the geographical distribution of greek and roman ionic bases

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INCE Rhys Carpenter was one of the founders and the first editor of Hesperica
and also the one who introducedme to Greek and Roman architecture and taught
me both the scholarly rewards and the personal joys to be found in the close observation of its details, it may not be inappropriateto offer him as a very small token of
my appreciation of the standards he set for Hesperia and of his great teaching this
preliminary sketch of the geographical distribution of the two main types of Ionic
base in the Roman empire, for he was early one of the few who have noted the distinction between the Greek and the Roman forms of that base.'
Before we survey the forms in use in the empire, however, it will be useful,
we trust, to review briefly the origins and general development up to the imperial
period of the Greek and the Roman forms of the Ionic base.
Asia Minor in the 6th century B.C. must be considered the earliest home of the
Ionic base. That two distinct forms of column base were in use in Ionic buildings in
the 6th century is well known.2 The earliest, best known at Samos (Fig. 1, a, b; P1.
49, a), combined a torus, horizontally fluted, over another element of equal or more
frequently greater height, also usually horizontally fluted, which may be either
vertical or slightly concave (this is the original scotia; Fig. 2, a, from 6th century
Delos).' It should be noted that the lower element which takes the weight from the
torus above it has a diameter at least as large if not larger than the greatest diameter
of the torus; the scotia extends at least as far as if not farther out than the torus.
In the other 6th century Asia Minor form,4 known first in the Artemision at
Ephesos (Fig. 1, c; P1. 49, b) very little later than the earliest Samian examples, the
1 Carpenter's penetrating understanding of the evolution of the Attic type of the Ionic base,
Greek Art, 1962, pp. 229-232, deals of course only with the original Greek form. That it is in
fact the ultimate origin of the independent Etruscan and Roman version as well has already been
suggested in Etruscan and Roman Republican Mouldings, 1965, pp. 25, 191 and " The Roman
Ionic Base in Corinth," Essays in Memory of Karl Lehmann, 1964, p. 301; see locc. citt. and below
for the distinction between the Greek and Roman forms.
2 L. T. Shoe, Profiles of Greek Mouldings, 1936, pp. 179-180.
P.G.M., pp. 179-180, pls. LXIV, 4-9, LXV, 1-3, 6, LXXI, 22-26, LXXII, 1-8; Ath. Mitt.,
LV, 1930, fig. 38, (Fig. 1, a, b, here), Beil. XXI, XXII; 0. Reuther, Der Heratempel von Samos,
1957, fig. 7, pls. 17-20, Z 23-Z 31.
4P.G.M., pp. 179-180, pls. LXIV, 1-3, LXV, 5, LXXII, 9-11. D. Hogarth, Excavations at
Ephesus, The Archaic Artemtisi, 1908, pls. III, V; British Museum Catalogue Sculpture, I, 1892,
pl. I; R. L. Scranton, Greek Architecture, 1962, fig. 45; F. Krischen, Die Griechische Stadt, 1938,
pls. 33,34. Magnesia, Archaic Temple of Artemis (Fig. 1, d after H. C. Butler, Sardis, II, fig. 110).
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
lower element under the horizontally fluted torus is broken up into two strongly
concave scotiae separated from each other and finished at top and bottom with
astragals; here too the greatest diameter of the scotiae is equal to if it does not exceed
that of the torus above.
Although at least one example of the Ephesos type base, unfortunately unidentified and undated, has been found in Athens, on the Acropolis,' it was apparently
4c4 d.
45 d.
1. a. and b. Samos, Rhoikos Temple of Hera. c. Ephesos, Archaic Temple of Artemis.
d. Magnesia, Archaic Temple of Artemis. e. Sardis, Temple.
mainly the Samian form which went to Athens in the later 6th century as Ionic
styles in both sculpture and architecture made their way across to Attica. The close
historical connections between Athens and Samos at the time make this completely
understandable. But even as Athenian sculptors made of the Ionic style something
P.G.M., p. 180, pls. LXV, 5, LXXII, 11.
quite their own from the very beginning and soon developeda style distinctly Athenian
in its real fusion of Ionic and Doric elements and spirit, so too did the architects in
both capitals and bases. Numerous fragmentary examples of the Attic version of
the 6th century Samian form have been found, especially in recent years, but a completely preserved example, found re-used in the Athenian Agora (P1. 49, c),6 shows
well the simpler, more Doric, treatment of both the torus (merely facetted, not
fluted) and the cylindrical lower element (vertical and unornamented) which exhibits
the same spirit as the painted rather than carved Ionic capitals so well known in the
late 6th and the 5th centuries in Athens.7 This simplified form continued to be used
by old-fashioned architects in the early second half of the 5th century,8but Athenian
architects in general were not satisfied with the form learned from Asia Minor.
In the course of the 5th century they developed a form of base which was ever
after to bear the name of Attica and which was to be the inspiration for nearly all
later Ionic bases. The full fledged Attic base as found in the Erechtheion, however,
was not: arrived at immediately; it came only after several experimental or intermediate forms:
1. Stoa of the Athenians at Delphi, 479 iB.c. (P1. 49, d)' where a) the lower element is
curved in at the top to make a unique cyma recta instead of a vertical or
concave element and b) a small torus projecting beyond all above it is added'
at the base; of the changes, b) is the crucial new element, but note also that
the bottom of the cyma recta carries the line of the profile well out beyond
the greatest projection of the top,torus.
2. Older Parthenon, Unfinished Toichobate (Fig. 2, b, P1. 49, e; P.G.M., pl. LXVII,
1). Whatever the exact date of the unfinished building which preceded the
present building on the site (on which point our honoree will soon give us
further light in The Architects of the Parthenon), it was started after the
Persian destruction of the Acropolis and before 447 when the present temple
was begun. Although some have seen an astragal-crowned cyma reversa
(comparable to the fillet-crownedcyma reversa used in the same position in
the Hephaisteion, P.G.M., pl. XXXVII, 2) as intended in the unfinished
piece, the finished deep well rounded cut at the bottom seems to require a
torus rather than a cyma; therefore it is highly likely that a form much closer
to the Attic torus, scotia, torus of the Propylaia and Erechtheion than in the
following, No. 3, was projected here.
8 A 1974, found built into a wall of the 4th century B.C.
' P. Amandry, Fouilles de Delphes, II, La colonne des Naxiens et le portique des Atheniens,
1953, pl. XL.
8 In the Temple of Athena at Sounion to be published by Homer A. Thompson in Hesperia
Supplement XIV; thanks to his kindness I mention this here.
9Amandry, op. cit., pls. XXI, XXIV.
3. Temple on the Ilissos 10 and Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis (Fig. 2, c;
P1. 49, f), j both designed about 448 B.C., where the greater advantage over
the Delphi cyma recta of the older scotia with a top projection (as in the 6th
century Samian prototype) is recognized and where the small base torus
of Delphi is retained.
4. Base of the Ionic columns found built into the Late Roman Fortification Wall in
the Athenian Agora (Fig. 2, d; P1. 49, h) 2 where the new base torus is now
2. a. Delos. b. Athens, Older Parthenon. c. Athens, Temple of Athena Nike. d. Athens,
Agora A 2891 and 2892. e. Athens, Propylaia.f. Athens, Erechtheion,North Porch.
somewhat larger proportionately than at Delphi or in the Nike Temple but
still not nearly the size of the top torus and where an additional small torus is
added as a crowning finish to the scotia under the proper top torus. Although the building to which these columns belong is not known, the capitals
associated with the base confirm a date between the mid 5th century and the
Propylaia which this base suggests.
