ClimateChange

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First found May 22, 2018

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Recent Temperature Trend
Globally averaged annual surface temperature
58F
57F
56F
See also National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Global Analysis
Fig. 9.9
3rd ed
Radiative forcings
The natural greenhouse effect = 151 W/m2
Anthropogenic enhancement = 1.6 +/- 0. 9 W/m2
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCC 2007
Past evidence of CO2 and Earth’s climate?
Since 1800
up 40%
up 150%
up 50%
millions of tons of carbon
Emissions that would
account for observed
atmospheric CO2
increase
In 2007, China surpassed U.S. as leading emitter of CO2
CO2 & Climate
Use of
fossil fuels
as energy
source
See Fig 14.9
Snowball
Earth?
The Stefan-Boltzmann law relates radiant
power density (W m-2) to temperature (K).
The derivative yields the rate of change in
radiant power density with a change in
temperature.
Sensitivity = d(σT4)/dT = 4 σ T3
= 4 (5.67x10-8 W m-2 K-4) (288 K)3
= 5.4 W m-2 K-1
i.e., temperature increases by 0.2°C (0.3°F) for a
radiative forcing of 1 W m-2
But this is for a system in equilibrium
A. Linear
B. Non-linear
C. Abrupt shift of
“climate states”
B
The real response (sensitivity)
to forcings depends on
system inertia and feedbacks
o
F
9
6
3
0
predicted warming by 2100 AD (degrees C)
Climate Change
Climate change trends
Climate Change
Globally Averaged Trends
Past 100 years
Temperature:
Sea Level:
Precipitation:
1 degree F increase
4 to 10 inch rise
1% increase on land
Next 100 years (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Temperature:
Sea Level:
Precipitation:
1.6 to 6.3 degrees F
6 to 39 inches
increase
Chris Thomas, Univ of York
quoted by E. Kolbert in “Fields Notes from a Catastrophe”, p. 90
Regional scale
Thus far we focused on “Global” averages
Forecasts of Climate Change on
Regional and Local Scales
are
much more uncertain
BUT
THAT’S WHAT MATTERS
Observed Temperature Increase from 1880 to 2003
See also Fig 14.3
predicted warming by 2100 AD (degrees C)
Fig 15.12
Observed trends 1900-2000
Fig. 9.14 3rd ed
WINTER
SUMMER
Changes to clouds
Predicted by 2100 (cloudiness, precipitation)
is greatest uncertainty
Miami
Albany
Los Angeles
Outcomes of
two different
climate models
warmer and
wetter
warmer
and drier
e.g. hydropower dams
e.g. wind farms
Disruptions
Disruptions of Climate Change
Water Resources
Water Supply
Irrigation
Flood Control
Water Demand Recreation
Hydropower
Water Quality
Navigation
Agriculture
Crop choice
Crop yields
Food distribution
Human Health, Safety & Settlement
Diseases/Illnesses
Unusual weather
Displaced Populations
Air Quality
Ecosystem Resources
Forests
Fisheries/Wildlife
What should/can we do about it?
Response?
Response to Global Warming?
Adaptation
Protect
Retreat/abandon
Accommodate
[“Deal” with it]
- build sea wall
- move inland
- change practices to suit new conditions
Venice
Geo-engineering
[“Treat” it]
Cause an anthropogenic cooling to offset warming
Augment removal of greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide)
Mitigation
[“Cure” it or at least slow it down]
End (or reduce) anthropogenic GHG emissions
Global Warming Potentials (GWP)
see also Table 13.1
Sources of CO2 emissions in U.S. (by sector)
Fig. 16.5
The CO2 Problem?
1. Don’t Worry
The CO2 Problem?
1. Don’t Worry
i)
won’t be a problem
ii)
just adapt to changes, if any
iii) use geoengineering if problems develop
Chemical & Engineering News
Nov. 23, 2009
The CO2 Problem?
2. Increase Uptake (geoengineering)
i) afforestation / reforestation
ii) ocean biomass stimulation (fertilization)
iii) filters
The CO2 Problem?
1. Don’t Worry (adaptation)
(be happy)
2. Increase Uptake (geoengineering)
3. Reduce Emissions (mitigation)
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