PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 Key Concept 4.1

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PERIOD 4: 1800-1848
Key Concept 4.1: The United States began to develop a modern democracy and celebrated a
new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and
change their society and institutions to match them.
The nation’s transition to a more participatory democracy was achieved by expanding suffrage
from a system based on property ownership to one based on voting by all adult white men, and it
was accompanied by the growth of political parties. {NAT-2.0; NAT-4.0; POL-1.0; WXT-2.0}
A. In the early 1800s, national political parties continued to debate issues such as the tariff,
powers of the federal government, and relations with European powers.
B. Supreme Court decisions established the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning
of the Constitution and asserted that federal laws took precedence over state laws.
C. By the 1820s and 1830s, new political parties arose — the Democrats, led, by Andrew Jackson,
and the Whigs, led by Henry Clay — that disagreed about the role and powers of the federal
government and issues such as the national bank, tariffs, and federally funded internal
D. Regional interests often trumped national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’
positions on slavery and economic policy.
While Americans embraced a new national culture, various groups developed distinctive cultures
of their own. {NAT-4.0; CUL-1.0; CUL-2.0; CUL-4.0}
A. The rise of democratic and individualistic beliefs, a response to rationalism, and changes to
society caused by the market revolution, along with greater social and geographical mobility,
contributed to a Second Great Awakening among Protestants that influenced moral and social
reforms and inspired utopian and other religious movements.
B. A new national culture emerged that combined American elements, European influences, and
regional cultural sensibilities.
C. Liberal social ideas from abroad and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility influenced
literature, art, philosophy, and architecture.
D. Enslaved blacks and free African Americans created communities and strategies to protect
their dignity and family structures, and they joined political efforts aimed at changing their
Increasing numbers of Americans, many inspired by new religious and intellectual movements,
worked primarily outside of government institutions to advance their ideals. {NAT-1.0; POL-2.0;
A. Americans formed new voluntary organizations that aimed to change individual behaviors and
improve society through temperance and other reform efforts.
B. Abolitionist and antislavery movements gradually achieved emancipation in the North,
contributing to the growth of the free African American population, even as many state
governments restricted African Americans’ rights. Antislavery efforts in the South were largely
limited to unsuccessful slave rebellions.
C. A women’s rights movement sought to create greater equality and opportunities for women,
expressing its ideals at the Seneca Falls Convention.
Key Concept 4.2: Innovations in technology, agriculture, and commerce powerfully
accelerated the American economy, precipitating profound changes to U.S. society and to
national and regional identities.
New transportation systems and technologies dramatically expanded manufacturing and
agricultural production. {POL-3.0; WXT-2.0; WXT-3.0}
A. Entrepreneurs helped to create a market revolution in production and commerce, in which
market relationships between producers and consumers came to prevail as the manufacture
of goods became more organized.
B. Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, the telegraph,
and agricultural inventions increased the efficiency of production methods.
C. Legislation and judicial systems supported the development of roads, canals, and railroads,
which extended and enlarged markets and helped foster regional interdependence.
Transportation networks linked the North and Midwest more closely than either was linked
to the South.
The changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on U.S. society, workers’ lives,
and gender and family relations. {WXT-1.0, CUL-3.0; CUL-4.0}
A. Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women and men working in factories, no longer
relied on semisubsistence agriculture; instead they supported themselves producing goods for
distant markets.
B. The growth of manufacturing drove a significant increase in prosperity and standards of living
for some; this led to the emergence of a larger middle class and a small but wealthy business
elite but also to a large and growing population of laboring poor.
C. Gender and family roles changed in response to the market revolution, particularly with the
growth of definitions of domestic ideals that emphasized the separation of public and private
Economic development shaped settlement and trade patterns, helping to unify the nation while
also encouraging the growth of different regions. {POL-3.0; WXT-2.0; MIG-1.0; MIG-2.0}
A. Large numbers of international migrants moved to industrializing northern cities, while many
Americans moved west of the Appalachians, developing thriving new communities along the
Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
B. Increasing Southern cotton production and the related growth of Northern manufacturing,
banking, and shipping industries promoted the development of national and international
commercial ties.
C. Southern business leaders continued to rely on the production and export of traditional
agricultural staples, contributing to the growth of a distinctive Southern regional identity.
D. Plans to further unify the U.S. economy, such as the American System, generated debates over
whether such policies would benefit agriculture or industry, potentially favoring different
sections of the country.
Key Concept 4.3: The U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade and expanding its national
borders shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.
Struggling to create an independent global presence, the United States sought to claim territory
throughout the North American continent and promote foreign trade. {MIG-2.0; WOR-1.0; WOR2.0}
A. Following the Louisiana Purchase, the United States government sought influence and control
over North America and the Western Hemisphere through a variety of means, including
exploration, military actions, American Indian removal, and diplomatic efforts such as the
Monroe Doctrine.
B. Frontier settlers tended to champion expansion efforts, while American Indian resistance led
to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control and relocate American Indian populations.
The United States’s acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to contests over the extension of
slavery into new territories. {POL-2.0; WXT-1.0; CUL-4.0; GEO-1.0}
A. As overcultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders began relocating their
plantations to more fertile lands west of the Appalachians, where the institution of slavery
continued to grow.
B. Antislavery efforts increased in the North, while in the South, although the majority of
Southerners owned no slaves, most leaders argued that slavery was part of the Southern way
of life.
C. Congressional attempts at political compromise, such as the Missouri Compromise, only
temporarily stemmed growing tensions between opponents and defenders of slavery.

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