Unit 4: DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

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Biology - 5. DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis
Unit Title/Skill Set:
5. DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis
Overview: This unit examines the role of nucleic acids and cellular organelles in the production of proteins and the resultant
expression of phenotype.
Unit Essential Question(s): How do organisms use DNA and RNA to make proteins? What factors affect gene expression?
Suggested Percentage of Course Time Prior to Keystone Exam: 10%
Standard
3.1.B.A5
3.1.B.A8
3.1.B.B1
3.1.B.B3
3.1.B.B5
3.1.B.B6
Anchors
BIO.B.1.2.1
BIO.B.1.2.2
BIO.B.2.2.1
BIO.B.2.2.2
BIO.B.2.3.1
Unit Concepts
• Structure of DNA
o Components of a nucleotide
o Base-pair rule (Chargaff’s
Rule)
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Semi-conservative/DNA
replication process
Structure of eukaryotic
chromosomes
Similarities and
differences between
DNA and RNA
Types of RNA
Transcription uses DNA
to make RNA
Translation uses RNA to
make a protein
Role of ribosomes,
Competencies
Tier 3 Vocabulary
• Describe how
• adenine
DNA
• amino acids
replication
• anticodon
results in the
• Chargaff’s
transmission
Rule
and/or
• chromosomes
conservation of
• codon
the genetic
• complimentary
information.
strand
• Explain the
• cytosine
structural
• deletion
relationships
• deoxyribonucle
between DNA,
ic acid (DNA)
genes, and
• deoxyribose
chromosomes.
• DNA
• Explain the
replication
unified process
• double helix
• endoplasmic
of protein
synthesis.
reticulum
• Describe the
• enzymes
Materials
DNA from the
Beginning
Protein
Synthesis: At
the Ribosome
Zooming into
DNA
Genes,
Environments
and Behavior
E-sheet
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endoplasmic reticulum
and Golgi apparatus in
assembling, transporting,
packaging and modifying
different proteins
Phenotype as a function
of gene expression (DNA
to protein to phenotype)
Different types of gene
mutations
Possible effect of
mutation (change in the
DNA sequence) on
phenotype
Environmental influences
on phenotype
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role of the
nucleus,
ribosomes, ER,
and Golgi
apparatus in
the production
and processing
of proteins.
Describe how
genetic
mutations alter
DNA sequence
and may or
may not affect
phenotype.
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frameshift
mutation
gene mutation
genes
Golgi
apparatus
guanine
hydrogen bond
insertion
missense
mutation
nonsense
mutation
nucleotide
nucleus
parent strand
point mutation
polypeptides
proteins
ribonucleic
acid (RNA)
ribosomes
semiconservative
model
silent mutation
thymine
transcription
translation
triplet
•
uracil
NOTES:
Unit Concepts = what students should know when they finish the unit (key knowledge). Allow students to track
their own learning.
Competencies = what students should be able to do when they finish the unit (key skills)
Tier 3 Vocabulary = words and language specific to the content area. Please remember that in order to develop
strong content reading and writing, Tier 2 words must be continually developed.
Sample Materials & Resources = just some of the resources that can be used. Please recall that students bring
many varied learning styles. Use a myriad of resources to meet the needs.
Assessments = Formative, Performance, Diagnostic and Summative Assessment should be developed to meet the
content standard through a variety of tasks that can be both formal and informal.
Content should be accessible for all students. Study the UDL Model.
The teacher is a content specialist who helps develop reading and writing skills in Biology. The SAMME
principles are in play – Scaffold, Actively Engage, Model, develop Metacognition, and Explicitly Instruct.
The “Flipped Classroom” strategy is recommended as a technique. Send the concept home and make the
classroom the laboratory for discovery and experience.
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