Material Matters Steve Constantinides, Director of Technology Arnold Magnetic Technologies Corporation

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Material Matters
Steve Constantinides, Director of Technology
Arnold Magnetic Technologies Corporation
July 13, 2012
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
1
Arnold – What We Manufacture
• Magnet Production, Vertically Integrated
–
–
–
–
–
–
SmCo RECOMA® - (Lupfig, Switzerland; Rochester, NY; Ganzhou, China)
Alnico - (Marengo, IL)
Ferrite (Bonded) - (Marietta, OH; Norfolk, NE)
Injection Molded (Bonded) - (Shenzhen, China)
Electrical Steels - ARNON ® (Marengo, IL)
Electromagnets - (Ogallala, NE)
• Fabricated Magnets
– Slice, grind, EDM
• Assemblies / Value Added Production
– Precision assembly
• Complex magnet and assembled shapes
• Magnetized / unmagnetized assembly
• High temperature and specialized adhesives
– Rotor Balancing
– Encapsulation / sleeving
– Precision Machining Centers for Magnets
AND Components
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2
Arnold Material Knowledge Base
Mfg Location
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
ALNICO
Cast & Sintered alnico
Marengo, IL
FERRITE
Ferrite (ceramic) magnets
Marengo, IL; Sevierville, TN
Bonded Ferrite
Marietta, OH
Norfolk, NE
RARE EARTH MAGNETS
SmCo 1:5 and 2:17
Lupfig, Switzerland
Ganzhou, China
Rochester, NY
NdFeB
TBD
Lab Samples, Patents
SOFT MAGNETICS
Si-Fe
Marengo, IL
Powder Core Products (Iron,
Marengo, IL
Ferrite, Sendust, Hi-Flux, MPP)
Shenzhen, PRC
ELECTROMAGNETS
Beam focusing coils
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Ogallala, NE
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3
Agenda
• Setting the Picture
– Energy & Electricity Production and Consumption
• Alternative Energy Production - Wind
• Energy Consumption in Motors
– PM versus Induction versus Synchronous
– Motor efficiency
• Motor Materials
–
–
–
–
The Rare Earth Dilemma
Prices
Availability
Alternative Materials and Research
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4
Entropy
Energy
Effective Production
Efficient Use
There are no simple choices
- - only intelligent decisions.
Series of articles submitted by Caterpillar to National Geographic Magazine – 1970’s.
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5
Sources of Energy for Electricity Production
Non-renewable
Renewable
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Oil
Gas
Coal / Peat
Nuclear
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Hydro
Wind
Bio Fuels and Waste
Solar
Geothermal
Tidal / Wave
6
Energy Source Material Issues
• Efficiency of fuel extraction & production
– Net energy balance
• Example: Ethanol production
• Use of toxic or hazardous materials during exploration and
production
– Environmental impact
• Example: use of toxic or carcinogenic ingredients in high volume hydro-fracking
• Disposal or storage of end-use by-products (waste)
• Example: Storage of radioactive waste from nuclear plants
• “Side effects”
– Affect on cost of other essential products
• Example: use of corn for bio-fuel increases price of food and animal stocks
dependent upon corn for feed
• Byproducts of use
• Example: carbon dioxide or other noxious gases
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7
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/clean_energy_101/
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Much
information
about
clean
energy
8
IEA - - The International Energy Agency
The International Energy Agency is a Paris-based
autonomous intergovernmental organization established in
the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake
of the 1973 oil crisis. The IEA was initially dedicated to
responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil, as
well as serving as an information source on statistics about
the international oil market and other energy sectors.
The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but
also works with non-member countries, especially China,
India and Russia. The Agency's mandate has broadened to
focus on the "3Es" of sound energy policy: energy security,
economic development, and environmental protection.[1]
The latter has focused on mitigating climate change.[2] The
IEA has a broad role in promoting alternate energy sources
(including renewable energy), rational energy policies, and
multinational energy technology co-operation.
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9
World Total Primary Energy Supply by Fuel
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10
World Electric Generation
Coal, Oil, Nat. Gas
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11
Fuel Used for Production of Electricity
2009
3 313
We use the fuels which are available to us
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12
Hard Coal Production by Region
Mt
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13
Nuclear Production of Electric Energy
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Hydro Production
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Energy Information Administration
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the statistical and analytical agency
within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). EIA collects, analyzes, and disseminates
independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient
markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the
environment.
EIA is the Nation's premier source of energy information and, by law, its data, analyses,
and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United
States government.
The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal
government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and
organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973.
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16
U.S.
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U.S. Non-hydropower renewable electricity generating capacity by
energy source, including end-use capacity, 2010-2035 (gigawatts)
MSW= Municipal Solid Waste
LFG= Land Fill Gas
U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2012, page 90
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18
U.S.
