Technician Class License Study Guide

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The 35 Groups
of the Technician Class
Amateur Radio License
Exam
Study Guide
for the 2014–2018 Question Pool
Duane K Allen, KK6EE
•
There are about three million amateur radio
operators (hams) worldwide, with more than 700,000 in the United States. Motives
for becoming a ham include the following:
• Local communications, often while mobile
• Distant communications, sometimes international
Providing community service communications, especially for emergency and disaster preparedness
• Participating in amateur radio nets, such as, daily amateur radio maritime nets
• Competing in contests
• Experimenting with radio electronics
• Socializing with other amateurs
• Achieving a deferred dream
• Accessing education opportunities and scholarships
• Establishing or continuing a family tradition of amateur radio.
Whatever your motive for getting your first amateur
radio license, it is a worthwhile personal accomplishment.
The three classes of amateur radio licenses issued
today are Technician, General, and Amateur Extra. This study guide is written for
those getting the entry-level Technician class radio license.
In the United States, you must pass a license exam
to get an amateur radio license. Morse code is no longer required for licensing.
The Technician class license exam contains 35 questions that cover the federal rules,
electronics, operating practices, and safety that are associated with amateur radio. The exam questions are drawn
one each from 35 groups of questions. An examinee must get 26 or more correct answers to pass the exam.
This study guide is organized by the 35 groups of
questions. A bullet summary of information relevant to the group is designed to
help you answer the group’s questions.
Both a blank response sheet and a completed response sheet are available at the end
of this study guide. Use the blank reponse sheet to keep track of your progress in answering all the questions that
could appear on a Technician class licensing exam.
Allow time for study of each group. One group or
two groups a day is a reasonable pace for self-study. This typically requires less
than an hour a day.
Best wishes for success,
Duane Allen, N6JPO
Do you need to protect your home address privacy? When you take an Amateur
Radio license exam, you must provide an FCC Registration Number (FRN). To obtain your FRN, the FCC
registration website https://apps.fcc.gov/coresWeb/publicHome.do requires that you provide a contact address. The
contact address that you provide becomes an FCC public record and can be viewed on-line. To protect your home
address privacy, you may want to have a contact address, such as a post office box, that is different from your home
address. If you are taking only the preparation course and not the license exam, you do not need an
FRN.
Copyright 2016, Duane K. Allen. All rights reserved.
Version 1.4, February 15, 2016
Group T1A – The Amateur Radio Service
Group T1B – VHF/UHF Spectrum Allocation
Group T1C – Licenses
Sub-element T1 – Rules
2
4
6
Group T1D – Permitted and Prohibited Transmissions
8
Group T1E – The Control Operator
10
Group T1F – Station Identification
12
Sub-element T2 – Operations
Group T2A – Transmitting
14
Group T2B – Phone Operation
16
Group T2C – Public Service Communications
18
Sub-element T3 – Radio Waves
Group T3A – Practical Propagation
20
Group T3B – Electromagnetic Waves
22
Group T3C – More Propagation
24
Sub-element T4 – Stations
Group T4A – Station Setup
26
Group T4B – Receive and Transmit Setup
28
Sub-element T5 – Electricity
Group T5A – Basic Electricity
30
Group T5B – Units Conversion
32
Group T5C – Electrical Units
34
Group T5D – Ohm’s Law
36
Sub-element T6 – Circuits
Group T6A – Passive Components
38
Group T6B – Active Components
40
Group T6C – Schematic Symbols
42
Group T6D – Component and Circuit Functions
44
Sub-element T7 – Equipment
Group T7A – Radio Subsystems
46
Group T7B – Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
48
Group T7C – Antenna System Measurements
50
Group T7D – At the Workbench
52
Sub-element T8 – Messaging
Group T8A – Signal Modulation
54
Group T8B – Space Communications
56
Group T8C – Amateur Activities
58
Group T8D – Digital Communications and TV
60
Sub-element T9 – Antenna
Group T9A – Antennas
62
Group T9B – Coaxial Cable
64
Sub-element T0 – Safety
Group T0A – Electrical Safety
66
Group T0B – Antenna and Tower Safety
68
Group T0C – RF Safety
70
Resources for Perspective Radio Amateurs
2014-2018 Question Response Sheet with Answers
2014-2018 Question Response Sheet
72
73
75
Group T1A – The Amateur Radio Service
Purpose
• The Amateur Radio Service allows a person to conduct radio
experiments and to communicate with other
license hams around the world
• A purpose of the Amateur Radio Service is advancing skills in
the technical and communications phases of the radio art
• A purpose of the Amateur Radio Service is enhancing
international goodwill
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
• The FCC regulates and enforces the rules for the Amateur
Radio Service in the United States
• Part 97 of the FCC regulations contains the rules and
regulations governing the Amateur Radio Service
Definitions
• An amateur station is a station in the Amateur Radio Service
consisting of the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio
communications
• A telecommand is a one-way transmission to initiate, modify or
terminate functions of a device at a distance
• Telemetry is a one-way transmission of measurements at a
distance from the measuring instrument
Frequency Coordination
• A frequency coordinator is an entity (person or group) who
recommends transmit/receive channels and other parameters
for auxiliary and repeater stations
• A frequency coordinator is selected by amateur operators in a
local or regional area whose stations are eligible to be auxiliary
or repeater stations
Interference
• Harmful interference is that which seriously degrades,
obstructs,
or
repeatedly
interrupts
a
radio communication service operating in accordance
with the Radio Regulations
• At no time is willful interference to other amateur radio stations
permitted
2
• The Radionavigation Service is protected from interference by
amateur signals under all
circumstances
• If you are interfering with a radio location station outside the
United States, then you must stop operating or take steps to
eliminate the harmful interference
Group
T1A – The Amateur Radio Service
1.