10J. Stuartand N. Revett, Antiquitiesof Athens, I, ed. of 1825, pls. X, XII; A. W. Lawrence,
GreekArchitecture,1957, fig. 82.
11P.G.M., p. 180, pls. LXXV, 13, LXVI, 2; Orlandos,Ath. Mitt., XL, 1915, pl. V; B.C.H.,
LXXI-LXXII, 1947-1948,p. 5, fig. 3.
A 2891 and 2892. Hesperia,XXIX, 1960, pp. 353-354, fig. 7, pl. 77, a.
Finally it was Mnesikles in the Propylaia (437-432 B.C.) who saw both the
practical and the aesthetic virtues of a truly tripartite (rather than essentially twopart) base in which the base torus not only attains but often even exceeds the height
of the crowning torus with a scotia between which is still mainly vertical in axis, its
lower fillet only slightly more projecting than the crowning fillet (Fig. 2, e; P1.49, g) .'"
Let me refer again to the analysis of this base which Rhys Carpenter has given us.14
Another detail must be noted in this earliest known Attic base; undoubtedlythe practical considerations of the position it was to occupy where crowds of pedestrians and
'horsemenwere to pass made Mnesikles keep under control the flarirngprojection which
is the essence of this base. Unlike the Nike base predecessor and the Erechtheion
base to follow, in this base the top fillet'of the scotia does not project as far as the
greatest diameter of the torus above it; it is set back about one-third of the full projection of the torus. That this was special treatment for this position seems attested
by the fact that in the Erechtheion and ever after in the Greek world and its cultural
dependenciesthe top of the scotia is at least on line with if not projecting beyond the
face of the torus above. The Erechtheion bases (Fig. 2, f; P1. 50, a)'5 are o'f the
form which became standard throughout'Greece proper.'6
Meanwhile in Asia Minor the Ephesos type (e.g. Sardis, Temple of Artemis,
Fig. 1, e; P1. 50, b)'7 had-gained popularity over that of Samos (except in Samos)
but by Hellenistic times it had to compete with the Attic form 18 which had invaded its
13 P.G.M., pl. LXVI, 1; F. C. Penrose, Prtinciples of Athenwin Architecture 1888, pl. 32;
Scranton, op. cit., fig. 63.
GreekArt, pp. 230-231.
P.G.M., pls. LXVI, 3, 4, LXVII 2, LXIX, 5, 6; G. P. Stevens et al., Erechtheum, 1927, pls.
16 E.g. Athens, Monument of Agrippa (Pergamene date, Antiq. Athens, II, ed. of 1825, pl.
XLIX), Monument of Lysikrates (Antiq. Athens, I, pl. XXV), Olympieion (Penrose, Athenian
Architecture, pIs. 37, 39; Ath. Mitt., XLVIII, 1923, pl. II; The Horizon Book of Ancient Greece,
1965, p. 364), Stoa of Attalos (Stoa of Attalas II in Athens, 1959, fig. 21). Delos, Portico of
Philip (Delos, VII, 1, 1923, figs. 132, 133, 135), Ionic Naiskos (ibid., fig. 166; P.G.M., pl. LXVII,
8). Epidauros, Theater (P. Cavvadias, Fouilles d'Aipidaure,1893, pl. III, 7; P.G.M., pl. LXVII, 9),
Tholos (Cavvadias, op. cit., pl. V, 3). Olympia, Propylaia to Gymnasium (Olympia, I, 1892,
pl. LXXVI, 4, 5). Samothrake, Ptolemaion (A. Conze, Samothrake, II, 1880, pls. XXVIII,
17 E.g. Didyma, Temple of Apollo (H. Knackfuss, Didyi , I, 1941, pls. 1-5, 16, 27-28, 30-31,
43, 144-145, 153-154). Halikarnassos, Mausoleion (A.J.A., XII, 1908, pl. I). Kastabos, Temple of
Hemithea (J. M. Cook and W. H. Plommer, The Sanctuary of Hemithea at Kastabos, 1966, figs.
17, 19, 21). Labranda, Propylaia (K. Jeppesen, Labraunda, Swedish Excavations and Researches,
I, 1, 1955, figs. 9, 10). Magnesia, Temple of Zeus (C. Humann, Magnesia am Maeander, 1904,
figs. 154, 158; Krischen, pl. 24). Pergamon, Ionic Temple (P. Schazmann, Pergamon, VI, 1923,
Beiblatt 3: 6, 7). Priene, Temples of Athena and Asklepios (Th. Wiegand, Priene, 1904, figs. 54,
57, 58, 110; Antiquities of Ionia, IV, 1881, pls. IX, XI, XIV, XVI, XVII). Sardis, Temple of
Artemis (P.G.M., pls. LXV, 9, LXXII, 12; H. C. Butler, Sardis, II, 1925, figs. 11, 12, 36, 38,
40, 58-65, 67, 96, 102, 103, 108-111, pl. B).
"IE.g. Ankara, Temple (D. Krencker and M. Schede, Der Tempel in Ankara, 1936, pl. 7, c).
territory in force. The Attic base often appears even in the same building with the
Asiastic (as we should now call the Ephesos type) in 2nd century Asia Minor (e.g.
Didyma, Temple of Apollo, Attic toichobate, P1. 50, c, with Asiatic column bases)."9
So strong was the appeal of the Attic form that it won the field in Asia Minor and
was the form which Greeks carried with them everywhere throughout the Hellenistic
world to the East.
Meanwhile the Ionic order had travelled westward also. In the Greek cities of
Sicily and Magna Graecia, from the 6th century on, both the Samian and Ephesian
forms of the base were adapted as was characteristic western Greek procedure,20but
regardless of adaptations all pre-Hellenistic bases retain the fundamental Greek
characteristic of the scotia projecting at least as far as the torus. By the 2nd century
however, the western Greek cities, having come under Roman political domination,
in most cases have taken over the form of base that had been developed further north
in Italy.
In the non-Greek parts of Italy the Etruscans and Romans had by the 2nd century come into direct contact with old Greece and Asia Minor and had begun to adopt
parts of the Greek orders. In so doing, however, they did not copy precisely the Attic
base seen there but made a fundamental change which was to have as long a history
in future as did the Attic change from the original Asiatic form. The new form has
often been defined 21 but we may repeat: the top of the scotia is set well back of the
greatest projection of the top torus. The explanation for this basic change has been
sought in the existence of the traditional Etruscan single torus base which could quite
naturally be doubled leaving just a little concave space between to give the general
impression of the tripartite Attic base (e.g. Paestum, Fig. 3, a; P1. 50, d and Saturnia,
Magnesia, Agora Fountain (Humann, Magnesia amt MIaeander,1904, fig. 145; Krischen, pl. 12),
Agora Stoa and Propylon (Humann, op. cit., figs. 130, 135, 136), Temple of Artemis (Aritiq. Ionia,
V, 1915, pls. V, X; Humann, op. cit., figs. 35, 67, 78; Krischen, pl. 39; Lawrence, Greek Architecture, fig. 121), Altar (Humann, op. cit., fig. 92). Miletos, Bouleuterion Propylon (H. Knackfuss,
Milet, I, 2, 1908, figs. 56, 57, 62, 63, pl. XI; Krischen, pl. 13; P.G.M., pl. LXVII, 7), Building
of Laodike (H. Knackfuss, Milet, I, 7, 1924, figs. 275, 277). Pergamon, Theater Terrace Temple
(Pergamon, IV, pls. XXXI, XXXIII; P.G.M., pl. LXX, 1). Priene, Agora North Stoa (Priene,
figs. 194-196; M. Schede, Die Ruinen von Priene, fig. 64), Lower Gymnasion (Priene, fig. 272;
P.G.M., pl. LXVIII, 3), Stadion Gate (Priene, fig. 263), Temple of Athena Altar (ibid., fig. 96),
Propylon (ibid., fig. 104). Teos, Temple (Antiq. Ioniia, I, Chap. I, pl. II; IV, pl. XXV).