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Hydropower and other renewable electricity generation,
including end-use generation, 2010-2035 (billion kilowatt-hours)
U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2012, page 90
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20
U.S.
CHP= Combined Heat & Power
http://205.254.135.7/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=5170
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21
Energy Flow, 2010 (quadrillion btu)
Sankey Diagram
Supply
Use
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22
Notes to chart: Energy Flow
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2010
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23
Agenda
• Setting the Picture
– Energy & Electricity Production and Consumption
• Alternative Energy Production - Wind
• Energy Consumption in Motors
– PM versus Induction versus Synchronous
– Motor efficiency
• Motor Materials
–
–
–
–
The Rare Earth Dilemma
Prices
Availability
Alternative Materials and Research
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24
Major Developing Uses for Permanent Magnets
competing for limited resources
• Wind energy
• Transportation
–
–
–
–
Mild hybrids
HEV, PHEV
EV
Electric Bikes
• Consumer goods
– Air conditioning
– High efficiency heating (fan motors)
– Portable hand tools
• Aerospace and military
– “Drive-by-wire”
– In wheel traction drives
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25
Wind
Power
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26
Wind Power Installation - USA
Annual and Cumulative Wind Installations by 2030
350
18
16
300
250
12
Actual installations
10
200
8
150
6
100
Cumulative Installed GW
Annual Installed Capacity, GW
14
4
50
2
Annual Installed GW
2030
2029
2028
2027
2026
2025
2024
2023
2022
2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
0
2006
0
Cumulative Installed GW
20% Wind Energy by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply, AWEA, May 2008
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27
Growth of Wind Power in China
60,000
50,000
Sources:
CREIA 2010
GWEC 2011
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Newly Installed
Capacity (MW)
73.3
52.7
66.3
98.3
196.8
506.9
1287.6
3311.3
6153.7
13803.3
18928
17631
Cumulative Installed
Capacity (MW)
341.6
403.5
469.8
568.1
764.9
1271.8
2559.4
5870.7
12024.4 25827.7
44733
62364
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28
Newly Installed Capacity Market Share between
Domestic and Foreign Companies in the
Chinese Wind Power Market
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29
Wind
Power
Production
Source:
GWEC 2012
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30
Wind Technology
American Superconductor, Sea Titan, superconducting 10 MW generator
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31
Superconducting Wind Power Generation
REACT: Rare Earth Alternatives for Critical Technologies
Mark Johnson, January 10, 2012
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32
Wind Technology Focus
Large Scale Commercial Wind Power
Generator Output in megawatts
< 1.5 M W
Generator Design
Induction
Generator rpm
1800+ rpm
No permanent magnets
Half-speed
10 M W >
Land-based
Older Technology
China, US, Europe
Land or Offshore
Newest Technology
US and Europe
~800 rpm
165 - 225 kg neo magnets per MW
Mostly Offshore
Newer Technology
US, Europe
Direct Drive 10-12 rpm
600 - 650 kg neo magnets per MW
Superconducting
Generators ??
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33
Wind Power Requirements for Rare Earths
Country
China
USA
India
Spain
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Canada
Sweden
Rest of World
Total
2010
2020
Average Tons Neo
Installed
% PM
kg neo Magnets
MW
Generators per MW required
18,928
25%
600
2,839
5,115
5%
600
153
2,139
3%
600
39
1,516
3%
600
27
1,493
3%
600
27
1,086
3%
600
20
962
3%
600
17
948
3%
600
17
690
3%
600
12
604
5%
600
18
4,785
3%
600
86
Average Tons Neo
Installed
% PM
kg neo Magnets
MW
Generators per MW required
10,000
50%
400
2,000
15,000
50%
400
3,000
5,000
10%
400
200
3,000
20%
400
240
1,500
20%
400
120
1,500
15%
400
90
1,000
15%
400
60
800
15%
400
48
800
20%
400
64
500
20%
400
40
15,000
15%
400
900
38,265
Dysprosium requirement at 4.1 weight %
Neodymium requirement at 27.5 weight %
3,255
54,100
133
895
6,760
277
1,859
Data sources include: GWEC and China Wind Power 2010
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34
Neo Magnets Required for Wind Power
Wind Power Generation
Neo Magnets, tons
5,000
New Installations
4,000
3,000
2,000
2,000 tons = 4.4 million pounds
1,000
0
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Data represents a combination of direct and hybrid drives and reflects slower market
penetration due to uncertainty about the availability of neo magnets.
