Why did Germany sign the armistice in 1918?

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Why did Germany sign
the armistice in 1918?
Identify the reasons for the allied victory in
WW1.
Evaluate the reasons for the Allied victory in
WWI.
Reach a supported conclusion as to the most
important reason.
Starter:
Use the images to help you
add more detail to your
hypothesis.
Reasons for Germans
signing armistice
Your hypothesis
Any other reasons
Supporting evidence
Your task:
• Using the cards you have been given, add to your answer in a
different colour.
Look back at your initial
hypothesis. How would you now
answer this question?
In a nutshell…
• Ludendorff Offensive failing
• Naval blockade
• Mutinies & civil unrest in Germany
• Trench conditions, casualties and loss of
territory
• America entering the war
• Improvements in technology
TASK; Think, Pair, Share
• Look at your notes.
• Discuss in pairs which
reason you think is the
most important reason
why the Allies won.
• Share this as a group –
do you all agree?
• Be prepared to explain
your answer.
• You have 5 minutes.
Total Mobilized
Killed & Died
Wounded
Prisoners &
Missing
Total Casualties
Casualties %
Mobilized
Russia
12,000,000
1,700,000
4,950,000
2,500,000
9,150,000
76.3
France
8,410,000
1,357,800
4,266,000
537,000
6,160,800
76.3
British Empire
8,904,467
908,371
2,090,212
191,652
3,190,235
35.8
Italy
5,615,000
650,000
947,000
600,000
2,197,000
39.1
United States
4,355,000
126,000
234,300
4,500
364,800
8.2
Japan
800,000
300
907
3
1,210
0.2
Romania
750,000
335,706
120,000
80,000
535,706
71.4
Serbia
707,343
45,000
133,148
152,958
331,106
46.8
Belgium
267,000
13,716
44,686
34,659
93,061
34.9
Greece
230,000
5,000
21,000
1,000
17,000
11.7
Portugal
100,000
7,222
13,751
12,318
33,291
33.3
Montenegro
50,000
3,000
10,000
7,000
20,000
40.0
Total
42,188,810
5,152,115
12,831,004
4,121,090
22,104,209
52.3
Germany
11,000,000
1,773,700
4,216,058
1,152,800
7,142,558
64.9
Austria-Hungary
7,800,000
1,200,000
3,620,000
2,200,000
7,020,000
90.0
Turkey
2,850,000
325,000
400,000
250,000
975,000
34.2
Bulgaria
1,200,000
87,500
152,390
27,029
266,919
22.2
Total
22,850,000
3,386,200
8,388,448
3,629,829
15,404,477
67.4
Grand Total
65,038,810
8,538,315
21,219,452
7,750,919
37,508,686
57.6
Countries
Allied Powers
Central Powers
The USA Enters The War
• The United States
declared war on
Germany on April 6th
1917.
• American troops joined
the French and British
in the summer of 1918.
• They were fresh and
not war-weary and were
invaluable in defeating
the Germans.
• The first Battle of the Marne took place between 5th and 11th September, 1914. The most important
consequence of the battle was that the French and British forces were able to prevent the German plan for
a swift and decisive victory.
• The second major battle close to the River Marne took place during the summer of 1918. During the Spring
Offensive, the German Army advanced over the Aisne in late May and reached the Marne on 5th June. The
French Army was in poor shape and the Commander-in-Chief, Henri-Philippe Petain, knew that the British
were busy dealing with the German offensive at Lys. Eventually Sir Douglas Haig agreed to send Petain four
divisions and two divisions of the recently arrived US Army were also available. Over 85,000 American
soldiers took part in the battle.
• The German attack on the Marne was launched by General Erich von Ludendorff on 15th July. Twenty-three
divisions of the First and Third Armies attacked the French Fourth Army in the east of Reims and seventeen
divisions of the Seventh army took on the French Fifth Army to the west.
• The Germans failed to break through and General Ferdinand Foch was able to organize a counterattack. This
included 24 divisions of the French Army, and soldiers from the United States, Britain and Italy. On 20th July
the Germans began to withdraw. By the 3rd August they were back to where they were when they started
the Spring Offensive in March.
• Allied casualties during the 2nd Battle of the Marne were heavy: French (95,000), British (13,000) and
United States (12,000). It is estimated that the German Army suffered an estimated 168,000 casualties and
and marked the last real attempt by the Central Powers to win the First World War.
Improvements In Technology
• The allied victory in
November 1918 was not
solely due to American
involvement.
• Rapid advancements in
weapon technology meant
that by 1918 tanks and
planes were commonplace.
• They helped the Allies to
break the stalemate on
the Western Front and
start pushing the Germans
back.
Germany’s Final Push Fails
• The German commander Erich
Ludendorff (right) was a brilliant
military commander and had won
decisive victories over Russia in
1917 that led to the Russian
withdrawal from the war.
• In 1918 he announced that if
Germany was to win the war then
the allies had to be defeated on
the Western Front before the
arrival of American troops.
• Although his offensive was initially
successful the allies held ground
and eventually pushed the Germans
back.
Naval Blockade of Germany
• The British Navy blockaded  Even basic foods were
the sea approaches to
strictly rationed. The longer
German ports. This meant
the war went on, the worse
that ships could not enter
the food shortages became.
or leave the German ports,
essentially stopping supplies  Fuel shortages led to
being delivered to Germany
power cuts, factories had
by sea.
to close and transport
could no longer run.
• This created food
Germany was grinding to a
shortages. By the end of
halt.
the war the German people
were nearly starving. They
lived on handouts of turnips,  To make things worse, a
potatoes and saw-dusty
flu virus spread across
bread.
Germany, killing
thousands.
Civil Unrest In Germany
• With defeat close on the
battlefields, and
conditions poor at home,
the German army asked
for peace.


• The allies agreed, but
only if the Kaiser shared
his power.
• This proved unpopular,
and public opinion turned
against the Kaiser.
• Revolution was being
talked about.


The was a Naval Mutiny
which was the catalyst
for mass unrest.
The Kaiser was losing
control of the country as
soldiers and workers rose
up against him.
The Kaiser, Wilhelm I,
had to abdicate.
Freidrich Ebert, leader of
the Social Democratic
Party, became head of the
government.
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