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BONES
(OSTEOLOGY)
21. 09.2012
Kaan Yücel
M.D., Ph.D.
http://yeditepepharmanatomy.wordpress.com
Dr.Kaan Yücel
yeditepepharmanatomy.wordpress.com
Bones (Osteology)
Osteology (Gk, osteon, bone, logos, science) is the branch of medicine concerned with the development and
diseases of bone tissue. The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones in adults.
The skeletal system may be divided into two functional parts:
oThe axial skeleton consists of the bones of the head (cranium or skull), neck (hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae),
and trunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum).
oThe appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral (shoulder) and
pelvic girdles.
The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones. Cartilage is an avascular form of connective tissue consisting of
extracellular fibers embedded in a matrix that contains cells localized in small cavities. Bone is a calcified, living,
connective tissue that forms the majority of the skeleton. It consists of an intercellular calcified matrix, which also
contains collagen fibers, and several types of cells within the matrix.
Bones function as:
• supportive structures for the body;
• protectors of vital organs; e.g., sternum and ribs sternum and ribs protect the thoracic and upper abdominal
viscera, skull and vertebral column protect the brain and spinal cord from injury.
• reservoirs of calcium and phosphorus;
• levers on which muscles act to produce movement; as seen in the long bones of the limbs
•containers for blood-producing cells.
The skull is supported on the summit of the vertebral column, and is of an oval shape, wider behind than in front. It
is composed of a series of flattened or irregular bones which, with one exception (the mandible), are immovably
jointed together. It is divisible into two parts:
(1) the cranium, which lodges and protects the brain, consists of eight bones
(2) the skeleton of the face, of fourteen
The thoracic cage (skeleton) is formed by the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly, ribs laterally, and thoracic
vertebrae posteriorly.
The vertebral column in an adult typically consists of 33 vertebrae arranged in five regions: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic,
5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal. The vertebrae gradually become larger as the vertebral column descends to the
sacrum and then become progressively smaller toward the apex of the coccyx.
The clavicle (collar bone) connects the upper limb to the trunk. The shaft of the clavicle has a double curve in a
horizontal plane. Its medial half articulates with the manubrium of the sternum. Its lateral half articulates with the
the scapula.
The scapula (shoulder blade) is a triangular flat bone that lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax. The scapula
has an articular surface; a glenoid cavity (G. socket) for the articulation with the head of the humerus.
The humerus (arm bone), the largest bone in the upper limb, articulates with the scapula at the glenohumeral joint
and the radius and ulna at the elbow joint.
The two forearm bones serve together to form the second unit of an articulated mobile strut (the first unit being the
humerus), with a mobile base formed by the shoulder, that positions the hand.
The wrist, or carpus, is composed of eight carpal bones (carpals) arranged in proximal and distal rows of four: The
proximal surfaces of the distal row of carpals articulate with the proximal row of carpals, and their distal surfaces
articulate with the metacarpals.
The skeleton of the lower limb (inferior appendicular skeleton) may be divided into two functional components: the
pelvic girdle and the bones of the free lower limb. The pelvic girdle is a ring of bones that connects the vertebral
column to the two femurs. The primary functions of the pelvic girdle are bearing and transfer of weight; secondary
functions include protection and support of abdominopelvic viscera and housing and attachment for structures of the
genital and urinary systems. In the mature individual, the pelvic girdle is formed by three bones: Right and left hip
bones (coxal bones; pelvic bones), sacrum. The tibia and fibula are the bones of the leg. The tibia articulates with
the condyles of the femur superiorly and the talus inferiorly and in so doing transmits the body's weight. The fibula
mainly functions as an attachment for muscles, but it is also important for the stability of the ankle joint.
The patella (knee cap) is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and is embedded in the quadriceps femoris tendon.
The bones of the foot include the tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges.
There are:
• 7 tarsal bones (calcaneus is one of them)
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• 5 metatarsal bones
• 14 phalanges
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Bones (Osteology)
1. INTRODUCTION TO OSTEOLOGY
Osteology (Gk, osteon, bone, logos, science) is the branch of medicine concerned with the development
and diseases of bone tissue. The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones in adults.
The skeletal system may be divided into two functional parts:
o The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the head (cranium or skull), neck (hyoid bone and cervical
vertebrae), and trunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum).
o The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral (shoulder)
and pelvic girdles.
Figure 1. The skeleton. The axial skeleton in green, and the appendicular skeleton in pink.
http://www.encognitive.com/node/1125
Bone is one of the hardest structures of the animal body, because of the calcification of its extracellular
matrix. Living bones have some elasticity (results from the organic matter) and great rigidity (results from their
lamellous structures and tubes of inorganic calcium phosphate). Its color, in a fresh state, is pinkish-white
externally, and deep red within.
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1.1. HISTOLOGY OF THE BONE
Bone is created from osseous connective tissue. Like other types of connective tissue, osseous tissue is
composed of relatively sparse cells surrounded by an extracellular network, or matrix. Osteoblasts, a type of
bone cell, secrete proteins into the matrix, which provide tensile strength (resistance to stretching and twisting).
Mature bone is composed of proteins and minerals. Approximately 60% the weight of the bone is mineral. The
rest is water and matrix. About 90% of the matrix proteins are collagen (1/3 of the bone weight), which is the
most abundant protein in the body. Collagen is very strong and forms bone, cartilage, skin, and tendons. The
minerals of the matrix are mainly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Embedded in the protein network,
the minerals provide hardness and compressive strength.
There are four principal types of bone cells: osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
The matrix is maintained by osteocytes, the characteristic cells of bone. Histologically, bone is composed of units
termed Haversian systems or osteons in which concentric rings of osteocytes are arranged around a central
blood vessel. The Volkmann’s canals are perpendicular to the Haversian canals and connect these canals with
each other and also with the periosteum of the bone.
The bone tissue is surrounded by a membrane; the periosteum. The periosteum provides a route for the
circulatory and nervous supply and actively particiapates in bone growth and repair. The endosteum, lines the
marrow cavity and is active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling. It covers the trabeculae of spongy bone
and lines the inner surfaces of the central canals.
1.2. CARTILAGES AND BONES
The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones.
Cartilage is a resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more
flexibility is required—for example, where the costal cartilages attach the ribs to the sternum. Also, the
articulating surfaces (bearing surfaces) of bones participating in a synovial joint are capped with articular
cartilage that provides smooth, low-friction, gliding surfaces for free movement. Blood vessels do not enter
cartilage (i.e., it is avascular); consequently, its cells obtain oxygen and nutrients by diffusion. The proportion of
bone and cartilage in the skeleton changes as the body grows; the younger a person is, the more cartilage he or
she has. The bones of a newborn are soft and flexible because they are mostly composed of cartilage.
The amount and kind of extracellular fibers in the matrix varies depending on the type of cartilage. In
heavy weightbearing areas or areas prone to pulling forces, the amount of collagen is greatly increased and the
cartilage is almost inextensible. In contrast, in areas where weightbearing demands and stress are less, cartilage
containing elastic fibers and fewer collagen fibers is common.
The functions of cartilage are to:

