AP European History Name________________________ Chapter 18 Toward a New World-View
A. True or False
Where the statement is true, mark T. Where it is false, mark F, and correct it in the space
___ 1. Johannes Kepler devised three laws of planetary motion containing purely circular orbits.
___ 2. Three of the seven faculty members at Gresham College in London were devoted solely to the study
___ 3. The inductive, experimental method of modern science was formalized by Rene Descartes.
___ 4. Organized religion’s responses to science in the late-sixteenth and early-seventeenth centuries was
characterized by hostility in some countries, but neutrality in others.
___ 5. A consequence of the scientific revolution was the improvement in the living standards of average
___ 6. Bernard de Fontenelle was a writer who was instrumental in popularizing scientific advancement for
both an educated elite and a broad non-scientific audience.
___ 7. John Locke believed the human mind was a “blank slate” at birth.
___ 8. The philosophes were the intellectual leaders of the Enlightenment.
___ 9. Voltaire criticized religious institutions because he was essentially an atheist.
___ 10. Denis Diderot’s Encyclopedia was banned by the French government.
___ 11. The idea that a separation of powers in government could prevent despotism was proposed by John
___ 12. The social setting for the Enlightenment was urban salons, often run by women.
___ 13. The life of Moses Mendelssohn shows that Jews could take part in the Enlightenment.
___ 14. By the mid-seventeenth century, the scientific revolution was more well-received in Protestant
countries than in Catholic ones.
___ 15. The works of late-Enlightenment thinker Condorcet gained widespread criticism for their emphasis
on scientific observation rather than solid reason.
B. Multiple Choice
Select the best answer and write the proper letter in the space provided.
___ 1. Catherine the Great accomplished which of the following?
a. Annexed part of Poland
b. Freed the Russian serfs
c. Denied any sort of religious toleration
d. Persecuted the philosophes of France
___ 2. “Enlightened” monarchs believed in all of the following EXCEPT
c. cultural values of the Enlightenment.
d. religious toleration.
___ 3. All of the following are considered to be “enlightened” monarchs EXCEPT
a. Frederick II of Prussia.
b. Louis XVI of France.
c. Catherine II of Russia.
d. Joseph II of Austria.
___ 4. The philosophes were
a. mainly university professors.
b. generally hostile to monarchial government.
c. enthusiastic supporters of the Catholic church.
d. satirists who wished to reform society and humanity.
___ 5. The social setting of the Enlightenment
a. excluded women.
b. was characterized by poverty and boredom.
c. was dominated by government officials.
d. was characterized by witty and intelligent conversation.
___ 6. Catherine the Great
a. believed the philosophes were dangerous revolutionaries.
b. freed the serfs to satisfy Diderot.
c. increased the size of the Russian Empire.
d. established a strong constitutional monarchy.
___ 7. According to medieval thought, the center of the universe was the
___ 8. The Aristotelian world-view placed emphasis on the idea of
a. the sun as the center of the universe.
b. the rejection of Christian theology.
c. an earth that moves in space.
d. crystal spheres moving around the earth.
___ 9. Copernicus’ theory of a sun-centered universe
a. suggested the universe was small and closed.
b. questioned the idea that crystal spheres moved the stars around the earth.
c. suggested that the worlds of heaven and earth were radically different from each other.
d. suggested an enormous and possibly infinite universe.
___ 10. The first astronomer to prove his theories through the use of mathematical equations was
___ 11. Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that
a. the sun revolved around the earth.
b. astrology should be studied along with astronomy.
c. science could prove that God did not exist.
d. the earth revolved around the sun.
___ 12. The French philosopher who rejected his contemporaries and whose writings influenced the
romantic movement was
___ 13. The gathering ground for many who wished to discuss the ideas of the French Enlightenment
b. lecture hall.
c. palace at Versailles.
d. University of Paris.
___ 14. Frederick II is considered an enlightened monarch because he
a. regained Silesia from Prussia.
b. wrote poetry and improved the legal and bureaucratic systems.
c. kept the aristocrats in a dominant position socially and politically.
d. avoided war.
___ 15. Catherine the Great of Russia hardened her position on serfdom after the
a. Pugachev rebellion.
b. Moscow rebellion.
c. Polish rebellion.
d. “Five Year” rebellion.
___ 16. During the reign of Louis XV
a. the nobility lost considerable power.
b. the lower classes secured judicial positions in the Parlement.
c. the French government struggled with severe economic difficulties.
d. absolutism remained firmly entrenched during the succeeding reign.
___ 17. Which of the following used the War of the Austrian Succession to expand Prussia into a great
a. Joseph II
b. Frederick II
c. Frederick William I
d. Louis XIV
___ 18. The aggressiveness of Prussia, Austria, and Russia led to the disappearance of which eastern
European kingdom from the map after 1795?
___ 19. Francis Bacon’s great contribution to scientific methodology was
a. the geocentric theory.
b. the notion of logical speculation.
c. the philosophy of empiricism.
d. analytic geometry.
___ 20. Which of the following men set the stage for the modern study of astronomy by building an
observatory and collecting data?
___ 21. The Parlement of Paris was
a. a high court dominated by nobles who were formerly middle class.
b. a center of royal absolutism.
c. used by Maupeou to strengthen the king’s position.
d. not interested in tax reform or finance.
___ 22. Maria Theresa was a devout Catholic who
a. sought to limit the church’s influence in Austria.
b. was not interested in the Enlightenment.
c. did nothing to improve the lot of the agricultural population.
d. was a weak monarch unable to hold the Austrian Empire together.
___ 23. After 1715 in France, the direction of political change was
a. toward greater absolutism.
b. away from Enlightenment political thought.
c. in favor of opposition forces—largely the nobility and the Parlement of Paris.
d. toward “enlightened absolutism.”
___ 24. Descartes’ idea was that the world consists of two fundamental entities or substances, which we
a. the physical and the spiritual.
b. water and air.
c. reason and passion.
d. deduction and induction.
___ 25. The foremost cause of a change in world-view in the eighteenth century was
a. the scientific revolution.
b. reformed religious movements.
c. absolutist governments.
d. mandatory education for most children, male and females.
Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.
___________ 1. Scottish philosopher who developed views of skepticism
based his perceived limits of human sensory perception.
___________ 2. Concept developed by Rousseau that reflected the common
interests of the people.
__________ 3. Compendium of Enlightenment thought that included a vast
writings by Enlightenment philosophers.
__________ 4. Monumental scientific work that detailed the laws of
_________ 5. Instrument used by Galileo to confirm Copernicus’
_________ 6. Prestigious organization of scientists, located in London, that
scientific papers and sponsored scientific meetings.
_________ 7. Politician and writer who developed the empirical method that
led to the
development of the scientific method.
__________ 8. Revolutionary work written in the mid-sixteenth century that
Aristotle and Ptolemy’s geocentric theory.
__________ 9. One of the most important political treatises written in
western history that spoke of the natural rights of the people.
__________ 10. Hapsburg “Enlightened despot” who ended serfdom,
although it was later reimposed by his successor.
_________ 11. Important organizer of the salon movement and unofficial
_________ 12. Philosophe and deist who railed against religious intolerance.
__________ 13. Skeptic and major proponent of open-minded toleration
who believed that humans’ concept of reality was merely a bundle of
__________ 14. German-born philosopher that believed that humans were
essentially machines determined by outside forces.
__________ 15. Author of a famous satire of European society from the
perspective of a