Which of the following is a purpose of the Amateur Radio
Service as stated in the FCC rules and regulations?
A. Providing personal radio communications for as many
citizens as possible
B. Providing communications for international nonprofit
organizations
C. Advancing skills in the technical and communication
phases of the radio art
D. All of these choices are correct
2.
3.
4.
D.
6. Which of the following services are protected from
interference by amateur signals under all circumstances?
A. Citizens Radio Service
B. Broadcast Service
C. Land Mobile Radio Service
D. Radionavigation Service
7.
What is the FCC Part 97 definition of telemetry?
A. An information bulletin issued by the FCC
B. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate
functions of a device at a distance
C. A one-way transmission of measurements at a distance
from the measuring instrument D. An information
bulletin from a VEC
Which agency regulates and enforces the rules for the
Amateur Radio Service in the United States?
A. FEMA
B. The ITU
C. The FCC
D. Homeland Security
Which part of the FCC regulations contains the rules
governing the Amateur Radio Service?
A. Part 73 B. Part 95 C. Part 90
D. Part 97
8. Which of the following entities recommends
transmit/receive channels and other parameters for auxiliary
and repeater stations? A.
Frequency Spectrum
Manager
B. Frequency Coordinator
C. FCC Regional Field Office
D. International Telecommunications Union
9. Who selects a Frequency Coordinator?
A. The FCC Office of Spectrum Management and
Coordination Policy
B. The local chapter of the Office of National Council of
Independent Frequency Coordinators
C. Amateur operators in a local or regional area whose
stations are eligible to be auxiliary or repeater
stations
D. FCC Regional Field Office
Which of the following meets the FCC definition of harmful
interference?
A. Radio transmissions that annoy users of a repeater
B. Unwanted radio transmissions that cause costly harm to
radio station apparatus
C. That which seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedly
interrupts a radio communication service operating in
accordance with the Radio Regulations D. Static from
lightning storms
5.
All of these choices are correct
Which of the following is a purpose of the Amateur Radio
Service rules and regulations as defined by the FCC?
A. Enhancing international goodwill
B. Providing inexpensive communication for local
emergency organizations
C. Training of operators in military radio operating
procedures
10. What is the FCC Part 97 definition of an amateur station?
A. A station in the Amateur Radio Service consisting of
the apparatus necessary for carrying on radio
communications
3
B. A building where Amateur Radio receivers,
transmitters, and RF power amplifiers are installed
C. Any radio station operated by a non-professional
D. Any radio station for hobby use
D.
Allowing a person to conduct radio experiments and to
communicate with other licensed hams around
the world
13. What is the FCC Part 97 definition of telecommand?
A. An instruction bulletin issued by the FCC
B. A one-way radio transmission of measurements at a
distance from the measuring instrument
C. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate
functions of a device at a distance
D. An instruction from a VEC
11. When is willful interference to other amateur radio stations
permitted?
A. Only if the station being interfered with is expressing
extreme religious or political views
B. At no time
C. Only during a contest
D. At any time, amateurs are not protected from willful
interference
14. What must you do if you are operating on the 23 cm band
and learn that you are interfering with a radiolocation station
outside the United States?
A. Stop operating or take steps to eliminate the harmful
interference
B. Nothing, because this band is allocated exclusively to
the amateur service
C. Establish contact with the radiolocation station and ask
them to change frequency
D. Change to CW mode, because this would not likely
cause interference
12. Which of the following is a permissible use of the Amateur
Radio Service?
A. Broadcasting music and videos to friends
B. Providing a way for amateur radio operators to earn
additional income by using their stations to pass
messages
C. Providing low-cost communications for start-up
businesses
Group T1B –
VHF/UHF Spectrum Allocation
VHF/UHF Frequency Bands
50 MHz
to
6 meters
54 MHz
• 52.525 MHz is within the 6 meter band
2 meters
144 MHz
to
148 MHz
• 146.52 MHz is within the 2 meter band
1.25 meters
219-220
222 MHz to 225 MHz
• 223.50 MHz is within the 1.25 meter band
70 centimeters
420 MHz
to
450 MHz
• 443.350 MHz is an authorized 70 cm frequency in ITU region 2.
23 centimeters
1240 MHz
to
1300 MHz
• 1296 MHz is an authorized 23 cm frequency.