support soft tissues;
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
provide a smooth, gliding surface for bone articulations at joints; and

enable the development and growth of long bones.
Bones (Osteology)
There are three types of cartilage:

hyaline-most common; matrix contains a moderate amount of collagen fibers (e.g., articular surfaces of
bones);

elastic:-matrix contains collagen fibers along with a large number of elastic fibers (e.g., external ear);

fibrocartilage- matrix contains a limited number of cells and ground substance amidst a substantial amount
of collagen fibers (e.g., intervertebral discs).
Ossification (bone formation) occurs in one of two ways. Intramembranous ossification occurs within parts of the
skull and part of the clavicles. In this process, osteoblasts deposit matrix on a membranous network within the
future bone. Once their own extracellular matrix traps the osteoblasts, they become fully mature osteocytes.
By contrast, most of the body's bones form by endochondral (within cartilage) ossification. In this process, a
temporary model in the shape of the future bone is made from cartilage laid down by chondrocytes
(cartilageforming cells), which later die within the shaft of the future bone. The space created by the death of
these cells is invaded by osteogenic (bone-forming) cells. These cells differentiate into osteoblasts and secrete
the matrix. As osteoblasts build bone, another type of cell, the osteoclast, dissolves older matrix, enlarging the
cavity within. Within the shafts of the long bones, the spaces created are filled with blood-forming tissue, the
bone marrow.
Bone is a calcified, living, connective tissue that forms the majority of the skeleton. It consists of an
intercellular calcified matrix, which also contains collagen fibers, and several types of cells within the matrix.
Bones function as:

