Dr. Shilpa Y. D - journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare

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DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/648
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
TRAUMATIC ENDOPHTHALMITIS IN CHILDREN
Shilpa Y. D1, Kalpana B. N2, Shashidhar S3, Kalpana S4, Vishwanath B. N5, Savitha C. S6,
Manasa Penumetcha7
HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE:
Shilpa Y. D, Kalpana B. N, Shashidhar S, Kalpana S, Vishwanath B. N, Savitha C. S, Manasa Penumetcha.
”Traumatic Endophthalmitis in Children”. Journal of Evidence based Medicine and Healthcare; Volume 2,
Issue 31, August 03, 2015; Page: 4609-4613, DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/648
ABSTRACT: AIM: To study the clinical profile and visual outcome in children with traumatic
endophthalmitis undergoing vitrectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed from
hospital records of Minto ophthalmic hospital, Bangalore between 1st April 2014 to 31stMarch 2015
on traumatic endophthalmitis in children less than 15 yrs. Complete ocular examination along
with B scan was done and endophthalmitis was confirmed. Systemic evaluation and necessary
blood investigations for general anaesthesia were done.23 Gauge Three port pars plana
Vitrectomy was done as early as possible. RESULTS: A total of ten children with traumatic
endophthalmitis who underwent vitrectomy for traumatic endopthalmitis between July 2014 to
April 2015 were studied. Nine cases presented with corneal tear and one case presented with
self- sealed scleral tear. Nine cases underwent primary tear repair with intravitreal antibiotics,
followed by an early vitrectomy and one case underwent primary tear repair and vitrectomy as a
single procedure. Vitreous biopsy was sent for grams stain, KOH mount and culture and
sensitivity. Nine cases underwent lensectomy along with vitrectomy. One case underwent repeat
vitrectomy after 4 day since the exudates filled the vitreous cavity. Two cases developed retinal
detachment and underwent surgery for the same. At the end of two months 3 cases had vision of
6/24 or better, three cases had vision of 1/60 and 4 cases had total retinal detachment with
subsequent phthisis bulbi. CONCLUSION: Nature of injury, delay in communication by the
children, delay in observation by the parents, delay in arrival for treatment and virulence of the
organism may result in poor visual prognosis in children with endophthalmitis.
KEYWORDS: Endophthalmitis, 23 Gauge Three port pars plana vitrectomy.
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is one of the leading cause for uniocular blindness world-wide.1
According to WHO declaration 55 million ocular injuries occur world wide and 1.6 million become
blind.2 Endophthalmitis is defined as an intraocular inflammation which predominantly affects the
inner spaces of the eye and their contents, that is the vitreous and/or the anterior chamber.3
Endophthalmitis is the most serious complication after any penetrating ocular injury.2,4 It occurs
due to invasion of virulent organism into the eye during penetrating trauma.4
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of vitrectomy performed for traumatic
endophthalmitis in children was done from hospital records of Minto ophthalmic hospital,
Bangalore between 1st April 2014 to 31st March 2015.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 31/Aug. 03, 2015 Page 4609
DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/648
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Inclusion Criteria:
 Patients less than 15 years.
 Traumatic Endophthalmitis which underwent vitrectomy.
Exclusion Criteria: Non penetrating ocular trauma.
Cases which improved with intravitreal antibiotics.
General history noted including the age, sex, mode of injury, eye affected, mode of injury,
time of initial presentation, history of earlier treatment if done elsewhere. In three cases history
was elicited retrospectively after the parents noticed redness of the eye in their children. Seven
cases with corneal tear had undergone primary corneal tear repair in our institution and were
referred to vitreo-retina department, one case had undergone primary corneal tear elsewhere and
later referred, one case had undergone corneal tear repair and lensectomy and later referred.
Clinical examination of the eye was performed. Visual acuity was recorded in both the eyes using
snellens chart, counting fingers or IDO light. Anterior segment slit lamp examination was
performed. Posterior segment examination was done using slit lamp and indirect
ophthalmoscopy. B scan was done using Alcon on cases who had undergone primary repair and
in self-sealed corneal tear. Transverse, longitudinal and axial scans were done. Medium reflective
echogenic membranes in vitreous cavity and thickening of retinochoroidal layer noted.
Endopthalmitis was confirmed. Necessary blood investigations were done. X-ray orbit lateral and
anteroposterior view were done to rule out intraocular foreign body in all cases.
All cases were started on topical moxifloxacin hourly and intravenous ciprofloxacin
(10mg/kg of body weight) the dose calculated depending on the weight of the child.