19E.g. Didyma, Temple of Apollo, exterior columns Asiatic, antae and toichobate and interior
columns Attic (Didyma, I, pls. 8, 9, 12, 27, 43, 57, 59, 60, 67, 72, 81-83, 94-105, 153-154).
Magnesia, Temple of Zeus, columns Asiatic, antae Attic (Htumann, op. cit., figs. 154, 158).
Pergamon, Altar of Zeus, main order Asiastic (H. Kahler, Pergamion, 1949, pl. 7), interior order
Attic (Pergamon, III, 1, pl. XI; P.G.M., pl. LXVII, 6). The base of the Snmiintheionat Chryse
appears to be unique, a cross between the Asiatic and Attic quite unparalleled elsewhere (Antiq.
Ionia, IV, pls. XXIX, XXX; Sardis, II, fig. 111) with four parts of equal height: torus, scotia,
scotia, torus.
L. T. Shoe, Profiles of Western Greek Mouldings, 1952, p. 180, pl. XXXI.
P.W.G.M., p. 181; E.R.R.M., pp. 25-26, 193; " Roman Ionic Base in Corinth," p. 301.
Fig. 3, b, with no fillets on the scotia; Cosa, Basilica, Fig. 3, c; P1. 50, f with a fillet
at the bottom of the scotia)."2 This still appears to be the strongest element in the
creation of the new form which we call the Roman base.
There has recently come to light, however, in the Greek part of Italy a body of
material which sheds most interesting new light on the background of the Roman
Ionic base. We now know of remarkableIonic bases found over a period of years in
the early Hellenistic tombs of Tarentum. Thanks to the kindness and generosity of
Joseph Carter who is studying the sculptural decorations of these tombs in their
FIG. 3. a. Paestum.b. Saturnia.c. Cosa,Basilica. d. Tivoli, Rectangular
Temple. e. Rome,
Temple of Veiovis. f. Rome, Forum Boarium,Round Temple.
architectural framework, it is possible to speak here of a series of bases which adds
significant evidence for the antecedents of the Roman base. Two bases consist of a
torus over a sloping fascia reminiscent of the archaic Samian form adapted elsewhere in Southern Italy. Most important for our problem, however, are several
tripartite bases composed of a torus, a cyma reversa, and a fascia with small base
22 E.R.R.M., pp. 25,
191-193,figs. 41, 42, pl. LX.
astragal, all three of- similar height; the important thing is that the cyma reversa
(which acts here like a scotia) is set well back of the torus above it, exactly as is the
scotia of the Roman base. Here, then, is the same attitude toward the concave element
in relation to the convex above it that is characteristic of the Etruscans and Romans,
yet this is in the Greek area where Rome probably came into contact with Greek style
after the conquest of Tarentum in the early 3rd century B.C. Are these Greek tombs
which the Romans among them would have seen and been influenced by or are they
tombs of Romans who had come to Tarentum which combine Greek sculptural and
architectural styles with a local Italian detail? If the latter, one must assume the
Etruscan Ionic base to have been not only in existence but comm'onin Roman Italy
much earlier than the earliest examples of it we know thus far. If, however, as seems
more likely, these elaborately carved bases 23 are Tarentine Greek with no northern
connections of any kind, the form could be understood as a further instance of the
independentoriginality of the western Greeks whose creation of architectural details
quite different in spirit from the forms of old Greece is amply attested throughout the
west from the archaic period on.2' If these are not unique local Tarentine forms but
reflect other Hellenistic Ionic bases in South Italy, they may indeed form a part of
the explanation of why the Etruscans and Romans, seeing this form in South Italy,
created the Ionic base they did.
Whatever the reasons for the Roman form,2"it spread rapidly from Etruria
throughout Italy even into former Greek territory southward and northward across
the Alps into Gaul. The Romans who settled down with the Hellenized Gauls of
Enserune 2 and Glanum2 in the late 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. built into their houses
bases with no suggestion of any Asiatic Greek past but of the same type of profile
to be found in Italy at the same time. As in Etruria some are used with Tuscan28
capitals, others with Ionic.29 The same three versions of the form found in Italy
(Figs. 3, a-f, 4, a, b, 5, a) occur also in Glanum: 1) no fillet at top or bottom of the
hollow scotia, 2) fillet at the bottom only and 3) the full fledged form with fillets at
both top and bottom.
Although the Roman base was regular throughout Italy at the end of the
Republic (e.g. the two temples in the Forum Boarium in Rome, Figs. 3, f, 4, b; P1. 50,
e, g; Tivoli, Rectangular Temple, Fig. 3, d; Rome, Temple of Veiovis, Fig. 3, e) an
23 The torus is horizontally fluted, the cyma reversa carved with Lesbian leaf, the fascia with
a flat wave pattern and the astragal with bead and reel.
P.W.G.M., pp. 9-20, 22-28.
25 E.R.R.M., pp. 193-198, pls. XXXVIII, 7, LXX-LXXIJ.
26J. Jannoray,Enserune, 1955, pp. 131-133,figs. 17, 18, pl. LV, 3.
H. Rolland, Glanum (Saint-Remty de Provence), 1946.
2Maison des Antes (Glanumn,figs. 60, 62; M. Pobe anid J. Roubier, Kelten-Ro-ner, 1958,
fig. 65).
29 Maison d'Ipona (Glanum, figs. 54, 58, 59), Maison d'Atys (ibid., fig. 80, capitals unknown).
elaborated version of it had also been created in the last years of the Republic; as
Strong and Ward-Perkins have admirably set forth,30 the dating of some of the
earliest examples is uncertain, but there is sufficientevidence to indicate that what was
to become extremely popular in the empire along with the simple Roman base had
FIG. 4. Rome. a. Palatine Fragment. b. Forum Boarium, Rectangular Temple. c. Argentina Temple A. d. Forum Holitorium,
Temple A. e. Temple in Via delle Botteghe Oscure.
already been tried in the late Republic. The innovation is in the scotia which is
doubledwith a fillet and/or astragal between (e.g. Rome, Temple in Via delle Botteghe
Oscure, Fig. 4, e, P1. 50, h; Argentina Temple A, Fig. 4, c; Forum Holitorium,
Temple A, Fig. 4, d).,' It has been suggested that this represents a fusion of
D. E. Strong and J. B. Ward-Perkins, P.B.S.R., XXX, 1962, pp. 5-12.
I1 Ibid., figs. 1, 2; E.R.R.M., pls. XXXVIII, 6, LXII, 3, 4.
the Asiatic and Attic types of base seen by the Romans in Asia Minor. No doubt sight
of the double scotia of Asiatic bases did influence this new design, but the basic
Roman set-back of the scotia was not altered; the Roman double scotiae are no more
exact a copy of the Asiatic double scotiae in relation to the torus above than was the
Roman single scotia a copy of the Greek Attic form.
