Evolution of Social Marketing

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Fundamental Approaches to
Social Marketing in Health Care
Alan R. Andreasen
Georgetown University
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
What I will cover:
 Some history:
 key individuals
 Milestones
 Where we are now
 Key concepts and tools
that have been found
to be very useful:




Nov. 3, 2010
Strategic planning
Program design
Leadership
(and in your personal
lives!!)
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
The beginnings: practice
 International

Nov. 3, 2010
1968 –
Nirodh family planning
Program was launched
in India with 6
corporate partners
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
The beginnings:
 United States
 1972 – National
High Blood
Pressure
Education
Program (NIH)
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Typical results of international family
planning programs
Percent
Contracepting
Children
per
household
1985
2000
1985
2000
Morocco
29%
55%
7
3.1
D. R.
50%
69%
3.2
2.7
Peru
46%
69%
4.1
2.8
Turkey
38%
63%
4.3
2.6
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Key result of high blood
pressure program
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
The beginnings: academic
legitimacy
 1969 – Kotler and
Levy: “Broadening the
Concept of Marketing”
 1971 – Kotler and
Zaltman: “Social
Marketing: An
Approach to Planned
Social Change”
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Today – social marketing is widely
implemented



Government agencies and nonprofit organizations







USDA
CDC
USAID
World Bank
AARP
Academy for Educational Development
Population Services International



Porter Novelli
Fleischman-Hillard
Ogilvy

Georgetown’s social marketing listerver now has 2300
participants in 40+ countries chatting daily
Commercial organizations
Individuals worldwide
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Social marketing books are
everywhere
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
A most ambitious programs in the
United Kingdom
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Some recent confusion . . .
 Social networking
 Versus
 Social marketing
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
So why is it called social
marketing?
What does commercial marketing
have to contribute?
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Commercial Marketing
 In the private sector, it is
getting target audiences
to:




Buy a Ford
Choose McDonalds over
Burger King
Fly United
Stay at a Marriott hotel
 The organizational
bottom line is:



Nov. 3, 2010
Sales
Market share
Growth
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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In social marketing . . .
 Its about getting
target audiences to:
 Stop smoking
 Practice safe sex
 Intervene in cases of
violence
 Bottom line:
 The target audience
is better off
 Society is better off
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
It is all about . . .
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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The major challenge of all
organizations:
 Getting people
to do things
 Target
audiences
 Bosses
 Teammates
 Subordinates
 Supporters
Who else???
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
What are the behaviors YOU need to influence
to be successful on your job (Try this at work!!)
Target Audience
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Behavior
But social marketing is really a LOT harder
 Huge expectations –
miniscule budgets
 Often focused on
negative demand
 Sensitive issues
 Benefits that are:
 Invisible
 Far in the future
 Only for other people
 High scrutiny
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
The “upstream” versus “downstream”
challenge
Take childhood
obesity – should
you focus just on
the kids?
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
To really attack the child’s problem, there are a
lot of those (upstream) who need to act:
 Parents
 School administrators
 McDonalds’ marketing
director
 Radio Station news
director
 Political leaders
 Government regulators
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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So, where do you start??
 Behavior of
target audiences
is the bottom line
 So, pick a SPECIFIC
behavior
 Pick a SPECIFIC
target audience
segment
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
The requirements for good social
marketing:
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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What is your organization’s
mindset?
 Organizationcentered
or
 Target audiencecentered?
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
A target audience-centered process:
Listening*
Planning
Pretesting*
Implementing
Monitoring*
Revising/
Recycling
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries
Starting point is always listening to
the target audience
What do you
learn?
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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Four key frameworks
Framework 1
 Motivation
 Do they want to
do it?
 Opportunity
 Do have the
option?
 Ability
 Can they bring it
off?
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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Framework 2: Stages of Change




Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation/Action
Maintenance
Nov. 3, 2010
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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Framework 3: Competition
The behaviors you want
always have
competition!!
Nov. 3, 2010
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Framework 4: BCOS




Benefits
Costs
Others
Self-assurance
BCOS
Nov. 3, 2010
Benefits
Costs
Target Audience
Others
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
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Self-assurance
Percent of students who smoked cigarettes on one
or more of the past 30 days
50
Percent
40
27.4
30
20
10
18.5
25.2
20.9
15
8.6
17.9
7.8
0
1998 1999 2000 2003 1998 1999 2000 2003
Middle School
Nov. 3, 2010
High School
Preterm Births and Unnecessary
Cesarean Deliveries

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