supportive structures for the body;

protectors of vital organs; e.g., sternum and ribs sternum and ribs protect the thoracic and upper abdominal
viscera, skull and vertebral column protect the brain and spinal cord from injury.

reservoirs of calcium and phosphorus;

levers on which muscles act to produce movement; as seen in the long bones of the limbs

containers for blood-producing cells.
1.3. TYPES OF BONES
Bones are classified according to their shape (gross anatomy):
1) Long bones are tubular (e.g., the humerus in the arm).
2) Short bones are cuboidal and are found only in the tarsus (ankle) and carpus (wrist).
3) Flat bones usually serve protective functions (e.g., the flat bones of the cranium protect the brain).
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Bones (Osteology)
4) Irregular bones have various shapes other than long, short, or flat (e.g., bones of the face).
5) Sesamoid bones (e.g., the patella or knee cap) develop in certain tendons and are found where tendons
cross the ends of long bones in the limbs; they protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the
angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments.
Long bones develop by replacement of hyaline cartilage plate (endochondral ossification). They have a shaft
(diaphysis) and two ends (epiphyses). The metaphysis is a part of the diaphysis adjacent to the epiphyses. The
diaphysis encloses the marrow cavity.
Figure 2. Diaphysis, metapyhysis, epiphyses
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illu_long_bone.jpg
There are two types of bones according to histological features: compact bone and spongy (trabecular)
bone. They are distinguished by the relative amount of solid matter and by the number and size of the spaces
they contain All bones have a superficial thin layer of compact bone around a central mass of spongy bone,
except where the latter is replaced by a medullary (marrow) cavity. Spongy bone is found at the expanded heads
of long bones and fills most irregular bones. Compact bone forms the outer shell of all bones and also the shafts
in long bones.
1.4. BONE MARKINGS AND FORMATIONS
Bone markings appear wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascias are attached or where arteries lie adjacent to or
enter bones. Other formations occur in relation to the passage of a tendon (often to direct the tendon or
improve its leverage) or to control the type of movement occurring at a joint. Surfaces of the bones are not
smooth. Bones display elevations, depressions and holes. The surface features on the bones are given names to
distinguish and define them.
1.5. VASCULATURE AND INNERVATION OF BONES
Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels. Veins accompany arteries. Nerves accompany blood vessels
supplying bones.
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2. SKULL BONES
The skull is supported on the summit of the vertebral column, and is of an oval shape, wider behind than
in front. It is composed of a series of flattened or irregular bones which, with one exception (the mandible), are
immovably jointed together. It is divisible into two parts:
(1) the cranium, which lodges and protects the brain, consists of eight bones
(2) the skeleton of the face, of fourteen
2.1. OSSA CRANII
2.1.1. Occipital bone
The occipital bone is situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on
itself. It is pierced by a large oval aperture, the foramen magnum, through which the cranial cavity
communicates with the vertebral canal.
2.1.2. Parietal Bones
The parietal bones form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral
in form. The external surface is convex, smooth.
2.1.3. Frontal Bone
The frontal bone is at the front of the skull. It forms the skeleton of the forehead and enters into the formation
of the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities.
2.1.4. Temporal Bones
The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull. The temporal bone consists of the pathway to
the inner ear and contributes to the formation of the jaw with the mandible.
2.1.5. Sphenoid Bone
The sphenoid bone is situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital. It
somewhat resembles a bat with its wings extended, and is divided into a median portion or body, two great and
two small wings extending outward from the sides of the body, and two pterygoid processes which project from
it below. It supplies the bed for the pituitary gland.
2.1.6. Ethmoid bone
The etmoid bone is exceedingly light and spongy, and cubical in shape; it is situated at the anterior part of the
base of the cranium, between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose, and contributes to each of these cavities.
The olfactory nerve fibers pass through this bone.