The above condensed outline of the forms of Ionic base as developed in the
Greek and Roman worlds will serve, we trust, to give a picture of the state of affairs
at the end of the Roman Republic. Clearly two traditions had been formed; the Attic
base as developed in Athens in the last half of the 5th century B.C. had spread over
the Greekand Hellenistic world and the variant of it with the set-back scotia developed
in Italy and southern France had successfully kept the original Attic form out of the
Roman Republican lands. What was to happen throughout the empire as it spread
over the ancient world in the following three centuries? It will only be possible here
to indicate the main outlines, to select a few examples from each province, but if the
following characteristic examples succeed in showing the way in which the empire is
divided into two by the two bases, our purpose will have been served, i.e. to suggest
that once more a small architectural detail may help our understanding of the general
historical and cultural divisions.
Let us begin again with Greece where the Attic base as developed in the 5th century B.C. continued to be used in all buildings erected during the empire with a few
notable exceptions. The use of the Roman form by the Italian colonists in the early
years of the new colony at Corinth has already been discussed 32 but it has been noted
that even in Corinth the Greek form had been adopted by the mid 1st century after
Christ (e.g., Temple E, P1. 51, b), so strong was its tradition in Greece, and used
thereafter.33 Representative examples of the standard Attic base in the empire may
be cited also from Athens (e.g. Library of Pantainos, P1. 51, a)," Eleusis,35 and
Olympia.36 At Olympia appear two further exceptions to the general picture; the
Roman form is used both37 at the entrance to the Stadion (P1. 51, i) and in the
"; Roman Ionic Base in Corinth," pp. 300-303.
33Ibid., p. 302. Cf. e.g. Peribolos of Apollo (Corinth, I, ii, 1941, fig. 25), Temple E (ibid.,
figs. 125-127), Bema (Corinth, I, iii, 1951, figs. 50, 58, pl. 46, 3), Babbius Monument (ibid.,
plan C), South and Julian Basilicas (Corinth, I, v, 1960, plan IX), Theater (Corinth, II, 1952,
figs. 91, 95 No. 175, 102, B), Peirene (Corinth, I, vi, 1964, fig. 38), Unknown (ibid., fig. 53).
? Odeion of Agrippa in Agora (Hesperia, XIX, 1950, p. 4-4, fig. 3, pls. 33, b, 35, e), Library of
Pantainos in Agora, Monument of Philopappos (Antiq. Athens, III, ed. of 1827, pls. XXXI
XXXII; M. Santangelo, Annuario, III-IV, 1941-1943 [1948], figs. 27, 32, pl. XI), Arch of
Hadrian (Antiq. Athens, III, pls. XXI, XXIII, XXV, but note Roman base in upper storey, pl.
XXIV), Aqueduct of Hadrian (ibid., pl. XXVII), Library of Hadrian (ibid., I, pl. XXXIII;
W. Judeich, Topographie von Athen, 1931, pl. 20), Choregic Columns on South Slope of Acropolis
(Antiq. Athens, II, pl. XL).
35 Lesser Propylaia (Unedited Antiquities of Attica, 1817, Chap. III, pls. 2, 3, 6), Triumphal
Arch (G. Miylonas,Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries, 1961, fig. 60).
IV and V).
86 Exedra of Herodes Atticus (Olympia, I, pl. LXXXVI,
37 Olympia, I, pl. XLVIII, 2; L. Drees, Olympia, 1968, pl. 54. Olympia, I, pl. LXI, 6.
Hadrianic South Stoa (P1. 51 j). Moving northward, in Macedonia, Philippi for
all its strong Roman connections uses the Attic base as does Stobi (P1. 51, g) 88
in Thrace,we -findan Attic base on a monument at Paradisos.39 If we cross over to
Asia Minor we shall not be surprised to find the Attic base regular in Roman times
in Pergamon, Ephesos, Miletos (e.g. Ionic Colonnade, Fig. 6, a; South Agora, P1.
51, c), Aphrodisias, Mylasa, Knidos, at Aizani in Phrygia, Prusias in Bithynia
(P1. 51, f), and Myra in Lycia 40 to select a few examples. In Syria too the Attic
base is normal at Antioch (Fig. 6, b), Baalbek (P1. 51, d), Gerasa (P1. 51, e),
Palmyra as well as the many minor sites and temples.'1 For Palestine42 Samaria
LI). Stobi,
88 Philippi, Oriental Temple (P. Collart, Philippes, 1937, pls. XLVII-XLVIII,
Theater (Arch. Anz., 1938, col. 122, fig. 27).
39B.C.H., LXXI-LXXII, 1947-1948, p. 439, fig. 15.
40 Pergamon, Asklepieion (O. Deubner, Das Asklepieion von Pergamnon, 1938).
Library (W. Wilberg, Forschungen in Ephesos, V, 1, 1944, figs. 4, 6, 16, 17, 27-30, 45-46, 49,
68, 70). Aphrodisias, Agora Stoa (Antiq. Ionia, III, Chap. II, pl. VI), Temple (ibid., pls. XVIII,
XX; Nat. Geogr., 132, 2, Aug. 1967, pp. 286-287), Propylon (Antiq. Ionia, III, pls. XXIV,
XXVI). Miletos, South Market (Milet, I, 7, fig. 45), North Gate (ibid., figs. 66, 69, 81, 90, 128),
Serapeion (ibid., figs. 195, 220), NE Sanctuary and Propylon (ibid., figs. 227, 235), Ionic Colonnade (A. von Gerkan, Milet, I, 9, 1928, fig. 53 from which Fig. 6, a here), Faustina Baths (ibid.,
pl. XIII). Knidos, Corinthian Temple (Antiq. Ionia, III, Chap. I, pls, VI, IX), Baths Vestibule
(ibid., pls. XIII, XV-XVII) with Attic antae and Asiatic column bases, Theater (ibid., pl. XXIV).
Mylasa (Antiq. Ionia, II, pls. XXVI, XXIX, XXXI, XXXII). Euromos, Temple (Antiq. Ionia,
I, Chap. IV, pl. IV). Phrygia, Aizani, Temple of Zeus (D. S. Robertson, Greek and Roman
Architecture2, 1945, fig. 94). Bithynia, Prusias ad Hypium (F. K. D6rner, Bericht iiber eine
Reise in Bithynien, 1952, pl. 8, 23-25). Lycia, Myra (Antiq. Ionia, V, pls. XIV, XV, XXVII).
-1 Antioch, Bath C (G. W. Elderkin et al., Antioch on-the-Orontes, I, 1934, fig. 23), Theater
at Daphne (R. Stillwell, Antioch, II, 1938, fig. 27), Villa (ibid., fig. 69), various bases (Stillwell,
Antioch, III, 1941, fig. 99, pl. 39). Baalbek, Main Temple and Court (B. Schulz and H. Winnefeld, Baalbek, I, 1921, fig. 38, pls. 22, 26, 76, b), Temple of Bacchus (Baalbek, II, 1923, figs. 6, 7,
44, 58, 71, 78, 99, 1, pls. 9-11, 21, 28-30), Round Temple (ibid., fig. 138, d-f, pls. 58-66). Gerasa,
Triumphal Arch (C. H. Kraeling, Gerasa, City of the Decapolis, 1938, pl. X, a, plans III, IV, V,
13), South Tetrapylon (pl. XVIII, b, plans XIV, XVI), North Gate (pl. XXII, a, plan XX, 10),
Temple of Artemis (p. 134, fig. 1, pl. XXV, b, c), Artemis Propylaia (pl. XXV, a), Temple C
(pls. XXVIII, c, XXIX, a, b), South Gate (pls. XXX, c, XXXI, a), Forum (pl. XXXII, b),
Staircase and Propylaia to Cathedral (pls. XXXVI, XXXVII, a), Baths of Placcus, a re-used
base (pl. LIV, b). Palmyra, Colonnaded Street (M. Wheeler, Roman Art and Architecture, 1964,
fig. 44), Bel Temple (D. Krencker et al., Palmyra, 1932, pls. 72, 77, 89, 94, Propylaia, pls. 98, 99),
Baalsamin Temple (pls. 65, 67), Tomb Temple 86 (pls. 38, 40, 42, 43), Corinthian Temple E
of Theater (fig. 152, pl. 57, Propylaia, pl. 61), Sanctuary (fig. 122). Sunamein, Temple of
Fortuna (Anderson, Spiers, Ashby, Architecture of Ancient Rome, 1927, pl. XXX). D. Krencker
and W. Zschietzschmann, Rinische Tempel in Syrien, 1938, passim. H. C. Butler, Ancient
Architecture in Syria, 1907-1920, passim.