Restricted Mode Sub-Bands
• The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 1.25 meter bands have mode-restricted sub-bands
• Only CW emission mode (Morse code) is permitted in the mode-restricted sub-bands at
50.0 to 50.1 MHz and 144.0 to 144.1 MHz
• Only the data emission mode may be used between
4
219 and 220 MHz
Transmissions Near Band Edges
You should not set your transmit frequency to be exactly
at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band for all of the
following reasons:
o To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display
o So that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond
the band edge
o To allow for transmitter frequency drift
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
• The ITU is a United Nations agency for information and
communication technology issues
• Frequency assignments for U.S. maritime mobile stations
are not the same everywhere in the world because amateur
frequency assignments can vary among the three ITU
regions
• Frequency assignments for U.S. Territories may differ
from those in the 50 U.S. States because some U.S.
Territories are located in ITU regions other than region 2
Spectrum Sharing
• Because the amateur service is secondary in some
portions of the 70 cm band, U.S. amateurs may find nonamateur stations in the bands and must avoid interfering
with them
Group T1B –
VHF/UHF Spectrum Allocation
What is the ITU?
A. An agency of the United States Department of
Telecommunications Management
B. A United Nations agency for information and
communication technology issues
C. An independent frequency coordination agency
D. A department of the FCC
2.
is exempt
from FCC frequency regulations
3.
Why are the frequency assignments for some U.S.
Territories
different from those in the 50 U.S.
States?
A. Some U. S. Territories are located in ITU
regions other than region 2
B. Territorial governments are allowed to select
their own frequency allocations
C. Territorial frequency allocations must also
include those of adjacent countries
D. Any territory that was in existence before the
ratification of the Communications Act of 1934
4.
Which frequency is within the 6 meter band?
A. 49.00 MHz
B. 52.525 MHz
C. 28.50 MHz
D. 222.15 MHz
Which amateur band are you using when your
station is transmitting on 146.52 MHz?
A. 2 meter band
B. 20 meter band
C. 14 meter band
D. 6 meter band
5. Which 70 cm frequency is authorized to a
Technician Class license holder operating in ITU
Region 2?
A. 53.350 MHz
B. 146.520 MHz C. 443.350 MHz
5
D. 222.520 MHz
6.
Which 23 cm frequency is authorized to a
Technician Class licensee?
A. 2315 MHz B. 1296 MHz
C. 3390 MHz
D. 146.52 MHz
7. What amateur band are you using if you are
transmitting on 223.50 MHz? A. 15 meter band
B. 10 meter band
C. 2 meter band
D. 1.25 meter band
8.
Which of the following is a result of the fact that the
12. Why are frequency assignments for U.S. stations
operating maritime mobile not the same everywhere in
the world?
A. Amateur maritime mobile stations in international
waters must conform to the frequency assignments
of the country nearest to their vessel
B. Amateur frequency assignments can vary among the
three ITU regions
C. Frequency assignments are determined by the
captain of the vessel
D. Amateur frequency assignments are different in
each of the 90 ITU zones
13. Which emission may be used between 219 and 220
MHz?
A. Spread spectrum
Group T1B – VHF/UHF Spectrum Allocation
amateur service is secondary in some portions of the 70
cm band?
A. U.S. amateurs may find non-amateur stations in the
bands, and must avoid interfering with them
B. U.S. amateurs must give foreign amateur stations
priority in those portions
C. International communications are not permitted on
70 cm
D. Digital transmissions are not permitted on 70 cm
9.
Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be
exactly at the edge of an amateur band or subband?
A. To allow for calibration error in the transmitter
frequency display
B. So that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond
the band edge
C. To allow for transmitter frequency drift
D. All of these choices are correct
10. Which of the bands above 30 MHz that are available to
Technician Class operators have moderestricted subbands?
A. The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 70 cm bands
B. The 2 meter and 13 cm bands
C. The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 1.25 meter bands
D. The 2 meter and 70 cm bands
11. What emission modes are permitted in the
moderestricted sub-bands at 50.0 to 50.1 MHz and 144.0
to 144.1 MHz?
A. CW only
B. CW and RTTY
C. SSB only
D. CW and SSB
B. Data
C. SSB voice
D. Fast-scan television
New Licenses
• New amateur radio licenses that are currently issued by the
FCC are the Technician, General, and Amateur Extra class
licenses.
• After passing the examination required for your first
amateur radio license, you may operate a transmitter on an
amateur service frequency as soon as your operator/station
license grant appears in the FCC’s license database
• The normal term for an FCC-issued primary
station/operator license is ten years
License Lapse
• Following the expiration of an amateur license, there is a
two year grace period during which the license can
be renewed
• During the grace period, transmitting is not allowed until
the FCC license database show that the license
has been renewed
• If correspondence from the FCC is returned as
undeliverable because the grantee failed to provide a
correct mailing address, then the result may be revocation
of the station license or suspension of the operator license
Call Signs
• A U.S. amateur call sign is a prefix, a digit, and a suffix.
o The prefix is the letter K, W, N, or A and a possible
second letter. o The digit is 0 through 9. o The suffix is
one, two, or three letters.
• W3ABC is a valid US amateur radio station call sign
• A special event call sign has a single letter in both the
prefix and suffix. It is a one by one call sign, that is, one
letter in the prefix and one letter in the suffix.