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Boulder Wind Power
Axial gap, air core, permanent magnet direct drive generator
www.boulderwindpower.com/the-bwp-generator/overview/
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36
Wind Power - Summary
•
Use of wind power is continuing to grow
– Somewhat slowed due to expiration of government stimulus funding
•
Gen-4 designs use permanent magnets to avoid gear box issues
–
–
–
–
•
Lower cost and weight
Less frequent maintenance
Reduced noise
Reduced incidence of catastrophic failure
Gen-4 designs are being widely implemented in China
– Implementation in the ROW is constrained by pricing and availability of Neo
magnets
•
Alternative technologies are being developed
– Hybrid (half speed)
– Superconducting generators
– Direct drive without steel laminations (e.g., Boulder Wind Power)
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37
It’s Not Just Wind…
AK-1000 Tidal Turbine
1 and 2 MW, United Kingdom
Other sources of
renewable electric
energy generation
www.Keetsa.com
Pelamus Wavepower
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38
Agenda
• Setting the Picture
– Energy & Electricity Production and Consumption
• Alternative Energy Production - Wind
• Energy Consumption in Motors
– PM versus Induction versus Synchronous
– Motor efficiency
• Motor Materials
–
–
–
–
The Rare Earth Dilemma
Prices
Availability
Alternative Materials and Research
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39
US energy flow in 2006 in Exajoules
This Sankey diagram shows the sources and use of energy in the United States in 2006 in Exajoules. Electricity generation was
mainly done using coal and nuclear. Out of 38 Exajoules of primary energy used to produce electricity, 25.54 Exajoules were wasted
in losses, that is 69% of losses, mainly in heat energy. More than half of the energy used in the USA goes into useless losses. That
figure is similar across all industrialized countries.
55.1%
Lost
Energy
42.8%
“Useful”
Delivered
Energy
Additional loss
at end use
(source Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
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www.abb.com/product/ap/db0003db004052/ced766241e316af5c12578b00051d2d9.aspx/
www.abb.com/energyefficiency
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“…~57% of the generated electric energy in the United
States is utilized [consumed] by electric motors powering
industrial equipment. In addition, more than 95% of an
electric motor’s life-cycle cost is the energy cost.”
The Next Generation Motor, IEEE Industry Applications, January / February 2008, p.37
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Electric Motor Operating Cost
Cost of Ownership and Use
$200,000
Purchase price
$16,000
Annual use
12000 miles
Efficiency
30 mpg
Fuel/energy cost
$3.50 $/gal
Annual oper. cost
$1,400
60 HP* Motor
$4,000
4000 hours
89.20%
$0.056 $/kwh
Cumulative Cost
Automobile
$150,000
$100,000
Motor
Car
$12,601
$50,000
Operating Cost as a
% of Purchase Price
9%
315%
Trade-in car at 100,000 miles
First Cost is not the Last Cost
*60 HP; equivalent to 50.18 kW capacity
**Based on 2-shift operation
$0
0
5
10
15
20
Years of Use
From AEC (North Carolina Alternative Energy Corporation), updated with current gas prices, www.p2pays.org/ref/17/16897.pdf
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45
Low Voltage* Motor Market
* Less than 600 volts
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Low Voltage Motors Market
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Motor Efficiency Class Transition Timeline
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48
Loss Distribution
Increased Efficiency versus Increased Reliability, IEEE Industry Applications, January / February 2008, p.33
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Energy Consumption by Motor Size
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/pdfs/39157.pdf
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50
U.S. Energy Policy Act* Efficiency Targets
Increasing Efficiency
Targets
75.5%
95.0%
* EPAct
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51
Additional Motor Efficiency Information
•
Energy Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook
–
•
Buying an Energy Efficient Electric Motor
–
•
www.asiapacificpartnership.org/BATF/BATF%20Projects%20Workshops/Motors%20WS-SEEEMbrunner.pdf
Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors
–
•
www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/10112522-FoENQM/webviewable/10112522.PDF
Efficient Electric Motor Systems: SEEEM
–
•
www.cee1.org/ind/mot-sys/mtr-ms-main.php3
Efficient Electric Motor Systems for Industry
–
•
www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/mc-0382.pdf
Consortium for Energy Efficiency
–
•