42 Samaria, Herodian Temple (G. A. Reisner et al., Harvard Excavations at Sasnaria 19081910, 1924, figs. 111, 112), Basilica (figs. 139-142, pls. 47, b, 48, b, 50, b, 51, a, b), Forum colonnade
(pl. 49, d), Street of columns (fig. 134, pl. 46, c, d), Mausoleum (fig. 149, c, d), various
bases (figs. 118, 4, 6, 7; 130, 7; 131, 7); House A 31 (fig. 64, a) of Hellenistic period shows the
Attic base in use on the site before the Roman period. Masada, Palace of Herod (Y. Yadin,
Masada, 1966, pp. 44, 46, 48, 51, 66).
and Masada will serve as typical examples. In Egypt too the Greek base is regular,43
and as far afield as India the Attic base is at home."
Returning to the western part of Greece proper we may be surprised to find, at
Kalydon and Dodona," that the Roman base has crossed over from Italy to penetrate
Greek territory, even so sacred a Greek site as Dodona. This being so, we shall not
be surprised to find that the Greek form was far from normal along the Adriatic
coast northward where the Roman base established itself both along the coast and
inland 46 and at the head at Pola.47In fact the Greekbases in the Palace of Diocletian "
at Spalato seem to be explained by the strong eastern flavor commonly recognized
throughout the architecture of that complex.
It is of course to be expected that Rome and Italy of the empire continue to use
the two forms so well established by the end of the Republic; the interesting thing
is that with all the elaboration of other parts of the Greek orders during the empire,
except for elaboration of ornament and only occasionally of the form, the Roman
single scotia and double scotia bases are standard throughout the empire and on into
later centuries. Let a few examples from the capitol and near by and in northern
Italy represent for us all Italy (e.g. P1. 52, a-d).4
48 Alexandria, with foliate drums (R. Naumann, Der Quellbezirk von N'mes, 1937, figs. 35,
38, 40, 42; Annuaire du Muse'e Greco-Romain, 1935-1939, p. 49, pl. XVI, 6, p. 52, fig. 21). Ras
el Soda, Temple (ibid., p. 137, pl. LI). Hermopolis (G. Roeder, Hermopolis 1929-1939, 1959,
pls. 8, e, f, 20, 22, 51, 93, c).
44 Pakistan, Swat Panr, Area Sacra (Fasti Arch., XVI, 1961, p. 276, No. 3779, 1. XVIII,
fig. 64).
45Kalydon, Her6on (P.G.M., pl. LXVIII, 5; E. Dyggve et al., Das Heroon von Kalydon,
1934, fig. 36, pl. IV, C). Dodona, Theater, Parodos (B.C.H., LXXIV, 1960, p. 749, figs. 5, 6),
1953, pp. 161-162, fig. 2).
Building beside Theater (flpaKTKa',
46Doclea, Forum (P. Sticotti, Die Rbmische Stadt Doclea in Montenegro, 1913, fig. 59 of
Greek form), Basilica (fig. 65, probably Greek form), Diana Temple (fig. 51 of Roman form
but text does not mention finding of the base-is it restored in the drawing?). Apollonia, Monument
of Agonothetai (L. Ray, Albania, XXXV, 5, Fouilles . . . a Apollonia d'Illyrie, pls. IX, 1, 3, XII),
Sanctuary (Albania, XXXIX, 6, pls. XVIII, 2, XXI, 2, XXII, 3, 4), all Roman. Kriigjata Temple
(C. Praschniker, Muzakhia und Malakastra, Archaiologische Untersuchungen in Mittelaibanien,
1920, p. 47, fig. 15), Roman.
47 Temple of Augustus (J.R.S., V, 1915, pl. I).
48 G. Niemann, Der Palast Diokletians in Spalato, 1910; E. Hebrard, J. Zeiller, Spalato, Le
Palais de Diocletien, 1912; J. and T. Marasovic, Diocletian Palace, 1968; passim.
49 A) Roman base of regular single scotia form:
Rome, Temple of Mars Ultor (E. Nash, Bildlexikon, fig. 83), Temple of Venus and Rome, exterior of peristyle (L. von Matt, Architektur im Attiken Rom, 1958, pl. 19) but for columns of
pronaos the double scotia form, Temple of Antoninus and Faustina (ibid., pl. 17), Arch of Septimius
Severus (Brilliant, M.A.A.R., XXIX, 1967, pl. 20, b), Arch of Silversmiths (L. Curtius, Das
Antike Rom, 1944, figs. 121-122), Arch of Constantine (ibid., fig. 105-107, 112). Ostia, House
of Amor and Psyche (N. Neuerburg, Fontane e Ninfei nell' Italia antica, fig. 189), Horrea Epagathiana (G. Calza et al., Scavi di Ostia, I, 1953, pl. XI, 2), other (ibid., pls. X, 2, XXXVII, 2).
Porto, Porticus of Claudius (W. MacDonald, Architecture of the Roman Empire, I, 1965, pl. 18).
Moving northward all Gaul of the empire (e.g. Glanum, P1. 52, e; Arles, P1.
52, g) follows the lead of southern Gaul of the Republic."0The version with no fillet
for the scotia which was left behind in Italy long before the end of the Republic
continues in Gaul and a scotia so low that the fillets are hardly visible becomes a
favored form,5' notably in Lyons (Fig. 5, c) and Vernegues (Fig. 5, b), and appears
in Augst in Switzerland (P1. 52, h)."2 But just as Corinth in the early imperial period
stands as a striking exception to the general picture of Greek bases throughout
Greece (above, p. 195) so too is there a striking exception to the Roman bases in
Villa of Hadrian, Circular Portico (von Matt, pl. 41; Aurigemma, Villa Adriana, 1961, fig. 48),
Cryptoporticus Builditng (ibid., pl. XIII), Palace Peristyle, Basilica plan room (ibid., fig. 175).
Assisi, Temple of Minerva (S. Chierichetti, Assisi, an Illustrated Guide Book, Milan, 1960, p. 61).
Aosta, Arch (F. Ferrero, The Valley of Aosta, 1910, pl. opp. p. 158). Susa, Arch (Anderson,
Spiers, Ashby, op. cit., pl. LVI). Ancona, Arch (ibid., pl. LVII).