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Figure 3. Skull bones (lateral view)
http://images.tutorvista.com/content/locomotion-animals/human-skull-structure.jpeg
2.2. CRANIAL FOSSAE
2.2.1. Anterior cranial fossa
The inferior and anterior parts of the frontal lobes of the brain occupy the anterior cranial fossa, the shallowest
of the three cranial fossae.
2.2.2. Middle cranial fossa
The butterfly-shaped middle cranial fossa has a central part composed of the sella turcica on the body of the
sphenoid and large, depressed lateral parts on each side.
2.2.3. Posterior cranial fossa
The posterior cranial fossa is the largest and deepest of the three cranial fossae. The posterior cranial fossa is
formed mostly by the occipital bone.
Figure 4. Cranial Fossae
http://tmjc.com.ne.kr/tmj/info/drinfo/images/tm6-6.jpg
2.3. FACIAL BONES
1. The Nasal Bones: are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed
side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, “the bridge” of the nose.
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2. The Maxillæ (Upper Jaw): are the largest bones of the face, excepting the mandible, and form, by their union,
the whole of the upper jaw. Each assists in forming the boundaries of three cavities, viz., the roof of the mouth,
the floor and lateral wall of the nose and the floor of the orbit.
3. The Lacrimal Bone: the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial
wall of the orbit.
4. The Zygomatic Bone (Malar Bone): is small and quadrangular, and is situated at the upper and lateral part of
the face: it forms the prominence of the cheek, part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit.
The zygomatic arch is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the
zygomatic bone.
5. The Palatine Bone: is situated at the back part of the nasal cavity. It contributes to the walls of three cavities:
the floor and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, the roof of the mouth, and the floor of the orbit.
6. The Inferior Nasal Concha (Concha Nasalis Inferior; Inferior Turbinated Bone): extends horizontally along the
lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
7. The Vomer: is situated in the median plane, but its anterior portion is frequently bent to one or other side. It is
thin, somewhat quadrilateral in shape, and forms the hinder and lower part of the nasal septum.
8. The Mandible (Lower Jaw): the largest and strongest bone of the face, serves for the reception of the lower
teeth.
9. The Hyoid Bone: is shaped like a horseshoe, and is suspended from the tips of the styloid processes of the
temporal bones.
Figure 5. Facial bones
http://www.learnbones.com/wp-content/uploads/facial_bones.jpg
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3. THORACIC CAGE & VERTEBRAL COLUMN
3.1. THORACIC CAGE
The thoracic cage (skeleton) is formed by the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly, ribs laterally, and
thoracic vertebrae posteriorly.
Figure 6. Thoracic cage (skeleton)
http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/locomotion-animals/thoracic-cage.php
3.1. 1. Ribs
Ribs (L. costae) are curved, flat bones that form most of the thoracic cage. Costal cartilages prolong the ribs
anteriorly and contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic wall, providing a flexible attachment for their anterior
ends. The first 7 costal cartilages attach directly and independently to the sternum; the 8th, 9th, and 10th
articulate with the costal cartilages just superior to them, forming a continuous, articulated, cartilaginous costal
margin. The 11th and 12th costal cartilages form caps on the anterior ends of the corresponding ribs and do not
reach or attach to any other bone or cartilage.
Intercostal spaces separate the ribs and their costal cartilages from one another. The spaces are named
according to the rib forming the superior border of the space—for example, the 4th intercostal space lies
between ribs 4 and 5. There are 11 intercostal spaces and 11 intercostal nerves. Intercostal spaces are occupied
by intercostal muscles and membranes, and two sets (main and collateral) of intercostal blood vessels and
nerves, identified by the same number assigned to the space.
Figure 7. True, false, and floating ribs http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/R/rib-cage.html
True (vertebrocostal) ribs (1st-7th ribs): They attach directly to
the sternum through their own costal cartilages.
False (vertebrochondral) ribs (8th, 9th, and usually 10th ribs):
Their cartilages are connected to the cartilage of the rib above
them; thus their connection with the sternum is indirect.
Floating (vertebral, free) ribs (11th, 12th, and sometimes 10th
ribs): The rudimentary cartilages of these ribs do not connect
