=.2 grams/liter.
Did not provide informed consent;
unable to be interviewed or followed
due to a very severe medical,
psychiatric or social condition;
clinical alcohol intoxication that did
not resolve prior to discharge from
ED; AUDIT score >=15 and received
additional alcohol use disorder
treatment; not a resident; did not
speak Spanish.
Page 3 of 9
D'Onofrio et al., 200829
18 or older; met hazardous (exceeded
NIAAA low-risk limits*) or harmful
(ED visit related to alcohol ingestion)
drinking criteria.
Forsberg et al., 2000
Gentilello et al., 199931
Did not consent to participate;
cognitively impaired; critically ill or
injured, likely to be alcohol
dependent (AUDIT > 19) or drug
dependent (daily use); currently
enrolled in substance abuse treatment
program; seeking treatment for a
psychiatric complaint or hospitalized
for a psychiatric problem in the past
year; did not speak English.
16-73 years old; met criteria for regular
drinking or drinking to intoxication
(regular drinking for men defined as
>=162 grams alcohol/week and for
women>=82 grams; intoxication
defined for men as >=1.05 grams
alcohol per kg body weight and for
women >=.90 grams).
Did not provide consent; terminally
ill; non-medical use of narcotics; not
able to speak Swedish.
18 or older; screened positive for
excessive alcohol use based on one of
five criteria (a) BAC >=100 mg/dl, (b)
SMAST score >=3, (c) BAC 1-99
mg/dl and SMAST=1 or 2; (d) BAC 199 mg/dl and GGT > normal; (e)
SMAST 1 or 2 and GGT > normal).
Effects of TBI did not resolve before
discharge; did not provide consent
for follow-up; admission was less
than 24 hours; admitted > 24 hours
post-injury; died; had severe
psychiatric problems; discharged to a
long-term care facility; was
homeless; not resident of
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Longabaugh et al., 200132
Maio et al., 200533
Monti et al., 200734
Monti et al., 199935, (additional
information on protocol in Tapert et
al., 200342)
18 or older; presented with an injury;
met one of the criteria for hazardous or
harmful drinking, or ingested alcohol in
past 6 hours BAC>=.004 mg/dl;
reported alcohol use; AUDIT >=8).
Did not provide informed consent, as
determined by BAC (must be <=.20
mg/dl), mini mental status exam
and/or consent quiz (participation
delayed until criteria were met);
hospitalized; judged to have a
psychiatric disorder; previously
diagnosed with alcohol dependence
or abuse; under arrest; had no
identifiable residence; lived more
than an hour from the hospital; did
not speak English or Spanish.
14-18 years old; presenting within 24
hours of acute minor injuries (Class III
trauma patients).
Did not provide consent (for those
under 18, parent or guardian was
not available or did not consent);
intoxicated or cognitively impaired;
not clinically stable; unable to sit-up;
trauma service immediately
consulted; injury due to suicide
attempt, sexual assault or poisoning.
18-24 years old; met one of the
following criteria: BAC > .01%; drank
alcohol within 6 hours of event; AUDIT
Unable to provide informed consent
as determined by mini-mental status
exam; self-inflicted injury; in police
custody; did not speak English.
18-19 years old; presented with injury
or intoxication (a positive blood alcohol
level or self-reported use at time of ED
Did not provide informed consent;
did not pass mini-mental status
exam; experienced severe traumatic
injury; self-inflicted injury; in police
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custody; did not speak English.
18 years or older; primary diagnosis of
acute injury; AUDIT >=5.
Did not provide written informed
consent; cognitively impaired;
medically unstable or required
hospital admission; severe
intoxication precluded participation;
in severe pain; had severe psychiatric
condition; pregnant; member of
hospital staff; in police custody; did
not speak German.
16-80 years old; admitted >=24 hours
of injury due to MVC; BAC >=80
mg/dL or AUDIT >=8.
Brain injury requiring discharge to a
rehabilitation hospital; did not or
could not provide informed consent;
not a resident of New Mexico; did
not speak English.
Soderstrom et al., 200738
18 years or older; admitted for an injury
for at least 12 hours; at-risk alcohol use
(one of the following criteria: CAGE
screening test results >=1; 8+
drinks/week for women or 15+
drinks/week for men; drinking 2-4
times/month or less, with typical
number of drinks of 4+ for women or
5+ for men; or 6+ drinks/occasion
weekly, daily, or almost daily).