B) Roman base with double scotia:
List of P.B.S.R., XXX, 1962, p. 7 of which only some are given here with references to
Rome, Temple of Castor (Ward-Perkins, P.B.S.R., XXX, 1962, fig. 1, 2, pl. II, b), Temple
of Saturn (ibid., pl. IX, b), Temple of Concord (M.A.A.R., V, 1925, pl. 48), Temple of
Vespasian (P.B.S.R., XXX, 1962, fig. 1, 4), Arch of Titus (Curtius, op. cit., fig. 41), Forum
of Nerva (P. von Blanckenhagen, Flavische Architektur und ihre Dekoration, 1940, pl. 1, 3),
Temple of Venus Genetrix and Forum of Julius Caesar (Trajanic; Curtius, op. cit., figs. 58, 59),
Market of Trajan (ibid., fig. 84), Pantheon (MacDonald, op. cit., pls. 97, 120, a), Severan Hippodrome in Domitian's Palace (ibid., pl. 133). Villa of Hadrian, Large Baths (Aurigemma, Villa
Adriana, fig. 70), Sala Triclinio (ibid., fig. 193), Canopus (ibid., pls. VI, VII). Note that the
base in the Casino Great Hall (ibid., fig. 53; J. Chillman, M.A.A.R., IV, 1924, pl. LII, 3) is an
exception in which the scotia projection is Greek (see below, p. 203, note 65). For an example
of the Roman base in Sicily see the Imperial Palace at Piazza Armerina where the Greek form also
appears (Rivista dell' Istituto Nazionale d'Archeologia e Storia dell' Arte, N. S. XI-XII, 1963,
p. 33, fig. 4, p. 45, fig. 22, p. 48, fig. 27, p. 53, fig. 32; Neuerburg, Fontane, fig. 131).
50 Aix-en-Provence,
Baptisterium (Kelten-R8nier, pl. 251). Arles, Theater (ibid., pl. 78),
Sarcophagus (ibid., pl. 243). Carpentras, Arch (Les villes romnainesde la vallee du Rhone, p. 85).
Glanum, Temple of Valetudo (Glanum, 1958, fig. 15, G, pls. 34, 3, 35, 1), Arch (Kelten-R6mner,p1.
75), Monument to Lucius and Gaitis (ibid., pl. 76). Haute-Garonne, Cinerary Urn (Kelten-Roner,
p1. 223). Lyons, Odeum (Gallia, XXIV, 1966, p. 495, fig. 12), Theater (Latonus, XVI, 1957,
p. 227, fig. 1, pl. XIII, 1). Orange, Arch (Anderson, Spiers, Ashby, op. cit., pl. LVI). Reims,
Gate of Mars (Kelten-Romer, p1. 157). Saintes (ibid., pl. 156). Trier, Baths (D. Krencken et
al., Die Trierer Kaiserthermen, 1929, p. 308, fig. 465), Relief in Museum (Horizon Book of Ancient
Rone, 1966, pp. 184-185). Vernegues Temple (Kelten-Rimer, pls. 113, 259; Latomus, XVI, 1957,
p. 227, fig. 1). Vienne Temple (Kelten-Rbmer, pl. 126). Belgica: Dommartin-le-Chaussee, Column
dedicated to Jupiter (Fasti Arch., X, 1955, pp. 436-437, fig. 132; Gallia, XII, 1954, pp. 482-485,
fig. 10). Tournai, Colonnaded Court (Fasti Arch., IX, 1954, p. 453, No. 6353, fig. 144).
51 A. Audin, Latomus, XVI, 1957, pp. 225-231, a good discussion of bases of southern France
which does not, however, recognize this form with a very shallow scotia as essentially the Roman
version of the Attic base.
52 R. Laur-Belart, Fiihrer durch Augusta Raurica, 1966, p. 82, for Sch6nbuihl Temple of
Ceres from the court of which comes the base in our P1. 53, c which I owe to the kindness and
interest of Dorothy Burr Thompson.
Gaul. At Nimes 53 in both the Maison Carree and its peribolos (P1. 52, f) and the
Fountain (so-called Temple of Diana) the bases of both the single and the double
scotia forms have the top of the scotiae on line with the greatest diameter of the torus
above, that is, they are in the Greek rather than the Roman tradition as far as the projection is concerned. But they are not direct Greek forms; we have seen (above,
pp. 194 195) that the double scotia with both a top and a bottom torus is an Italian
FIG.5. a. Gabii,Temple.b. Vernegues,Temple.c. Lyons,Theater.
Roman development. For some reason, however, at Nimes the scotiae are treated as
in the Greek form as we shall meet again much later in Leptis Magna (below,
p. 203, note 65). The extra little astragals in both the single and double scotia forms
are also typical Roman elaboration. The answer to why only this one (to our present
knowledge at least) of the cities of southern France should have followed the Greek
rather than the Roman style of scotia projection does not come easily. One can but
conjecture that the leading local architects of Nimes had travelled in Greek or eastern
lands and been strongly impressed by what they saw or that they were perhaps themselves eastern immigrants to Nimes, as the appearance of the characteristic Syrian
base (see below, p. 203, note 65) with a foliate drum in the Fountain would suggest.54
53 Maison Carree (J. C. Balty, ?tudes sur la Maison Carre'ede Nimes, 1960, temple: fig. 2, pls.
XIII, 4, XIV, 1 and 2, XV, 1, peribolos: XXII, 3, XXIII, 1), Fountain (R. Naumann, Der
Quellbezirk von Nimes, 1937, pls. 19, 1 and 2, 21, 32, 39).
54Ibid., pls. 21, 32, 39. There are numerous other Greek elements in Nimes, further study of
which may suggest explanation of the bases.
In Britain " Roman bases, sometimes with a low scotia (though higher than at
Lyons and Augst), are characterized chiefly by very slight projection of the base
torus beyond the upper one (P1. 53, a, b). Back on the continent examples of the
Roman base can be cited from the provinces east of Gaul along the Danube (Noricum,
Pannonia, Moesia)."' One wonders of course where, to the north of Greece, the
Greek and Roman forms met, and further investigation of the available evidence in
this wide area will certainly give the answer. Both are found in Constanta in Moesia
(Roumania), a Greek base on an edicola with a bilingual inscription, a double scotia
Roman base on one with a Latin inscription, and both (though the Greek more common as would'be expected in such an old Greek site) in buildings at Kallatis also on
the shore."
Apparently, as might be expected, the Roman base came down the Danube and
met the Greek base along the shores of the Euxine Sea where Greek colonies had been
established since the 5th century B.C. The surprising thing is to find Greek bases at
the inland Dacian sites of Sarmizegetusa and Durostorum.58
The other meeting point of the two forms is of course in-north Africa. Spain 5
Bath, Temple of Sulis Minerva (M. J. T. Lewis, Temples in Roman Britain, 1966, pl. II, b),
Baths, P1. 53, b. Wroxeter (Viroconium), Forum Colonnade (G. Webster, Wroxeter, Roman City,
1965, p. 6), P1. 53, a.
Noricum: Magdalensberg, Temple built by Tiberius (Fasti Arch., XIII, 1958,;+p. 363,
No. 5777, pl. XXXIII, fig. 98). Pannonia: Villas (E. B. Tlhomas, Riimische Villen in P4nonien,
Budapest, 1964, pls. CIX Magyarfalva and CLVIII-CLIX Szazhalomiibatta-Dunafiired),.-Note at
Nemesevacmos-Balacapuszta(pl. XXVII) a-fotm -which is a cross between the Roman and archaic
Asiatic, the set-back scotia marking it Roman in inspiration. At other sites, e.g. Csopak (pls. VIIIX) and Fonyod (pi. X) provincial forms of angular elements are but vaguely reminiscent of
classical prototypes.
Moesia: Philippopel, Base (E. Kalinka, Antike Denkmiiler in Bulgarien, 1906, p. 72, no. 79),
Altar (ibid., p. 294, no. 374). Belotinci, Altar (ibid., p. 163, no. 181). Warna, Relief (ibid.,
p. 175, no. 196). Staklen (Novae) (Fasti Arch., XVI, 1961, p. 254, No. 3630, pl. XV, fig. 51).