www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOE/TECH/ce0384.pdf
www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/928973-hsePV1/928973.PDF
Electric Motor Systems in Developing Countries: Opportunities for Efficiency
Improvement
–
www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/10187187-n23Ohm/native/10187187.PDF
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Agenda
• Setting the Picture
– Energy & Electricity Production and Consumption
• Alternative Energy Production - Wind
• Energy Consumption in Motors
– PM versus Induction versus Synchronous
– Motor efficiency
• Motor Materials
–
–
–
–
The Rare Earth Dilemma
Prices
Availability
Alternative Materials and Research
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53
Motor Materials
• Steel (electrical)
• Copper and/or Aluminum
• Permanent Magnets
– Ferrite
– SmCo
– NdFeB
– Alnico
• Power Electronics
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Two Main Applications for Electrical Steel
Transformers
and
Motors
Handbook of Small Electric Motors
Switched Reluctance Motors
and their Control, p.154
T.J.E. Miller
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Transformers
Transformers can be small
enough for installation
onto circuit boards or as
large as a house
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Transformers: Examples
From
Small
Photograph courtesy of Magnetic Metals
To
Large
Photographs
courtesy
of ABB
I1
I2
(1/2)V2 = 120 volts
V1 = 7200
volts
(1/2)V2 = 120 volts
30 :1
N:1
V2 = 240 volts
Center-Tapped
Silicon Steel 3-Phase Transformer
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Widely Available Materials
Chart from USGS: www.USGS.org
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Pr
efe
rre
dd
ire
cti
on
Understanding the Structure
of Electrical Steel
Rolling direction
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Direction of rolling
during manufacture
Directional Properties of Si-Steel (GOES)
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GOES versus NGOES
Grain Oriented Electrical Steel
versus
Non-grain Oriented Electrical Steel
Direction of rolling during manufacture
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Core Loss Mechanisms
Silicon Steel Core Loss
W = Wh + Wcl + Wexc
Where Classical Loss is
Measurement and Characterization of Magnetic Materials, Fausto Fiorillo, p.31
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Motor Loss Variables by Categories
Input Variables-1
Input Variables-2
Frequency
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Magnetic Hysteresis
Eddy Current
Laminations Characteristics
Magnetostriction
Material Resistivity
Loss contributors
Loss
Eddy Current Loss
Heat
Skin Effect
Applied field strength
Field Orientation
Hysteresis
(max perm, Hc, Bsat)
Hysteretic Loss
Lamination Thickness
Resistivity (Material)
Anomolous Loss
Resistance (Interlam)
a.k.a. Excess Loss
Stacking Factor
Energy Transfer
("Efficiency")
Lam Insul Thickness
Lam flatness
Winding Arrangement
Magnetostriction
Interlam vibration
(Noise)
Thermal characteristics
(Material)
Electrical Coil Resistance
Mechanical Friction
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Comparing Material Properties
Ms (Saturation Magnetization), kGauss
30
Co-Fe: Outstanding
performance but at a high
price
25
Co-Fe
Fe
20
Si-Fe: Excellent
performance at a
reasonable price
Si-Fe
Fe
Powder
Cores
15
36-50% Ni-Fe
Ni-Fe
Powder
Cores
10
75% Ni-Fe
Amorphous Alloys
05
Soft Ferrites
0
10
102
103
104
105
106
Relative Permeability
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Copper / Aluminum
• Two main uses
– Copper in the windings of the stator (and rotor – brushed type)
– Aluminum in the rotor of induction motors
• Neither copper nor aluminum is considered a critical material
or in short supply, however...
– Price swings regularly occur due to supply-demand imbalance
– Aluminum is present in the earth’s crust in higher quantity than copper
(next slide): about 8 000x more Al than Cu
Bauxite (aluminum) mine
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Open pit copper mines
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Widely Available Materials
Chart from USGS: www.USGS.org
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Magnets – many choices!
Alloy Products
Material
The 4 most
widely used
commercial
permanent
magnets
Cast
Alnico
Y
FeCrCo
Y
Extruded
or Rolled
(Y)
SmCo**
Si-Fe
Sintered,
Fully
Dense
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
(Y)
Y
SmFeN
Vicalloy
Injection Compression
Molded
Bonded
Flexible
Rigid
Extruded
Y
Y
Y
(Y)
Y
Ferrite*
NdFeB
Bonded Magnets
SMCs
Y
Y
Hybrids
Y
Y
Y
* Ferrite refers to strontium ferrite permanent magnets
** SmCo refers to either SmCo5 or Sm2Co17
SMC = Soft magnetic composite
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What makes a magnet good?