6
Vanity Call Signs
• Any licensed amateur may select a desired call sign under
the vanity call sign rules
• An example of vanity call sign available to a technician
class operator is K1XXX but neither KA1X nor W1XX
• Only the person named as trustee on a club station license
grant may select a vanity call sign for the club station
International
• International communications are permitted by an FCClicensed amateur station if they are communications
incidental to the purposes of the amateur service and
remarks of a personal character
• You are allowed to operate your amateur station in a
foreign country when the foreign country authorizes it
• In addition to places where the FCC regulates
communications, an FCC-licensed amateur station may
transmit from any vessel or craft located in international
waters and documented or registered in the United States
7
Group T1C – Licenses
Which type of call sign
has a single letter in both its prefix and suffix?
A. Vanity
B. Sequential
C. Special event
D. In-memoriam
B.
8.
2.
Which of the following is a valid US amateur radio station call
sign?
A. KMA3505
B. W3ABC
C. KDKA
D. 11Q1176
3.
What types of international communications are permitted by
an FCC-licensed amateur station?
A. Communications incidental to the purposes of the
amateur service and remarks of a personal character
B. Communications incidental to conducting business
or remarks of a personal nature
C. Only communications incidental to contest
exchanges, all other communications are prohibited
D. Any communications that would be permitted by an
international broadcast station
4.
5.
When are you allowed to operate your amateur station in a
foreign country?
A. When the foreign country authorizes it
B. When there is a mutual agreement allowing third
party communications
C. When authorization permits amateur
communications in a foreign language
D. When you are communicating with non-licensed
individuals in another country
Which of the following is a vanity call sign which a technician
class amateur operator might select if available?
A. K1XXX
B. KA1X
C. W1XX
D. All of these choices are correct
6.
From which of the following locations may an FCClicensed
amateur station transmit, in addition to places where the FCC
regulates communications? A.
From within any country
that belongs to the International Telecommunications Union
B. From within any country that is a member of the
United Nations
C. From anywhere within in ITU Regions 2 and 3
D. From any vessel or craft located in international
waters and documented or registered in the United
States
7. What may result when correspondence from the FCC is
returned as undeliverable because the grantee failed to provide
the correct mailing address?
A. Fine or imprisonment
Revocation of the station license or suspension of the
operator license
C. Require the licensee to be re-examined
D. A reduction of one rank in operator class
What is the normal term for an FCC-issued primary
station/operator amateur radio license grant?
A. Five years
B. Life
C. Ten years
D. Twenty years
9. What is the grace period following the expiration of an
amateur license within which the license may be renewed? A.
Two years
B. Three years
C. Five years
D. Ten years
10. How soon after passing the examination for your first amateur
radio license may you operate a transmitter on an amateur
service frequency? A. Immediately
B. 30 days after the test date
C. As soon as your operator/station license grant appears in
the FCC’s license database
D. You must wait until you receive your license in the mail
from the FCC
11. If your license has expired and is still within the allowable
grace period, may you continue to operate a transmitter on
amateur service frequencies?
A. No, transmitting is not allowed until the FCC license
database shows that the license has been renewed
B. Yes, but only if you identify using the suffix GP
C. Yes, but only during authorized nets
D. Yes, for up to two years
12. Who may select a desired call sign under the vanity call sign
rules?
A. Only licensed amateurs with general or extra class
licenses
B. Only licensed amateurs with an extra class license
C. Only an amateur licensee who has been licensed
continuously for more than 10 years
D. Any licensed amateur
13. For which licenses classes are new licenses currently available
from the FCC? A.
Novice, Technician, General,
Advanced
B. Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced
C. Novice, Technician Plus, General, Advanced
D. Technician, General, Amateur Extra
14. Who may select a vanity call sign for a club station?
8
A.
Any Extra Class member of the club
B. Any member of the club
D.
C. Any officer of the club
Only the person named as trustee on the club station
license grant
Group T1D – Permitted
and Prohibited Transmissions
Prohibited Transmissions
• FCC-licensed amateur stations are prohibited from
communications
with
any
country
whose administration has notified the ITU that it
objects to
such communications
• In regards to transmissions of language that may be
considered indecent or obscene, any such language is
prohibited
Permitted Transmissions
• During an Armed Forces Day Communications Test, an
FCC-licensed amateur station may exchange messages
with a U.S. military station.
• The transmission by an amateur station of codes or
ciphers that hide the meaning of a message is allowed
only when transmitting control commands to space
stations or radio control craft
• An amateur station is authorized to transmit music only
when incidental to an authorized retransmission of
manned spacecraft communications
• Auxiliary, repeater, or space stations are allowed to
automatically retransmit the signals of other amateur
stations
• An amateur station may transmit without identifying
when transmitting to control a model craft
• Amateur stations are authorized to transmit signals related
to broadcasting, program production, or news gathering
only where such communications directly relate to the
immediate safety of human life or protection of property
and no other means is available.
Pecuniary Interest
• The control operator of an amateur station may receive
compensation for operating the station when the
communication is incidental to classroom instruction
at an educational institution
• Amateur radio operators may use their stations to notify
other amateurs of the availability of equipment for sale or
trade when the equipment is normally used in an amateur
station and such activity is not conducted on a regular
basis
Broadcasting
9
• Broadcasting is defined as transmissions intended for
reception by the general public
• An amateur radio station may engage in broadcasting
when transmitting code practice, information
bulletins, or transmissions
necessary to provide emergency communications
Group T1D – Permitted
and Prohibited Transmissions
1.