Tropaeum Traiani (F. B. Florescu, Monumentul de la Adamklissi Tropaeum Traiani, 1959,
figs. 48, 52, 53, Editio A II-A, fig. 67, 1-54).
57 Constanta (Fasti Arch., XVII, 1962, p. 220, No. 3093, pl. XXI, fig. 65, with Greek base;
I. Stoian, Tontitanta, 1962, pl. LVI, left and R. Vulpe and I. Barnea, Din Istoria Dobrogei, II,
Romanii La Duna-rea de Jos, 1968, fig. 4, with Roman base). Kallatis (Dacia, II, 1925, p. 116,
figs. 29, 2, 30, 1, p. 118, fig. 32; IX-X, 1941-1944, p. 268, fig. 13, 4 and 17).
58 Sarmizegetusa (Dacia, I, 1924, p. 259, fig. 24; III-IV, 1927-1932, p. 530, fig. 14). Durostorum (Dacia, IX-X, 1941-1944, p. 429, fig. 2).
I P1. 53, c illustrates a Roman base from Carteia, thanks to the generosity of the excavator,
Professor Daniel E. Woods (now published, D. E. Woods, F. Collantes, C. Fernandez-Chicarro,
Carteia [Excavaciones Arqueologicas en Espafna,58], Madrid, 1967, pl. XIX, 1; see also 2). Other
examples in Spain include Barcelona Temple (M. A. Basch et al., Carta Arqueologica de Espaiia,
Barcelona, 1945, pl. VIII; Servei d'Excavations i Arqueologia de Catalunga, Memoria 1936-1937,
pls. I, X); Merida, Temple of Diana (R. M. Pidal, Historia de Espaiia, EspainaRomana, 1955, figs.
393-394), Theater (ibid., figs. 404, 405; J. R. Melida, Arqueologia Espaiiola, 1936 and 1946, pl.
XXI); Sadaba, Tomb of Atila Family (ibid., pl. XXV); Tarragona, Arch (ibid., pl. XXIII);
Talavera la Vieja, Curia (Pidal, fig. 381); Evora, Temple (ibid., fig. 395); Vich Temple (Basch,
op. cit., pl. XVI); Zaragoza Temples (J. G. Sarafiana, La Dominacion Remana en Aragon, 1946,
pls. XII, XIV, figs. 24, 28).
(e.g. P1. 53, c) uses the Roman form regularly from Republican times on throughout
the empire; Egypt at the other end uses the Greek. Coming westward from Egypt
Cyrene,60a Greek settlement of many centuries, retains the Greek form used in its
Greek days (e.g. Fig. 6, c, d) as do other cities of Cyrenaica 61 (e.g. Ptolemais, PI.
51, h). Beginning at Gibraltarand moving east we find Roman colonies in abundance
FIG. 6. a. Miletos, Ionic Colonnade. b. Antioch. c. Cyrene, Twin Temple.
d. Cyrene, Temple E 6 on Agora.
Agora, North Side, Monumental Covering of Well (S. Stucchi, L'Agora di Cirene, I, 1965,
I Lati Nord ed Est della Platea Inferiore, fig. 116, pl. XXXIV, 6-7), 2nd half of 2nd century B.c.,
illustrates the Hellenistic form. Temple E 6 (ibid., figs. 165-167, pl. XLII, 1), end 2nd century after
Christ, has the scotia elaborated with an astragal in the center (Fig. 6, d). This may be an attempt
to suggest the Roman double scotia form so popular in the Roman parts of the empire at this time,
but note that the scotia projects well, in the Greek tradition. Grand Temple, Roman Imperial
Interior Reconstruction (B.C.H., LXXI-LXXII, 1947-1948, pl. LIX, C).
Insula of Jason Magnus, Temple Geminus (P. Mingazzini, L'Insula di Giasone Magno a
Cirene, 1966, fig. 40, pl. XXXIV, 1-2), South Peristyle Colonnade, (ibid., fig. 19), Column near
entrance to Via di Giasone Magno (ibid., fig. 37), Pilaster of Room 34 (ibid., pl. XXVII, 6).
" Ptolemais, Triumphal Arch (C. H. Kraeling, Ptolemais, City of the Libyan Pentapolis,
1962, fig. 16, plan VIII, 1, 3), Villa of Early Empire (fig. 46, pls. XXI, A, B, C, XXII, A, B,
XXIII, A, B, XXIV, A, B, C, XXVII, D, plans XIV, 4, 5, 11, XV, 2, 3), City Bath, Frigidarium,
Room 6 (fig. 35), Column on Podium of Square of Cisterns (pl. XX), Public Buildings, Room 26
(plans XVIII, 13, XIX, 2).
in Mauretania, Numidia (Fig. 7, a) and Africa,62all using the two Roman bases of
Italy, the single (by far the more common) and the double scotia forms. The meeting
place of the Greek and Roman bases appears to be in Tripolitania at both Sabratha
and Leptis Magna where both forms occur.63 Ward-Perkins has demonstrated how
FIG. 7.
a. Kham-issa,Colonnade.h. Lept'isMagna, Severan
Basilica, Upper Order,
62 Volubilis, Houses (K. McK. Elderkin, From Tripoli to Maarrakesh,1944, pls. 122, 123, 125,
126). Khamissa, Old Square, Colonnade (S. Gsell and C. A. Joly, Khamissa, Mdaourouch, Announa, 1, Khamissa, 1914, fig. 4, pl. VI), Southwest Temple (fig. 10), West Temple (fig. 13),
Basilica (fig. 14). R. Cagnat and P. Gauckler, Les monuments historiques de la Tunisie, I, Les
monuments antiques, 1898, passim. R. Cagnat, Carthage, Timgad, Tebessa et les villes antiques de
l'Afrique du Nord, 1927, passim. Gemellae, Praetorium (Fasti Arch., IV, 1949, fig. 84). Djemila
(Fasti Arch., VI, 1951, p. 374, No. 4841, fig. 137), Propylon to Temple of North (Elderkin,
op. cit., pl. 99). Maktar, Forum (Fasti Arch., III, 1948, pp. 459-461, No. 4681, figs. 120-121).
Lambaesis (Fasti Arch., IV, 1949, pp. 400-401, No. 4020, fig. 86), Arch of Septimius Severus and
Praetorium (A. Ballu, Guide illustre de Timgad, pls. 1, 2). Timgad (A. Ballu, Les ruines de
Timgad, 1911, passim and Guide illustre de Timgad, passim), Library (M.A.A.R., IX, 1931, pl.
19,2). Tebessa, Arch (S. Gsell, Les monuments antiques de l'Algerie, 1901; Anderson, Spiers,
Ashby, op. cit., pl. LIV). Dugga, Theater (M.A.A.R., IX, 1931, pl. 15, 1 and 2), Capitolium and
other temples (Cagnat and Gauckler, op. cit.), Mausoleum (G. Picard, Le monde de Carthage, 1956,
pl. 82). Hippo, Forum East Colonnade (Fasti Arch., III, 1948, p. 330, No. 3479, fig. 76).
Thuburbo Maius, Roman Baths (Elderkin, op. cit., pl. 37). Subaitla, Capitolium (Cagnat-Gauckler,
I, pl. IX). Carthage. For Volubilis se:e also R. Etienne, Le quartier nord-est de Volubilis, 1960,
63Sabratha, Theater (G. Caputo, II Teatro di Sabratha e l'Architettura Teatrale Africana,
Rome, 1959, pls. 2-4, figs. 4, 7, 8, pilaster bases; pls. 16, 17, figs. 30-32 but note that, although these
much of Greek style came into Leptis with Greek stone masons from the mid 2nd
century after Christ onward, especially in the great building period of Septimius
Severus.6"The interesting point about Ionic bases is that both Greek (P1. 53, d) and
Rom-ian(P1. 53, e) forms are used in these Severan buildings and that new mixtures
of the two traditions appear (Fig. 7, b; P1. 53, f )." The clash here of two very
strong traditions must have been a very real one; this was the point at which neither
buckled under to the other. But back among the native peoples who picked up some
Roman style for their tombs it seems to have been the Roman form that was imitated,66as for example at Ghirza (P1. 53, g).