Decision to perform vitrectomy was done. Criteria for vitectomy were based on
Endophthalmitis vitrectomy study.
1. Vision less than hand movements,
2. Hypopyon in anterior chamber and thick exudates in vitreous cavity.
All cases were taken up for surgery under general anaesthesia. Twenty three gauge
vitectomy set was used. Vitreous biopsy was taken in all cases before starting the infusion using
2cc syringe attached to suction tubing of vitreous cutter. Lensectomy was done in eight cases
who had cataract. Core Vitrectomy was done, PVD induction attempted in all cases however it
was not possible. Intravitreal antibiotics Vancomycin 1mg in 0.1ml and Ceftazidime 2.25mg in
0.1ml was given in all cases. In four cases additional intravitreal antifungal Amphotericin- B was
given.
RESULTS: From retrospective analysis of cases from April 2014 to 31 March 2015, total of 37
cases underwent vitrectomy for endophthalmitis among which 10(27.03%) were for traumatic
endophthalmitis in children less than 16 years of age.
In this study equal number of males and females were affected (5 males and 5 females).
The youngest child was 18months and oldest was 11 years old. Mean age was 5.75 years. None
of the cases had intraocular foreign bodies. All cases were on close follow up. One case of eleven
year old female developed thick hypopyon the next day which increased on subsequent days.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 31/Aug. 03, 2015 Page 4610
DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/648
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Anterior chamber wash and intravitreal antibiotics and antifungals were repeated after twenty
four hours. Decision for repeat vitrectomy was taken when exudates increased. Subsequently the
eye developed phthisis bulbi.
One case with lens sparing vitrectomy developed superior retinal detachment with sparing
of macula. She underwent surgery for the same and maintained good vision of 6/12 on 3 months
follow up.
Sl.
No.
Age/
sex
Duration
Mode of
injury
Self/
Bystander
1
2
8y/m
3yr/m
8hr
>48hr
stick
stick
Self
bystander
3
9yr/m
8hr
scissors
Self
4
3yr/f
>36hr
needle
bystander
5
1.5yr/f
8hr
belt
bystander
6
5yr/m
6hr
stick
bystander
7
8
9
10
11yr/f
3yr/m
6yr/m
8yr/m
>24hr
>24hr
10hr
>24hr
stick
stick
stick
pencil
Self
bystander
Self
bystander
Table
Presentation
Corneal tear
Corneal tear
Corneal tear, iris
prolapse
Self-sealed scleral
tear
Corneal tear, iris
prolapse
Corneo scleral
tear, iris prolapse
Corneal tear
Corneal tear
Corneal tear
Corneal tear
1
Vision at
presentation
Vision
at 3 M
HM+
HM+
1/60
6/12
PL+
phthisis
1/60
6/12
PL+
phthisis
PL+
3/60
HM+
HM+
HM+
PL+
phthisis
6/24
3/60
phthisis
DISCUSSION: Endophthalmitis is a potentially devastating complication of open globe injuries.5
Children suffer a higher percentage of open globe injuries than adults comprising 19-58% of all
cases of ocular trauma.1 Ocular trauma is the leading cause of monocular blindness worldwide.1
Delayed repair of penetrating ocular trauma is among the major risk factors for
development of infective endophthalmitis.4,6 In a study by Sameer afjal et al in 2010 it was
observed that 46.6% subjects reported after 24 hours of trauma.4 In a study from India 48.62%
of patients reported after 24 hours.1 In our study 50% cases reported after 24 hours which is in
accordance with the aforementioned studies. In our study 4(40%) children had self-inflicted
injuries while six (60%) were bystanders.
In a previous study from Europe, among 7 cases who underwent vitectomy for
endophthalmitis 5(71%) cases improved in vision. In our study 6 out of 10 cases had
improvement in vision however 3(30%) cases have visual acquity of 6/24 or better. Four cases
developed total retinal detachment and phthisis bulbi. Retinal detachment could be due to trauma
or retinal necrosis leading to multiple retinal breaks.