even indirectly with the sternum; instead they end in the
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Figure 8. Parts of a typical rib
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Head: wedge-shaped and has one facet for articulation with the
numerically corresponding vertebra and one facet for the vertebra
superior to it.
Neck: connects the head of the rib with the body at the level of the
tubercle.
Tubercle: located at the junction of the neck and body; articulates
with the corresponding transverse process of the vertebra.
Body (shaft): thin, flat, and curved, is most markedly at the costal
angle where the rib turns anterolaterally. The inferior margin of the
internal surface is marked by a distinct costal groove, which provides
some protection for the intercostal nerve and vessels.
3.1.2. Sternum
The sternum (G. sternon, chest) is the long, flat bone that forms the middle of the anterior part of the
thoracic cage. It directly overlies and affords protection for mediastinal viscera in general and much of the heart
in particular. The sternum is commonly known as the breastbone and is divided into three areas, the upper
manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process. The sternum has the costal facets (places for articulation) for the
first seven ribs.
Figure 9. Sternum and its parts
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/sternum
3.2. VERTERBRAL COLUMN
The vertebral column in an adult typically consists of 33 vertebrae arranged in five regions: 7 cervical, 12
thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal. The vertebrae gradually become larger as the vertebral column
descends to the sacrum and then become progressively smaller toward the apex of the coccyx. The change in
size is related to the fact that successive vertebrae bear increasing amounts of the body's weight as the column
descends. The vertebrae reach maximum size immediately superior to the sacrum, which transfers the weight to
the pelvic girdle at the sacroiliac joints.
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The vertebral column is flexible because it consists of many relatively small bones, called vertebrae
(singular = vertebra), that are separated by resilient intervertebral (IV) discs.
Vertebrae vary in size and other characteristics from one region of the vertebral column to another, and
to a lesser degree within each region; however, their basic structure is the same.
A typical vertebra consists of a vertebral body, a vertebral arch, and seven processes.
Seven processes arise from the vertebral arch of a typical vertebra: one median spinous process, two transverse
processes and four articular processes. The spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra is prominent, that is
why we call the seventh cervical vertebra as “vertebra prominens” prominent vertebra.
The vertebral body is the more massive, roughly cylindrical, anterior part of the bone that gives strength
to the vertebral column and supports body weight. The size of the vertebral bodies increases as the column
descends as each bears progressively greater body weight.
The vertebral arch is posterior to the vertebral body. The vertebral arch and the posterior surface of the
vertebral body form the walls of the vertebral foramen. The succession of vertebral foramina in the articulated
vertebral column forms the vertebral canal (spinal canal), which contains the spinal cord and the roots of the
spinal nerves that emerge from it.
Figure 10. Vertebral column
http://www.vertebralcolumn.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/VertebralColumn3.jpg
 7 cervical vertebrae between the thorax and
skull characterized mainly by their small size
and the presence of a foramen in each transverse
process, bifid spinous process, except C7
 12 thoracic vertebrae characterized by their
articulated ribs, spinous processes projecting
inferiorly
 inferior to the thoracic vertebrae are five lumbar
vertebrae, which form the skeletal support for
the posterior abdominal wall and are
characterized by their large size, small
processuses spinousus projecting posteriorly
 five sacral vertebrae fused into one single bone
called the sacrum, which articulates on each
side with a pelvic bone and is a component of the
pelvic wall;
 inferior to the sacrum is a variable number,
usually four, of coccygeal vertebrae, which fuse
into a single small triangular bone called the
coccyx.
Normally the vertebral column has curvatures; cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Enlarged
curvatures or decreases in these curvatures are related to pathologies. Kyphosis is abnormal curvature of the
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vertebral column in the thoracic region, producing a "hunchback" deformity. Lordosis is abnormal curvature of