Requirements depend upon the application
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Flux density (Br)
Energy Product (BHmax)
Resistance to demagnetization (Hcj)
Usable temperature range
Magnetization change with temperature (RTC)
Demagnetization (2nd quadrant) curve shape
Recoil permeability (minimal - close to one)
Corrosion resistance
Physical strength
Electrical resistivity
Magnetizing field requirement
Available sizes, shapes, and manufacturability
Raw material cost and availability
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Directional Indicators
Competitive Values
Characteristic
Units
Alnico 5-7
Alnico 9
Ferrite 8
Ferrite 9
SmCo 1:5
Flux density (Br)
Tesla
1.35
11200
0.39
0.45
0.9
1.1
Energy Product (BHmax)
kJ/m 3
60
84
28
37
175
Resistance to
demagnetization (Hcj)
kA/m
59
115
245
370
2400
Usable temperature range
ºC
Induction change with
temperature (RTCof Br)
2nd quadrant Normal curve
shape
Recoil permeability
%/ºC
B/H
Corrosion resistance
SmCo 2:17 NdFeB 33EH
NdFeB 48M
Indicator
1.15
1.39
> is better
230
230
370
> is better
1600
2400
1115
> is better
4 K to 520 ºC 4 K to 520 ºC -40 to 150 ºC -40 to 150 ºC 4 K to 520 ºC 4 K to 520 ºC 150 K to 200 ºC 150 K to 100 ºC
m inim um
-40 to 200 ºC
-0.02
-0.01
-0.2
-0.18
-0.045
-0.035
-0.11
-0.12
< is better
Curved
Curved
Straight
Straight
Straight
Straight
Straight
Straight
Straight
2
1.3
1.04
1.04
1.03
1.05
1.04
1.05
~1
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
Outstanding
120
120
285
285
> 50
also "tough"
55
90
180
180
> is better
Outstanding Outstanding
Physical strength
MPa
55
55
Electrical resistivity
μΩ • cm
47
50
kA/m
120
240
480
800
2000
4000
2700
2700
Less than
4000
%/ ºCx10-6
11.5
11
10 to 15
10 to 15
7 to 14
11 to 13
7.5 to -0.1
7.5 to -0.1
< 15
$/kg
$40
$45
$8
$15
$120
$100
$200
$150
< is better
Relative Cost at 20 ºC
$/MGOe
$5.3
$4.3
$2.3
$3.2
$5.5
$3.5
$6.9
$3.2
< is better
Relative Cost at 200 ºC
$/MGOe
$5.7
$4.4
$5.6
$7.1
$6.5
$3.9
$10.8
n/a
< is better
Magnetizing field
requirement
Coefficient of Termal
Expansion
Approx Current Price
(ballpark estimates)
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65
10
6
70
10
6
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
69
Magnetic
Hysteresis
• “H” is the applied magnetic field
• “B” is the measured, induced field
(“induction”)
• Normal curve is a measurement of
the applied plus the induced field
• The Intrinsic curve is a measure of
only the induced field and
represents the magnetic properties
of the magnet under test
• The dashed lines represent
starting with an unmagnetized
material
• Once magnetized, the material will
be driven around the hysteresis
loops represented by the solid
lines
Ms or Js
Source: ASTM A977-07 – Standard Test Method for magnetic properties of high coercivity permanent magnet materials
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Permanent Magnet Key Characteristics
Recoil Slope, μr
+B
2nd Quadrant
Intrinsic Curve
Br
0.9 x Br
Energy product is
related to Br
BHmax ~ Br2 / (4 • μr)
μr ~ 1.05
Bd
Normal
Curve
When Normal curve from
Br to Operating Point is
Linear
BHmax
-H
Hci
Also called > HcJ
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Hc Hk
HcB
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Hd
71
Energy Stored in a Magnet
+B
Shift in operating slope due to change in
gap versus magnetic path length
Br
b
Intrinsic Curve
c
Shaded area
represents energy
stored in the magnet
Bd2
Bd1
Normal
Curve
-H
Hci
HcJ
Hc
HcB
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Shift in origin due to
demagnetizing stress
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
References
1. R. J. Parker, Advances in Permanent
Magnetism, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1990, pp. 141-143
2. P. Campbell, Permanent Magnet Materials and
Their Application, Cambridge University Press,
1994, pp.16-17
3. P. Campbell, Comments on Energy Stored in
Permanent Magnets, IEEE Transactions on
Magnetics, Col. 36, No. 1, January 2000
72
Permanent Magnet
Development Timeline
•
Permanent Magnets have
been developed to achieve
– Higher Br and Energy Product
(BHmax)
– Greater resistance to
demagnetization (Hci)
•
Most are still in production
– Exceptions
• Lodex was discontinued due to
use of hazardous materials in
production and in the product
• Cunife has been replaced by
FeCrCo
• PtCo is a specialty item made
in very limited quantities due to
it’s high material cost
Material
First
Reported
Remalloy
1931
1.1
230
Alnico
1931
1.4
490
PtCo
1936
7.5
4,300
Cunife
1937
1.8
590
Cunico
1938
1.0
450
Alnico, field treated
d
1938
5.5
640
Vicalloy
1940
3.0
450
Alnico, DG
1948
6.5
680
Ferrite, isotropic
1952
1.0
1,800
Ferrite, anisotropic
1954
3.6
2,200
Lodex®
1955
3.5
940
Alnico 9
1956
9.2
1,500
RECo5
1966
16.0
20,000
RECo5
1970
19.0
25,000
RE2(Co,Fe,Zr,Cu)1
1976
32.0
25,000
26.0
25,000
35.0
11,000
30.0
35,000
52.0
11,000
RE2TM14B
RE2TM14B
Table based on information in Advances in Permanent Magnetism
by Rollin J. Parker, p.331-332
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1984
2010
BH(max)
Hci
73
Improvement in Magnet Strength
60
OTHER IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS
Required magnetizing field
Thermal stability, Resistivity
Corrosion Resistance
Manufacturability, Cost, etc.