With which countries are FCC-licensed amateur stations
prohibited from exchanging communications? A.
Any
country whose administration has notified the ITU that it
objects to such communications
B. Any country whose administration has notified the
ARRL that it objects to such communications
C. Any country engaged in hostilities with another country
D. Any country in violation of the War Powers Act of
1934
2.
B. When the asking price is $100.00 or less
C. When the asking price is less than its appraised value
D. When the equipment is not the personal property of
either the station licensee or the control operator or
their close relatives
On which of the following occasions may an FCC-licensed
amateur station exchange messages with a U.S. military
station?
A. During an Armed Forces Day Communications Test
B. During a Memorial Day Celebration
C. During an Independence Day celebration
D. During a propagation test
3.
When is the transmission of codes or ciphers that hide the
meaning of a message allowed by an amateur station? A.
Only during contests
B. Only when operating mobile
C. Only when transmitting control commands to space
stations or radio control craft
D. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used
4.
5.
What is the only time an amateur station is authorized to
transmit music?
A. When incidental to an authorized retransmission of
manned spacecraft communications
B. When the music produces no spurious emissions
C. When the purpose is to interfere with an illegal
transmission
D. When the music is transmitted above 1280 MHz
6.
What, if any, are the restrictions concerning transmission of
language that may be considered indecent or obscene?
A. The FCC maintains a list of words that are not
permitted to be used on amateur frequencies
B. Any such language is prohibited
C. The ITU maintains a list of words that are not
permitted to be used on amateur frequencies D. There
is no such prohibition
7.
What types of amateur stations can automatically retransmit
the signals of other amateur stations? A.
Auxiliary,
beacon, or Earth stations
B. Auxiliary, repeater, or space stations
C. Beacon, repeater, or space stations
D. Earth, repeater, or space stations
8. In which of the following circumstances may the control
operator of an amateur station receive compensation for
operating the station?
A. When engaging in communications on behalf of their
employer
B. When the communication is incidental to classroom
instruction at an educational institution
C. When re-broadcasting weather alerts during a RACES
net
D. When notifying other amateur operators of the
availability for sale or trade of apparatus
9.
When may amateur radio operators use their stations to
notify other amateurs of the availability of equipment for
sale or trade?
A. When the equipment is normally used in an amateur
station and such activity is not conducted on a regular
basis
10
Under which of the following circumstances are amateur
stations authorized to transmit signals related to
broadcasting, program production, or news gathering,
assuming no other means is available?
A. Only where such communications directly relate to the
immediate safety of human life or protection of
property
B.
C.
Only when broadcasting communications to or from
the space shuttle
Only where noncommercial programming is gathered
and supplied exclusively to the National Public Radio
network
D. Only when using amateur repeaters linked to the
Internet
10. What is the meaning of the term “broadcasting” in the FCC
rules for the amateur services?
A. Two-way transmissions by amateur stations
B. Transmission of music
C. Transmission of messages directed only to amateur
operators
D. Transmissions intended for reception by the general
public
A.
When the transmissions are of a brief nature to make
station adjustments
B. When the transmissions are unmodulated
C. When the transmitted power level is below 1 watt
D. When transmitting signals to control a model craft
12. Under which of the following circumstances may an
amateur radio station engage in broadcasting? A.
Under no circumstances
B. When transmitting code practice, information bulletins,
or transmissions necessary to provide emergency
communications
C. At any time as long as no music is transmitted
D. At any time as long as the material being transmitted
did not originate from a commercial broadcast
station
11. When may an amateur station transmit without identifying?
Group T1E –
The Control Operator
Control Operator Required
• An amateur station is never permitted to transmit without a
control operator
• The class of license held by the control operator determines
the transmitting privileges of an amateur station
• Under normal circumstances, a Technician Class licensee
may at no time be the control operator of a station
operating in an exclusive Extra class operator
segment of the amateur bands
Designation of Control Operator
• Only the station licensee may designate the station control
operator
• In designating a control operator, the station licensee may
designate only a person for who an amateur
operator/primary station license grant appears in the FCC
database or who is authorized for alien reciprocal operation
• The FCC presumes the station licensee is the control
operator of an amateur station, unless documentation
to the contrary is in the station records
• When the control operator is not the station licensee, both
the control operator and station licensee are equally
responsible for the proper operation of the station
Types of Station Control
• An amateur station control point is the location at which
the control operator function is performed
11
• When the control operator is at the control point, the
control type is local control
• Operating the station over the internet is an example of
remote control
• Repeater operation is an example of automatic control
Operation of an APRS (Automatic Packet Reporting
System) network digipeater is an example of automatic
control
Gro
up T1E – The Control Operator
1.
When is an amateur station permitted to transmit
without a control operator?
A. When using automatic control, such as in the case
of a repeater
B. When the station licensee is away and another
licensed amateur is using the station
C. When the transmitting station is an auxiliary
station
D. Never
2.