Did not have sufficient cognitive
capacity to provide informed
consent, as determined by a cognitive
assessment (orientation and memory
for recent and remote events); did
not have intact cognition; severe
alcohol or other drug use disorders
rendering brief intervention
inappropriate; legal issues; unstable
contact information; did not speak
Sommers et al., 200639
18-45 years old; admitted to trauma
Cognition not intact as judged by
Neumann et al., 200636
Schermer et al.,200637
Page 6 of 9
service within 24 hours of traumatic
injury sustained in MVC; potential for
discharge to home within 4 weeks;
BAC > 10 mg/dL
nurse clinicians upon physical
assessment and chart review; did not
provide informed consent after
reaching sobriety, no potential to be
discharged to home within 4 weeks
after study entry; attended alcohol
treatment program in past year;
signs/symptoms of alcohol
withdrawal; received advice in past 3
months from healthcare provider to
reduce alcohol use; drank more than
150 grams of alcohol per day; scored
2 or higher on any of the alcohol
dependence items of AUDIT; did not
speak English.
Spirito et al., 200440
13-17 years old; evidence of alcohol in
blood, breath or saliva; or reported
drinking within 6 hours of injury.
Participation delayed until able to
provide informed consent (mental
status exam passed, essential
elements of study could be described,
and BAC <10 mg/dL); sustained
serious traumatic injury requiring
admission; suicidal; did not speak
Tait et al., 200441
12-19 years old; presented with alcohol
or other drug use involvement.
Adolescent did not provide consent
(parent consent waived).
13-19 years old; presented with injury
or intoxication (a positive blood alcohol
level or self-reported use at time of ED
Participation delayed until able to
provide informed consent as
determined by mini-mental status
exam and ability to summarize
Tapert et al., 2003
Page 7 of 9
Academic ED SBIRT Research
Collaborative., 20075
consent; self-inflicted injury; in
police custody; did not speak
18 years or older; screened positive for
drinking (above NIAAA low-risk
Not fully oriented; did not consent;
not medically stable; in custody or
substance abuse treatment; intention
to remain in study area; did not speak
English or Spanish.
21 years or older; screened positive for
a substance abuse problem (use of any
illicit drug in past year, consumption of
alcohol within past 24 hours along with
admission of an alcohol use problem,
consumption of > 4 drinks in <2 hours
on >4 occasions in past month, and/or
report of alcohol or drug use in
association with injury within the past
Did not provide informed consent,
unable to respond to an interview
because of change in mental status,
pain, or the logistics of treatment;
life-threatening medical condition.
21 years or older; drank in past year;
AUDIT ≥ 6.
Did not provide informed consent;
mental incompetence or
combativeness; life- or limbthreatening conditions; overt alcohol
intoxication or significant psychiatric
comorbidity; in police custody;
residence in a 24-hour nursing home;
inability to speak English.
Effectiveness Studies
Bernstein, Bernstein, Levenson,
Hungerford, Pollock, Todd, 200050
Page 8 of 9
18-39 year old college students, drank
at least once in last year; AUDIT >=6.
Did not provide informed consent;
mentally incompetent or combative;
had severe communication deficits;
medical treatment precluded
completion of intervention; too
intoxicated to respond appropriately
(if remained in the ED long enough
that the physician judged the patient
was sober, staff attempted to
interview before discharge); had lifeor limb-threatening conditions;
arrived in police custody; did not
speak English.
Age > 16 years; screened positive for an
alcohol problem (PAT positive: drinks
more than once a month at the
following amounts: 64 grams/day for
man, 48 grams/ day for woman OR
feels presentation to ED is due to
alcohol use).
Did not provide consent for followup, did not complete written followup questionnaire and follow-up data
was not available from treatment
Love et al., 200847
14 years or older; screened positive for
at-risk drinking based on NIAAA
guidelines* and CAGE >=1.
Did not provide verbal consent; not
cognitively alert and/or cooperative;
not medically stable; presented with
a condition that resulted in hospital
Baier et al., 2005 48
18 years and older; positive BAC;
referred for alcohol and drug use
consultation services
Did not provide informed consent to
participate in follow-up; had
moderate or severe cognitive
Hungerford et al., 200349
Wright et al., 199851
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impairments; died; could not be
reached by phone; was incarcerated;
did not speak English.
ED=Emergency Department, BAC=Blood Alcohol Content, NIAAA= National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, AUDIT=
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, PAT= Paddington Alcohol Test, SMAST=Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, mg/dl
=milligrams per deciliter, MVC=motor vehicle crash, GGT= Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase
*National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) describes at-risk use as: for men < 65, >14 drinks/week or
>4drinks/occasion; for men >65 and women, >7 drinks/week or >3 drinks/occasion

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