440
Nd-Fe-B
Aniso Bonded Sm-Fe-Ni
360
Aniso Bonded Nd-Fe-B
40
BHmax, MGOe
400
320
Iso Bonded Nd-Fe-B
280
SmCo
30
240
Ferrite
200
Alnico 9
20
160
Alnico 5 & 5-7
10
KS Steel
120
Pt-Co
MK Steel
80
40
0
1900
BHmax, kJ/m3
50
480
0
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000
YEAR
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74
Relative Magnet Sizes
N48
1995
3
V = 0.22 cm
SmCo 28
1975
V = 0.37 cm3
Ceramic 8
1960
V = 19.6 cm3
Alnico 9
V = 11.9 cm3
Alnico 5-7
V = 14.3 cm3
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Relative magnet size and
shape to generate 1000
gauss at 5 mm from the pole
face of the magnet.
1950
1940
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
75
SmCo – Neo: Compared
Comparison of magnetic performance only
N38
40
V = 0.28 cm3
Energy Product versus
Temperature
SmCo 28
Ceramic 8
V = 19.6 cm3
Alnico 9
V = 11.9 cm3
Energy Product, MGOe
V = 0.37 cm3
35
30
25
SmCo 30S
Alnico 5-7
V = 14.3 cm3
L-38UHT
20
0
50
100
150
200
Temperature, ºC
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76
Usable Temperature Range
for Common Permanent Magnets
Ferrite
Neo
Alnico
SmCo
0
-275 -200 -125
-50
25
100
175
250
325
400
475
550
Temperature, ºC
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77
18,000
Sales of Permanent Magnets
16,000
in current dollars, future years inflated
14,000
Sales, $million
12,000
10,000
8,000
US$
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1985
1990
1995
Alnico
2000
Samarium Cobalt
2005
Ferrite
2010
2015
Global
Magnet
Sales
2020
Neodymium
1,200,000
Sales of Permanent Magnets
in tons
1,000,000
Sales, tons
800,000
600,000
tons
400,000
200,000
0
1985
1990
1995
2000
Alnico
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Day… Samarium Cobalt
2005
Ferrite
2010
Neodymium
2015
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
2020
78
Alnico Magnet Manufacturing
Press Sand Molds
Build Stacks
Melt alloy
Break-out
Rough Grind
Field Heat Treat
Finish Grind
Test
Assemble
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79
Ferrite Magnet Manufacturing
Blend Powders
Calcine
Mill
Storage: Dry or Slurry
Press
Sinter
Grind / Slice
Test
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80
Rare Earth Magnet Supply Chain
Mine
Mine / Mill
Concentrate
Separate RE's
Metal Extraction
Alloy Melt & Cast
to
Hydride
Fine Milling
Align & Press
Sinter
Finish Machine
Magnet
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Coat
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81
Neo & SmCo Magnet Manufacturing
Cast Alloy
Coat
Nickel Plate
E-coat
Aluminum IVD
…others
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H2 Decrepitate (NdFeB)
Mill to
fine powder
Press powder
Finish Machine
Grind, Slice, EDM
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Sinter & Anneal
82
Rare Earth Magnet Applications
and RE Oxide Requirements
2010
Applications
Motors, industrial, general auto, etc
HDD, CD, DVD
Electric Bicycles
Transducers, Loudspeakers
Unidentified and All Other
Magnetic Separation
MRI
Torque-coupled drives
Sensors
Hysteresis Clutch
Generators
Energy Storage Systems
Wind Power Generators
Air conditioning compressors and fans
Hybrid & Electric Traction Drive
Misc: gauges, brakes, relays & switches,
pipe inspection, levitated transportation,
reprographics, refrigeration, etc.
yr 2010 Magnet
% of mix tons
25.5% 15,871
13.1%
8,140
5,680
9.1%
8.5%
5,290
6.5%
4,046
5.0%
3,112
4.0%
2,490
4.0%
2,490
3.2%
1,992
3.0%
1,867
3.0%
1,867
2.4%
1,494
2.1%
1,300
2.0%
1,245
570
0.9%
7.7%
100.0%
Total
4,792
2015
Oxide, tons
Nd
Dy
7,122 1,059
4,196
0
2,549
379
2,727
0
1,995
90
1,466
138
1,228
55
1,117
166
982
44
879
83
769
194
670
100
583
87
559
83
214
80
yr 2015 Magnet
Oxide, tons
% of mix tons
Nd
Dy
25.0% 24,316 10,912 1,622
14.4% 14,040 7,237
0
7,955 3,570
531
8.2%
6.5%
6,322 3,259
0
6.0%
5,836 2,878
130
3.4%
3,307 1,558
147
1.5%
1,459
720
32
2.5%
2,432 1,091
162
1.5%
1,459
720
32
1.5%
1,459
687
65
1.0%
973
400
101
2.5%
2,432 1,091
162
10.1%
654
9,810 4,402
2.5%
2,432 1,091
162
6,160 2,308
6.3%
867
2,186
285
7.1%
62,246 29,243
2,843
100.0%
6,906
3,113
447
97,296 45,037
5,115
Nd: 54% increase
Dy: 80% increase
REO requirement includes 80% oxide to metal, 97% metal alloying, and 80% magnet manufacturing material yields.