Who may a station licensee designate to be the control
operator of an amateur station? A. Any U.S. citizen or
registered alien
B. Any family member of the station licensee
C. Any person over the age of 18
D. Only a person for whom an amateur
operator/primary station license grant appears in
the FCC database or who is authorized for alien
reciprocal operation
3.
Who must designate the station control operator?
A. The station licensee
B. The FCC
C. The frequency coordinator
D. The ITU
12
4.
What determines the transmitting privileges of an
amateur station?
A. The frequency authorized by the frequency
coordinator
B. The class of operator license held by the station
licensee
C. The highest class of operator license held by
anyone on the premises
D. The class of operator license held by the control
operator
5. What is an amateur station control point?
A. The location of the station’s transmitting antenna
B. The location of the station transmitting apparatus
C. The location at which the control operator
function is performed
D. The mailing address of the station licensee
6.
Under what type of control do APRS network
digipeaters operate? A. Automatic
B. Remote
C. Local
D. Manual
7.
When the control operator is not the station licensee,
who is responsible for the proper operation of the
station?
A. All licensed amateurs who are present at the
operation
B. Only the station licensee
C. Only the control operator
D. The control operator and the station licensee are
equally responsible
8.
Which of the following is an example of automatic
control?
A. Repeater operation
B. Controlling the station over the Internet
C. Using a computer or other device to automatically
send CW
D. Using a computer or other device to automatically
identify
9.
What type of control is being used when the control
operator is at the control point? A. Radio control
B. Unattended control
C. Automatic control
D. Local control
10. Which of the following is an example of remote
control as defined in Part 97?
A. Repeater operation
B. Operating the station over the Internet
C. Controlling a model aircraft, boat or car by
amateur radio
D. All of these choices are correct
11. Who does the FCC presume to be the control operator
of an amateur station, unless documentation to the
contrary is in the station records? A. The station
custodian
B. The third party participant
C. The person operating the station equipment
D. The station licensee
12. When, under normal circumstances, may a Technician
Class licensee be the control operator of a station
operating in an exclusive Extra Class operator
segment of the amateur bands?
A. At no time
B. When operating a special event station
C. As part of a multi-operator contest team
D. When using a club station whose trustee is an
Extra Class
operator licensee
Group T1F –
Station Identification
Station Identification
• An amateur station is required to transmit its assigned call
sign at least every 10 minutes during and at the end of a
communication
• The method for a station transmitting phone signals is to
send the call sign using CW or phone emission
• When operating in a phone sub-band, the English
language is the acceptable language to use for station
identification
• All of the following self-assigned indicators are
acceptable
when identifying
using a
phone transmission: o KL7CC stroke W3 o
KL7CC slant W3 o KL7CC slash W3
• When identifying a station on the air as “Race
Headquarters”, the type of identification is a tactical call
sign
• If you are using tactical identifiers, you must transmit the
station’s FCC-assigned call sign at the end of each
communication and every ten minutes during a
communication
13
• If you upgrade your license, after your call sign transmit
/KT, /AE or /AG when using new license privileges
earned by CSCE while waiting for an upgrade to a
previously issued license to appear in the FCC license
database
Repeaters
• A repeater station simultaneously retransmits the signal of
another amateur station on a different
channel or channels
• If a repeater inadvertently retransmit communications that
violate the FCC rules, the control operator of the
originating station is accountable
Third-Party Communications
• The FCC rules authorize the transmission of
nonemergency third party communications to any foreign
station
whose government
permits such
communications
• When a non-licensed person is allow to speak to a foreign
station, the foreign station must be in a country with
which the U.S. has signed a third-party agreement
Club Stations
• At least 4 persons are required to be members of a club
for a club station license to be issued by the FCC
FCC Inspection
• At any time upon request by an FCC representative, a
station licensee must make the station and its records
available for FCC inspection
Gro
up T1F – Station Identification
1.
What type of identification is being used when identifying a
station on the air as Race Headquarters?
A. Tactical call sign
B. An official call sign reserved for RACES drills
C. SSID
D. Broadcast station
2.
When using tactical identifiers such as “Race Headquarters”
during a community service net operation, how often must
your station transmit the station’s FCCassigned call sign?
A. Never, the tactical call is sufficient
B. Once during every hour
C. At the end of each communication and every ten
minutes during a communication D. At the end of
every transmission
A.
4.
Which of the following is an acceptable language to use for
station identification when operating in a phone subband?
A. Any language recognized by the United Nations
B. Any language recognized by the ITU
C. The English language
D. English, French, or Spanish
5.
3.
When is an amateur station required to transmit its assigned
call sign?
14
At the beginning of each contact, and every 10 minutes
thereafter
B. At least once during each transmission
C. At least every 15 minutes during and at the end of a
communication
D. At least every 10 minutes during and at the end of a
communication
What method of call sign identification is required for a
station transmitting phone signals? A.
Send the call
sign followed by the indicator RPT
B. Send the call sign using CW or phone emission
C. Send the call sign followed by the indicator R
D. Send the call sign using only phone emission
6.
D.
10. Who is accountable should a repeater inadvertently
retransmit communications that violate the FCC rules?
A. The control operator of the originating station
B. The control operator of the repeater
C. The owner of the repeater
D. Both the originating station and the repeater owner
Which of the following formats of a self-assigned indicator
is acceptable when identifying using a phone transmission?