B scan which is a non-invasive technique helps in early diagnosis of posterior segment
pathology.7 In our case series all cases had B scans and this helped in diagnosis, management
and follow up of cases.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 31/Aug. 03, 2015 Page 4611
DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/648
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
In previous case series of traumatic endophthalmitis streptococcal species was found in
55.6% of cases that was culture positive while staphylococcus epidemidis and bacillus series was
positive in 12.5% case.8 In our study grams stain, KOH mount and culture and sensitivity of
vitreous biopsy did not yield positive results for bacteria or fungus. May be polymerase chain
reaction would have been a better choice. In previous studies polymerase chain reaction was
found to give a much more sensitive and rapid result than gram stain and culture technique with
comparable high specificity.9 PCR adds new information in diagnosis of infectious
endophthalmits.6
CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and management of endophthalmitis is a major prognostic factor
for the final visual outcome. However in children additional factors in the form of nature of injury,
delay in communication by the children, delay in observation by the parents, delay in arrival for
treatment and virulence of the organism may result in a more-poor visual prognosis in children
with endophthalmitis.
REFERENCES:
1. Narang S, Gupta V, Simalandhi P, Gupta A, Raj S, Mangat R Dogra. Paediatric open globe
injuries visual outcome and risk factors for endophthalmitis, Indian Journal of
Ophthalmology, 2004; 52(1): 29-34.
2. WHO programme for prevention of blindness and deafness, World Health Organization,
online 2010.
3. Ramanjit Sihota, Radhika Tandon, Diseases of the uveal tract, Parsons Diseases of the Eye,
edition 19, pg- 240
4. Pak–Sameer Afzal Junejo, Munavar Ahamed, Mehtab Alam. Endophthalmitis in paediatric
penetrating ocular injuries in Hyderabad. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. July 2010
5. EYE -Ahmed Y, Schimel A M, Pathengay A, Colyer M H, Flynn H M. Eye (Lond)2012. Feb;
26(2): 212-17.
6. Janice R Safneck, endophthalmitis: A review of recent trends. Saudi Journal of
Ophthalmology. April – June, 2012; 26, (2): 181-89.
7. Partab Rai, Syed Imtiaz Ali Shah, Alyscia M, Usefulness of B scan Ultrasonography in ocular
trauma. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology 2007; 23(3): 136-143.
8. Virgil Alfro D, Daniel B Roth, Robert M Laughlin, Munish Royal, Peter E Liggett, British
Journal of Ophthalmology 1995; 79: 888-891.
9. Abdelrahman Gaber Salman, Dina Ezzat Mansour, Ahmad Abdelmegid Radwan, Lamia Ezzat
Mansour. Polymeracw Chain Reaction in paediatric post traumatic fungal endophthalmitis
among Egyptian children. April 2010; 18(2): 127-132.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 31/Aug. 03, 2015 Page 4612
DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/648
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
AUTHORS:
1. Shilpa Y. D.
2. Kalpana B. N.
3. Shashidhar S.
4. Kalpana S.
5. Vishwanath B. N.
6. Savitha C. S.
7. Manasa Penumetcha
PARTICULARS OF CONTRIBUTORS:
1. Assistant Professor, Department of
Ophthalmology, Minto Ophthalmic
Hospital & Regional Institute of
Ophthalmology, Bangalore Medical
College & Research Institute.
2. Associate Professor, Minto Ophthalmic
Hospital & Regional Institute of
Ophthalmology, Bangalore Medical
College & Research Institute.
3. Associate Professor, Minto Ophthalmic
Hospital & Regional Institute of
Ophthalmology, Bangalore Medical
College & Research Institute.
4. Assistant Professor, Minto Ophthalmic
Hospital & Regional Institute of
Ophthalmology, Bangalore Medical
College & Research Institute.
5. Assistant Professor, Minto Ophthalmic
Hospital & Regional Institute of
Ophthalmology, Bangalore Medical
College & Research Institute.
6. Senior Consultant, Minto Ophthalmic
Hospital & Regional Institute of
Ophthalmology, Bangalore Medical
College & Research Institute.
7. Resident, Minto Ophthalmic Hospital &
Regional Institute of Ophthalmology,
Bangalore Medical College & Research
Institute.
NAME ADDRESS EMAIL ID OF THE
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Dr. Shilpa Y. D,
Assistant Professor,
Minto Ophthalmic Hospital & Regional
Institute of Ophthalmology,
A. V. Road, Opposite Central Police Station,
Chamarajpete, Bangalore-560002,
Karnataka, India.
E-mail: [email protected]
Date
Date
Date
Date
of
of
of
of
Submission: 27/07/2015.
Peer Review: 28/07/2015.
Acceptance: 29/07/2015.
Publishing: 31/07/2015.
J of Evidence Based Med & Hlthcare, pISSN- 2349-2562, eISSN- 2349-2570/ Vol. 2/Issue 31/Aug. 03, 2015 Page 4613
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