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83
Hard Disk Drives (HDD’s), CD’s, DVD’s
• Drives (Global): existing and growing market
– Overall drive shipments for 2008 would total 593.2
million units, up 14.9% compared to… 2007
(iSuppliCorp: www.isuppli.com)
– Shipments of HDDs alone in the first half of 2011 were
327.6 million, on track for 660 million by year’s end
Neo Magnets in HDDs, CDs and DVDs
15,000
Magnets, tons
13,000
11,000
9,000
7,000
5,000
2008
2009
2010
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2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
84
Transportation
• EB’s (electric bicycles) (primarily in Asia): large and
growing application especially in 3rd world nations
– 20 million sold in China in 2009
– Forecast to 35 million per year in 2015
– Year 2015 neo magnet usage = 3,800 tons
• Hybrid and EV vehicles (Global): in growth phase
– Estimate of 1.73 million hybrid or EV’s to be manufactured in 2015
– Total neo magnet usage in 2015 = 4,200 tons
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85
The “Dudley Chart”
Source: Dudley Kingsnorth, IMCOA, 2011
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86
Rare Earth China Export Quotas
1st Allocation
RARE EARTH OXIDE EXPORT QUOTAS
2nd Allocation
Total
Year
Domestic
Companies
Foreign
Companies
Domestic
Companies
Foreign
Companies
Domestic
Companies
Foreign
Companies
Grand
Total
2005
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
48,040
17,569
65,609
2006
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
45,752
16,069
61,821
-5.8%
2007
19,600
8,211
23,974
8,289
43,574
16,500
60,074
-2.8%
22,780
8,211
11,376
5,082
34,156
13,293
47,449
40,987
15,834
56,939
-6.6%
2008
Adjusted for 12-month basis
%
Change
2009
15,043
6,685
18,257
10,160
33,300
16,845
50,145
-11.9%
2010
16,304
5,978
6,208
1,768
22,512
7,746
30,258
-39.7%
2011
10,762
3,746
12,221
3,517
14,508
15,738
30,246
0.0%
LRE
15,999
6,097
4,000
1,524
19,999
7,621
27,620
HRE
2,202
852
551
213
2,753
1,065
3,818
Total
18,201
6,949
4,551
1,737
22,752
8,686
31,438
2012
3.9%
Separating rare earth export quotas into LREs and HREs suggests that China understands they need to
be separately managed
2012 quotas are divided into LRE and HRE; 1st half quotas were published and updated May 17; second
half quotas are inferred to be 20% of annual total resulting in a 3.9% increase year over year.
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87
Eni Generalic, www.periodni.com
Light and Heavy
Rare Earth Elements
LREEs
HREEs
Light Rare Earth elements
Heavy Rare Earth Elements
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88
Dysprosium is a Short & Long Term Issue
Supply
Increase
65% increase
43% increase
6% increase
Quantities are metric tons of Rare Earth Oxides
DOE Critical Materials Strategy, final version January 10, 2012; Table 4.2, p.84
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89
Neo Magnet Dysprosium Issue
HDD’s, CD’s
DVD’s, Sensors
35,000
Holding,
Sensors
Gen’l purpose
motors, some wind
power generators
High performance
motors & generators,
wind power
Super high performance
motors & generators, auto
traction drives
15
Hcj and Br
AH
as a Function of Dysprosium Content
Approximate
30,000
Magnet
grade
suffix
220 ºC
14
EH
200 ºC
25,000
13
Hcj, Oe
UH
Br
20,000
12
SH
HcJ
Br, kG
180 ºC
150 ºC
H
15,000
11
120 ºC
M
100 ºC
80 ºC
10,000
10
0
2
4
6
Dysprosium, %
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
8
10
12
Temperature is manufacturer’s maximum
recommended use temperature
90
Selected Currency Exchange Rates
1.8
9
Exchange Rates
1.6
8
1.4
7
1.2
6
1.0
5
0.8
4
0.6
3
0.4
2
Swiss
0.2
Jan-01
Euro
UK
China Rmb (CNY)
Swiss CHF, UK GBP, Euro
$1 USD = ...