A. KL7CC stroke W3
B. KL7CC slant W3
C. KL7CC slash W3
D. All of these choices are correct
11. To which foreign stations do the FCC rules authorize the
transmission of non-emergency third party
communications?
A. Any station whose government permits such
communications
B. Those in ITU Region 2 only
C. Those in ITU Regions 2 and 3 only
D. Those in ITU Region 3 only
7. Which of the following restrictions apply when a
nonlicensed person is allowed to speak to a foreign station
using a station under the control of a Technician Class
control operator?
A. The person must be a U.S. citizen
B. The foreign station must be one with which the U.S.
has a third party agreement
C. The licensed control operator must do the station
identification
D. All of these choices are correct
12. How many persons are required to be members of a club for
a club station license to be issued by the FCC?
A. At least 5
B. At least 4
C. A trustee and 2 officers
D. At least 2
8.
Which indicator is required by the FCC to be transmitted
after a station call sign?
A. /M when operating mobile
B. /R when operating a repeater
C. / followed the FCC Region number when operating out
of the region in which the license was issued
D. /KT, /AE or /AG when using new license privileges
earned by CSCE while waiting for an upgrade to a
previously issued license to appear in the FCC license
database
9.
C. Repeater station
Message forwarding station
13. When must the station licensee make the station and its
records available for FCC inspection?
A. At any time ten days after notification by the FCC of
such an inspection
B. At any time upon request by an FCC representative
C. Only after failing to comply with an FCC notice of
violation
D. Only when presented with a valid warrant by an FCC
official or government agent
What type of amateur station simultaneously retransmits the
signal of another amateur station on a different channel or
channels? A. Beacon station
B. Earth station
Group T2A – Transmitting
Repeater Offset
• The most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter
band is plus or minus 600 kHz
• A common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band is plus
or minus 5 MHz
CQ
• The procedural signal "CQ" means calling any station
• When responding to a station calling CQ, you should transmit
the other station’s call sign followed by your call sign
• All of the following guidelines apply when choosing an
operating frequency for calling CQ:
o Listen first to be sure that no one else is using the
15
frequency
o Ask if the frequency is in use
o Make sure you are in your assigned band
Contacting via Repeater
• An appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if
you know the other station's call sign is to say the station's
call sign then identify with your call sign
• To indicate that you are listening on a repeater, instead of
"CQ", give your call sign
Test Transmissions
• When making on-air transmissions to test equipment or
antennas, an amateur operator must properly identify the
transmitting station
• When making a test transmission, station identification is
required at least every ten minutes during the test and at
the end of the test
Appropriate Power
• The FCC rule regarding power levels used in the amateur
bands under normal, non-distress
circumstances require while not exceeding the maximum
power levels used on a given band, use only the minimum
power necessary to carry out the desired communication
Band Plans
• A band plan is a voluntary guideline for using different
modes or activities within an amateur band that are more
specific than the privileges established by the FCC
• The national calling frequency for FM simplex operations
in the 70 cm band is 446.000 MHz
Group T2A –
Transmitting
1.
What is the most common repeater frequency offset in
the 2 meter band? A. Plus 500 kHz
B. Plus or minus 600 kHz
C. Minus 500 kHz
D. Only plus 600 kHz
2.
What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex
operations in the 70 cm band?
A. 146.520 MHz B. 145.000 MHz C. 432.100 MHz
D. 446.000 MHz
16
3.
What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70
cm band?
A. Plus or minus 5 MHz
B. Plus or minus 600 kHz
C. Minus 600 kHz
D. Plus 600 kHz
4.
What is an appropriate way to call another station on a
repeater if you know the other station's call sign?
A. Say break, break then say the station's call sign
B. Say the station's call sign then identify with your
call sign
C. Say CQ three times then the other station's call
sign
D. Wait for the station to call CQ then answer it
C. Only the called station should transmit
D. Calling any station
9.
5. How should you respond to a station calling CQ?
A. Transmit CQ followed by the other station’s call
sign
B. Transmit your call sign followed by the other
station’s call sign
C. Transmit the other station’s call sign followed by
your call sign
D. Transmit a signal report followed by your call
sign
6.
What must an amateur operator do when making onair transmissions to test equipment or antennas?
A. Properly identify the transmitting station
B. Make test transmissions only after 10:00 p.m.
local time
C. Notify the FCC of the test transmission
D. State the purpose of the test during the test
procedure
7.
Which of the following is true when making a test
transmission?
A. Station identification is not required if the
transmission is less than 15 seconds
B. Station identification is not required if the
transmission is less than 1 watt
C. Station identification is only required once an
hour when the transmissions are for test purposes
only
D. Station identification is required at least every ten
minutes during the test and at the end of
the test
8.
What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?
A. Call on the quarter hour
B. A new antenna is being tested (no station should
answer)
What brief statement is often transmitted in place of
“CQ” to indicate that you are listening on a repeater?
A. The words “Hello test” followed by your call sign
B. Your call sign
C. The repeater call sign followed by your call sign
D. The letters “QSY” followed by your call sign
10. What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established
by the FCC?