the vertebral column in the lumbar region, producing a swayback deformity.
4. BONES OF THE UPPER LIMB
Figure 11. Bones of the upper limb
http://timothyakeller.educatorpages.com/108381
4.1. CLAVICLE (TR. KÖPRÜCÜK KEMIĞI)
The clavicle (collar bone) connects the upper limb to the trunk. The shaft of the clavicle has a double
curve in a horizontal plane. Its medial half articulates with the manubrium of the sternum. Its lateral half
articulates with the the scapula. These curvatures increase the resilience of the clavicle and give it the
appearance of an elongated capital S. The clavicle:
 increases the range of motion of the limb.
 affords protection to the neurovascular bundle supplying the upper limb.
 transmits shocks (traumatic impacts) from the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
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Figure 12. Clavicle
http://www.daviddarling.info/images/clavicle.gif
4.2. SCAPULA (TR. KÜREK KEMİĞİ)
The scapula (shoulder blade) is a triangular flat bone that lies on the posterolateral aspect of the thorax.
The scapula has an articular surface; a glenoid cavity (G. socket) for the articulation with the head of the
humerus.
Figure 13. Scapula
http://therapyworksltd.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/shoulder.jpg
4.3. HUMERUS
The humerus (arm bone), the largest bone in the upper limb, articulates with the scapula at the
glenohumeral joint and the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a head,
surgical and anatomical necks, and greater and lesser tubercles. The spherical head of the humerus articulates
with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The surgical neck of the humerus, a common site of fracture, is the narrow
part distal to the head and tubercles. The distal end of the humerus makes up the condyle of the humerus.
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Figure 14. Humerus
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/humerus
4.4. ULNA & RADIUS
The two forearm bones serve together to form the second unit of an articulated mobile strut (the first
unit being the humerus), with a mobile base formed by the shoulder, that positions the hand. Ulna and radius
have the interosseus membrane in between.
The ulna is the stabilizing bone of the forearm and is the medial and longer of the two forearm bones. Its
more massive proximal end is specialized for articulation with the humerus proximally and the head of the radius
laterally.
The radius is the lateral and shorter of the two forearm bones. Its proximal end includes a short head,
neck. Proximally, the head of the radius is concave for articulation with the humerus during flexion and extension
of the elbow joint. The head also articulates with the ulna. The shaft of the radius, in contrast to that of the ulna,
gradually enlarges as it passes distally. The distal end accommodates the head of the ulna. Its lateral aspect
becomes increasingly ridge-like, terminating distally in the radial styloid process.
Figure 15. Ulna and radius
http://www.daviddarling.info/images/radius_and_ulna.jpg
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4.5. BONES OF THE HAND
The wrist, or carpus, is composed of eight carpal bones (carpals) arranged in proximal and distal rows of
four: The proximal surfaces of the distal row of carpals articulate with the proximal row of carpals, and their
distal surfaces articulate with the metacarpals. The metacarpus forms the skeleton of the palm of the hand
between the carpus and the phalanges. It is composed of five metacarpal bones (metacarpals). Each metacarpal
consists of a base, shaft, and head. The proximal bases of the metacarpals articulate with the carpal bones, and
the distal heads of the metacarpals articulate with the proximal phalanges and form the knuckles. Each digit has
three phalanges except for the first (the thumb), which has only two. Each phalanx has a base proximally, a shaft
(body) and a head distally.
Figure 16. Bones of the hand
http://www.yalemedicalgroup.org/stw/images/125411.jpg
5. BONES OF THE LOWER LIMB & PELVIC GRIDLE
The skeleton of the lower limb (inferior appendicular skeleton) may be divided into two functional
components: the pelvic girdle and the bones of the free lower limb. The pelvic girdle is a ring of bones that
connects the vertebral column to the two femurs. The primary functions of the pelvic girdle are bearing and
transfer of weight; secondary functions include protection and support of abdominopelvic viscera and housing
and attachment for structures of the genital and urinary systems. In the mature individual, the pelvic girdle is
formed by three bones: Right and left hip bones (coxal bones; pelvic bones), sacrum.