China
1
Jan-02
Jan-03
Jan-04
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Jan-05
Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
91
14
Copper Metal
NY Premium Cathode
12
USD per kg
10
8
6
4
Copper
and
Aluminum
Pricing
2
0
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
Through June 28, 2012
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92
RE Metal Pricing
Through June 28, 2012
500
Neodymium Metal
450
400
USD per kg
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Jan-01
Jan-02
Jan-03
Jan-04
Jan-05
FOB China Prices
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Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
China Domestic Prices
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
93
RE Metal Pricing
Through June 28, 2012
4000
Dysprosium Metal
3500
3000
USD per kg
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Jan-01
Jan-02
Jan-03
Jan-04
Jan-05
FOB China Prices
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Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
China Domestic Prices
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
94
RE Metal Pricing
Through June 28, 2012
250
Samarium Metal
USD per kg
200
150
100
50
0
Jan-01
Jan-02
Jan-03
Jan-04
Jan-05
FOB China Pricing
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Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
China Domestic Pricing
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
95
RE Metal Pricing
Through June 28, 2012
3000
Selling Price of Rare Earth Metals
Domestic China
2500
Dy
Nd
Pr
US$ per kg
2000
Sm
1500
1000
500
0
Jan-09
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Jan-10
Jan-11
© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Jan-12
96
Material Pricing: Cobalt
Through June 28, 2012
120
Cobalt Price
in Current USD per kg, 99.8%
100
$/kg
80
60
40
20
Jan-12
Jan-11
Jan-10
Jan-09
Jan-08
Jan-07
Jan-06
Jan-05
Jan-04
Jan-03
Jan-02
Jan-01
Jan-00
0
Date
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
97
Magnet Material Costs
in US Dollars, June 28, 2012
Domestic China Raw Material Costs, USD
Element
SmCo 26HE
SmCo 30S
N30AH
N35EH
N40UH
N45SH
Nd
-
-
21.5
23.9
26.3
28.7
Dy
-
-
102.8
81.3
59.8
38.3
Sm
10.5
10.5
-
-
-
-
Co
15.1
15.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Fe
0.2
0.2
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
Other
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Total
26
26
125
106
87
68
• While neodymium has become expensive it is the very expensive
dysprosium that dominates Neo magnet material costs.
• Based on 1 kg block magnet
• Material prices as published by Asian Metals and Metal Pages
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98
Material Pricing: Nickel
Through June 28, 2012
$30
Nickel LME Cash Price
US$ per pound
$25
$20
$15
$10
$5
$0
Jan-03
Jan-04
Jan-05
Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
Date
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© Arnold Magnetic Technologies
99
Magnet Price* versus Energy Product
Maximum Energy Product, MGOe
70
60
50
40
g io
e
R
30
ri
e
t
a
m
w
e
n
f
o
n
&
R
al
D
Neo, sintered
SmCo, sintered
20
Ferrite,
sintered
10
Alnico, cast
Ferrite,
bonded
Bonded Neo, anisotropic
Bonded SmFeN
Alnico,
sintered
Bonded Neo, isotropic
0
0
50
100
Average Selling Price, $/kg
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150
200
* Pricing in the US and Europe
100
Widely Available Materials
OK
too
rare
Chart from USGS: www.USGS.org
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101
- Research Variations on a Theme
Revisiting & modifying prior materials
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SmCo plus exchange-coupled soft phase
NdFeB plus exchange-coupled soft phase
Fe-N (variation of SmFeN), interstitial N
Mn alloys: MnBi, MnAlC
Heusler alloys
Alnico – modified to enhance coercivity
Carbides: FeC, CoC
Modified Ferrites (chemical or structural modifications):
La-Co Ferrites, Core-Shell structure ferrites
• Ce-Co,Fe and Ce-Fe,Co-B,C
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102
- Research “Greenfield” Magnets
• Computer calculations to arrive at alloy structure with net
magnetic moment
• Promising alloys are then formed in the lab and evaluated
• 2 and 3-component alloys are practical
– 4+ component alloys represent significant computational difficulty
• Finished magnet must be...
– Fully dense to take advantage of undiluted properties
– Domains must be oriented to that the magnetic field is in one
preferred direction
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103
Summary
•
The selection and use of materials in production and utilization of
electric energy requires consideration of many factors including
–
–
–
•
price and availability
appropriateness for the application
environmental impact
Practical alternatives to rare earth magnets may not exist for some
applications
–
this maintains the burden on adequate supply of rare earths
•
Dysprosium is the single most important element in the RE magnet
supply dynamic
•
Alternative technologies and materials will be employed where cost and
availability dictate and performance, size and weight permit
•
Reduction or elimination of rare earth elements and other expensive
ingredients in high performance permanent magnets is a focus of
numerous R&D initiatives
–
R&D is a long process and not likely to relieve the rare earth criticality short to mid-term
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104
Boston
http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/earth/index.html
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