North and east of the Mediterranean as the empire died it left two legacies of
Ionic bases. The Byzantines continued to use the Greek Attic form, the Early
Christians in the west the Roman. It was therefore the Roman form which Romanesque and Renaissance architects saw all about them and which went into those and
the later styles based on them. Not until the impact of the drawings of the original
photographs show these column bases as clearly of Greek form, they are drawn as Roman in
the profiles of pls. 65 and 66; this is true also of pls. 38 and 45, figs. 65-67, 78- which are clearly
Greek but appear as Roman on pl. 64), Temple of Isis (G. Pesce, II Tempio d'Iside in Sabratha,
1953, figs. 6, 14, Greek, also figs. 8, 13 but possibly Roman, pl. VI, B, Dedication, clearly
Greek), Antonine Temnple(D. E. L. Haynes, An Archaeological atd Historical Guide to the preIslamic Antiquities of Tripolitania, pl. 16, Greek), Basilica of Justinian (ibid., pl. 21). Tripoli,
Arch of Marcus Aurelius (ibid., pl. 14, Roman).
Leptis Magna: 1) Roman forms: Arch of Trajan (R. Bianchi- Bandinelli, E. V. Caffarelli,
G. Caputo, F. Clerici, The Buried City, Excavations at Leptis Magna, 1966, figs. 55, 230), Colonnaded Street behind Palaestra (fig. 50), Pavilion in Market (fig. 62), Market (fig. 67), Building
on Decumanus (figs. 168, 169), Hadrianic Baths (Haynes, op. cit., pls. 5, 6; M.A.A.R., X, 1932,
pl. 33, 1-3), Arch of Septimius Severus (Haynes, op. cit., pl. 2; Ward-Perkins, Proceedings of the
British Academzy,XXXVII, 1951, pl. IV); 2) Greek form: Arch of Marcus Aurelius (Buried
City, fig. 172), Severan Forum, Entrance (figs. 109, 115), interior (color pl. I), Chalcidicum
(figs. 51, 52), Market, Double Portico (fig. 59) and Eastern pavilion (fig. 68), Theater Scaena
(fig. 77). Severan basilica, Facade (figs. 124, 125) and Western Apse (fig. 128), Old Forum
Church (Haynes, op. cit., pl. 11).
64 Proceedings of the British Academy, XXXVII, 1951, pp. 269-304.
Severan Basilica, Upper Order (Fig. 7, b after Ward-Perkins, J.R.S., XXXVIII, 1948,
p. 64, fig. 8), a Roman base surmounted by an acanthus drum, a fusion thus of Greek and Roman
elements since the foliate drum over an Attic base of Greek form originates in Syria and is common
there and in Egypt (see above p. 197, note 43). Severan Basilica, Colonnade and Pilaster bases
of Central Nave show another mixed form (Buried City, figs. 123, 126, 132, 133). Whereas the
Upper Order of this building uses a Roman single scotia base under a Syrian foliate drum, here
we have the double scotia form of Imperial Rome but with the top of the scotia on line with the
torus above as in the archaic Asiatic prototype of the Roman form and at Nimes and once in
Hadrian's villa at Tivoli (above, pp. 199 and 198, note 49).
66 Ghirza, North Cemetery, Temple-tombs A and C (Haynes, op. cit., pls. 28, 29).
Wadi Merdum, Obelisk Tomb (ibid., pl. 31).
I am happily nmuchindebted to Lady Olwen Brogan for sharing with me her extensive
knowledge of North African and Gallic sites and bibliography and for showing me photographs of
unpublislhedtombs from many sites in North Africa.
Greek form by Stuart and Revett began to be felt did the Greek base begin to appear
in modern classical architecture, but the Roman form learned from the Renaissance
had been so firmly established that as long as Ionic bases have continued to be cut
(even the rare ones today) the two forms exist side by side, each holding its own in
our ecumenical culture, in contrast to the Roman empire where the tradition of each
geographical area was strictly maintained.6"
67 In addition to mention above grateful acknowledgement is also made to the following for
American Academy in Rome: Figs. 3-4, 5a (M.A.A.R., XXVIII, pls. XXXVIII, LX-LXII),
PI. 50, e, f, h, (ibid., figs. 40, 42, 39), P1. 52, c (M.A.A.R., XXIX, pl. 20, b).
American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Pls. 49, c, h, 51, b.
American Schools of Oriental Research: P1. 51, e (Gerasac,pl. LIV, b).
British School at Rome: P1. 52, a (P.B.S.R., XXX, 1962, p1. II, b).
Comite Technique de la Recherche Archeologique en France: P1. 52, e (Glacnwm1945-1956, pl.
35, 1).
Deutsches Archiiologisches Institut: P1. 51, c (Milet, I, 7, fig. 90), g (Arch. Anz., 1938, col. 122,
fig. 27).
Acole francaise d'Athenes: PI. 49, d (Fouilles de Delphes, II, pl. XXI).
Alison Frantz: P1. 50, a.
Latomus, Brussels: Fig. 5, b, c (Latomus, XVI, 1957, p. 227, fig. 1), P1. 52, f (Balty, Mfaison
Carree, pI. XXIII, 1).
Gebruder Mann: P1. 49, a (Der Heratempel von Samos, fig. 7).
Benjamin D. Meritt: Pls. 49, f, g, 51, a, i, j.
Arnoldo Mondadori Editore: P1. 53, d, e, f (Buried City, pls. 109, 67, 122).
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago: P1. 51, h (Ptolemais, pl. XXVII, D).
Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften: P1. 51, f (Reise in Bithynien, pl. 8, 24).
Jean Roubier: P1. 52, g (Kelten-Roimer, p1. 78).
Richard Stillwell: Fig. 6, b.
University Prints: P1. 49, b.
Yale University Press: P1. 52, d (MacDonald, Architecture of the Roman Empire, pl. 133).
b. Ephesos, Archaic Artemision
a. Samos, Archaic Heraion
i -v&
A 1974-
d. Delphi, Stoa of the Athenians
g. Athens, Propylaia
f. Athens, Temple of
Athena Nike
e. Old Parthenon Toichobate
a. Athens, Erechtheion
b. Sardis, Temple
d. Paestum
c. Didyma,Temple Anta
e. Rome, ForumBoarium,RectangularTemple
f. Cosa,Basilica
b. Corinth,Temple E
a. Athens, Libraryof Pantainos
C. Miletos, South Agora
d. Baalbek,Court
e. Gerasa,Reusedin Bathsof Placcus
g. Stobi, Theater
j. Olympia,South
Enrnco tdinh
f. Bithynia,Prusias
b. Rome, Temple of Venus and Rome
Exterior(above), Pronaos(below)
a. Rome, Temple of Castor
c. Rome, Arch of SeptimiusSeverus
d. Rome, Palaceof Domitian on Palatine,Hippodrome
e. Glanum,Temple of Valetudo
f. N
b. Britain, Bath, Baths
a. Britain, Wroxeter, Forum
dLeptis Magna, Entrance to Severan Forum
e. Leptis Magna, Market
c. Spain, Carteia

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