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Bones (Osteology)
Figure 17. Bones of the lower limb
http://timothyakeller.educatorpages.com/108381
5.1. HIP BONE
The mature hip bone (L. os coxae) is the large, flat pelvic bone formed by the fusion of three primary
bones—ilium, ischium, and pubis. The acetabulum (L., shallow vinegar cup) is the large cup shaped cavity or
socket on the lateral aspect of the hip bone that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint. All
three primary bones forming the hip bone contribute to the formation of the acetabulum.
5.2. SACRUM
The wedged-shaped sacrum (L. sacred) is usually composed of five fused sacral vertebrae in adults. It is
located between the hip bones and forms the roof and posterosuperior wall of the posterior half of the pelvic
cavity. The sacral canal is the continuation of the vertebral canal in the sacrum.
5.3. COCCYX
The coccyx (tail bone) is a small triangular bone that is usually formed by fusion of the four rudimentary
coccygeal vertebrae. The coccyx is the remnant of the skeleton of the embryonic tail-like caudal eminence. The
coccyx does not participate with the other vertebrae in support of the body weight when standing; however,
when sitting it may flex anteriorly somewhat, indicating that it is receiving some weight. The coccyx provides
attachments for muscles.
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Bones (Osteology)
Figure 18. Hip bone, sacrum and coccyx
http://faithanatomyg3.wikispaces.com/Appendicular+Skeleton
5.4. FEMUR
The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body. It transmits body weight from the hip bone to the
tibia when a person is standing. The femur consists of a shaft (body) and two ends, superior or proximal and
inferior or distal.
Figure 19. Femur
http://www.courses.vcu.edu/DANC291-003/unit_6.htm
5.5. TIBIA & FIBULA & PATELLA
The tibia and fibula are the bones of the leg. The tibia articulates with the condyles of the femur
superiorly and the talus inferiorly and in so doing transmits the body's weight. The fibula mainly functions as an
attachment for muscles, but it is also important for the stability of the ankle joint.
Located on the anteromedial side of the leg, nearly parallel to the fibula, the tibia (shin bone) is the
second largest bone in the body. It provides an increased area for articulation and weight transfer. The anterior
border of the tibia is the most prominent border. It and the adjacent medial surface are subcutaneous
throughout their lengths and are commonly known as the “shin”; their periosteal covering and overlying skin are
vulnerable to bruising. The inferior surface of the shaft and the lateral surface of the medial malleolus articulate
with the talus. The interosseous border of the tibia is sharp where it gives attachment to the interosseous
membrane that unites the two leg bones. Inferiorly, the tibia articulates with the distal end of the fibula.
The slender fibula lies posterolateral to the tibia and is firmly attached to it by the tibiofibular
syndesmosis, which includes the interosseous membrane. The fibula has no function in weight-bearing. It serves
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Bones (Osteology)
mainly for muscle attachment. The distal end enlarges and is prolonged as the lateral malleolus. The proximal
end of the fibula consists of an enlarged head superior to a small neck. The head has a pointed apex.
The patella (knee cap) is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and is embedded in the quadriceps
femoris tendon. The joint between the femur and tibia is the principal articulation of the knee joint, but the joint
between the patella and femur shares the same articular cavity. The patellar ligament connects the patella to
the tibia.
Figure 20. Tibia and fibula
http://www.daviddarling.info/images/fibula_and_tibia.jpg
5.6. BONES OF THE FOOT
The bones of the foot include the tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges.
There are:

7 tarsal bones (calcaneus is one of them)

5 metatarsal bones

14 phalanges
The calcaneus (L., heel bone) is the largest and strongest bone in the foot. When standing, the calcaneus
transmits the majority of the body's weight from the talus to the ground. The metatarsus (anterior or distal foot,
forefoot—) consists of five metatarsals that are numbered from the medial side of the foot. The 14 phalanges are
as follows: the 1st digit (great toe) has 2 phalanges (proximal and distal); the other four digits have 3 phalanges
each: proximal, middle, and distal.
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Figure 21. Bones of the foot
http://www.joint-pain-expert.net/foot-anatomy.html
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