The Process of Forming Perceptions

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The Process of Forming
• The ability to see, hear, or become aware
of something through the senses.
• Perception is a series of processes in which
you gather information from the
environment around you as well as from
within your own body in order to
understand the situation in which you find
• The outcome of that final processing
is your “understanding” of the
situation, which is also called your
“perception of the situation”
Cognitive Skills needed
to Form Perceptions
• The ability to recognize familiar
situations by drawing on your past
experiences in similar situations.
• The ability to understand, which
allows you to make educated guesses
about what is happening in a new or
unusual situation.
The Ability to Recognize familiar
• When you observe or participate in a movement
• you assemble the sensory information that
reaches your cortex into an impression that
forms a kind of mental image of the situation.
• your first attempt to understand what that
impression means is to look for similarities
between what is currently happening and what
has happed to you in the past
• Your memories of your past perceptual
experiences are stored in neural networks called
perceptual traces.
• A perceptual trace is a memory structure where
you store information about how things looked
how they sounded how they felt in past
movement situation.
• When you try to understand a new situation, you
take your impression of the “new” situation and
search for a match among your memories
(perceptual traces) about similar situations in
the past
• The quality of the perceptual traces in
your memory depends upon how much
experience you have in a specific
movement situation.
• The more often you have experienced a
particular situation, the stronger the
perceptual trace becomes.
Forming Perceptions Using your
Ability to recognise familiar
• In every game, sport, dance and exercise
form, there are key perceptual signals that
must be learned if you want to understand
what is happening.
The Ability to Make inferences
• Making inferences relies on your ability to
• Reasoning includes your ability to make
judgments, interpretations, conclusions, and
creative thinking to put together a concept
about what is happening in a new situation.
• A concept is a memory structure where you
store your general understanding of a movement
• The ability to form concepts/idea is crucial to
• If you could not form concepts, you would
experience every new situation as a totally
strange one.
• You would have to learn every new game or
sport, for example, "from scratch.“
• As an absolute beginner, you would be totally
helpless because you would have no idea what
was going on.
• You would have to be shown and told everything
specifically because you could only function in
situations in which you had established strong
memory traces
• By using your reasoning process, you draw what
can help you from your past experience and
transfer what can help you understand what is
happening in new and unfamiliar situations,
• If the situation is new you will not be able to
transfer enough detail to understand exactly
what is happening, but you can use your
judgment, your imagination to make an inference
about what is happening,
• To make an inference is to form “ a good idea” or
concept about what is happening
How the Brain Forms a Perception
• In each of the four cerebral lobes are networks
of nerve cells that are concerned with receiving
and interpreting information from all of your
sensory systems.
• These upper brain regions are able to store your
memories as well as allow you to determine
meaning, make decisions and issue commands
for the muscle actions that result in motor skill
Four Cerebral Lobes
How the Brain Forms a Perception
• Through the process of perception, the brain is able to
interpret patterns of information from incoming sensory
information and create memory structures that represent
what the world is like.
• These memory structures are continually updated with new
information gained through experience.
How the Brain Forms a Perception
• The specific relationship between intellectual functions and
the structure of the brain has yet to be fully defined.
• However, a few general patterns of information processing
have been identified.
How the Brain Forms a Perception
• 1. Sensory neurons ' from the visual, auditory, tactile and
kinesthetic receptors carry a wealth of information to the
major relay station of the brain, the thalamus.
• In the thalamus some initial integration of information from
individual senses may occur before the information is passed
on to specific areas in the cortex for further processing
Association Areas
How the Brain Forms a Perception
• 2. The various association areas of the cortex sift, sort,
organize and finally present information to us which we
perceive as the sensation of,
• sight, sounds, touch and motion as well as the more abstract
sensations of feelings, thoughts, emotions and memories.
How the Brain Forms a Perception
• 3. Forming a perception involves the activation of certain
neurons and neuron combinations in the association areas of
the cortex.
• 3.1 Stimuli gathered by the eyes are sent to the visual and
visual association areas of the occipital lobes to produce what
we experience as vision.
• 3.2 Stimuli gathered by the ears are sent for interpretation to
the auditory and auditory association areas within the
temporal lobes to produce what we experience as hearing
• 3.3 Sensations of touch and proprioception are perceived in
the sensory cortex of the parietal lobe.
• sensory nerves from the body cross either in the spinal cord
or in the brain stem, so that sensations from the left side of
the body reach the sensory cortex in the right cerebral
hemisphere, and those from the right side of the body are
registered in the cortex in the left cerebral hemisphere.
• Because each region of the body sends signals to a defined area of
the sensory cortex, it has been possible to map the areas of the
body on the cortex itself.
• The strip of sensory cortex in left hemisphere corresponds to the
right side of the body, and is duplicated in the other hemisphere for
the left side of the body.
• This map on the cortex is referred to as the sensory homunculus.

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