A. A voluntary guideline for using different modes or
activities within an amateur band
B. A mandated list of operating schedules
C. A list of scheduled net frequencies
D. A plan devised by a club to indicate frequency
band usage
11. Which of the following is an FCC rule regarding
power levels used in the amateur bands, under normal,
non-distress circumstances?
A. There is no limit to power as long as there is no
interference with other services
B. No more than 200 watts PEP may be used
C. Up to 1500 watts PEP may be used on any
amateur frequency without restriction
D. While not exceeding the maximum power
permitted on a given band, use the minimum
power necessary to carry out the desired
communication
12. Which of the following is a guideline to use when
choosing an operating frequency for calling CQ?
A. Listen first to be sure that no one else is using the
frequency
B. Ask if the frequency is in use
C. Make sure you are in your assigned band
D. All of these choices are correct
Group T2B
– Phone Operations
Courtesy
• When two stations transmitting on the same frequency
interfere with each other, common courtesy should
prevail, but no one has absolute right to an amateur
frequency
17
Simplex
• Simplex communication describes an amateur station that
is transmitting and receiving on the same
frequency
• You should consider communicating via simplex when
stations can communicate directly without using a
repeater
FM and SSB Phone
• The amplitude of the modulating signal determines the
amount of deviation of an FM signal
• When the deviation of an FM transmitter is increased, its
signal occupies more bandwidth
• If the microphone gain is too high, causing overdeviation
of the FM signal, then the result is interference to stations
on nearby frequencies
• SSB phone is permitted in at least some portion of all
amateur bands above 50 MHz
Squelch
• Carrier squelch describes the muting of receiver audio
controlled solely by the presence or absence of an RF
signal
Access Tones
• CTCSS (Continuous Tone-Coded Squelch System)
describes the use of a sub-audible tone transmitted with
normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver
• All of the following common problems might cause you
to be able to hear but not access a repeater even when
transmitting with the proper offset:
o The repeater receiver may require audio tone burst for access
o The repeater receiver may require a CTCSS tone for access
o The repeater receiver may require a DCS (Digital Coded
Sequence) tone sequence for access
Phonetics and Q codes
• The FCC encourages the use of a phonetic alphabet when
identifying your station using phone
• QRM indicates that you are receiving interference from other
stations
• QSY indicates that you are changing frequency
G
roup T2B – Phone Operations
1.
What is the term used to describe an amateur station
that is transmitting and receiving on the same
frequency? A. Full duplex communication
18
B. Diplex communication
C. Simplex communication
D. Multiplex communication
A. Common courtesy should prevail, but no one has
absolute right to an amateur frequency
B. Whoever has the strongest signal has priority on
the frequency
C. Whoever has been on the frequency the longest
has priority on the frequency
D. The station which has the weakest signal has
priority on the frequency
2. What is the term used to describe the use of a
subaudible tone transmitted with normal voice audio
to open the squelch of a receiver?
A. Carrier squelch
B. Tone burst
C. DTMF
D. CTCSS
3. Which of the following describes the muting of
receiver audio controlled solely by the presence or
absence of an RF signal? A. Tone squelch
B. Carrier squelch
C. CTCSS
D. Modulated carrier
4. Which of the following common problems might
cause you to be able to hear but not access a repeater
even when transmitting with the proper offset?
A. The repeater receiver may require an audio tone
burst for access
B. The repeater receiver may require a CTCSS tone
for access
C. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tone
sequence for access
D. All of these choices are correct
5.
What determines the amount of deviation of an FM (as
opposed to PM) signal?
A. Both the frequency and amplitude of the
modulating signal
B. The frequency of the modulating signal
C. The amplitude of the modulating signal
D. The relative phase of the modulating signal and
the carrier
6. What happens when the deviation of an FM
transmitter is increased? A. Its signal occupies more
bandwidth
B. Its output power increases
C. Its output power and bandwidth increases
D. Asymmetric modulation occurs
7.
What could cause your FM signal to interfere with
stations on nearby frequencies?
A. Microphone gain too high, causing overdeviation
B. SWR too high
C. Incorrect CTCSS Tone
D. All of these choices are correct
8. Which of the following applies when two stations
transmitting on the same frequency interfere with each
other?
9.
Which of the following methods is encouraged by the
FCC when identifying your station when using phone?
A. Use of a phonetic alphabet
B. Send your call sign in CW as well as voice
C. Repeat your call sign three times
D. Increase your signal to full power when
identifying
10. Which Q signal indicates that you are receiving
interference from other stations?
A. QRM
B. QRN
C. QTH
D. QSB
11. Which Q signal indicates that you are changing
frequency?
A. QRU
B. QSY
C. QSL
D. QRZ
12. Under what circumstances should you consider
communicating via simplex rather than a repeater?
A. When the stations can communicate directly
without using a repeater
B. Only when you have an endorsement for simplex
operation on your license
C. Only when third party traffic is not being passed
D. Only if you have simplex modulation capability
13. Which of the following is true of the use of SSB
phone in amateur bands above 50 MHz?
A. It is permitted only by holders of a General Class
or higher license
B. It is permitted only on repeaters
C. It is permitted in at least some portion of all the
amateur bands above 50 MHz
D. It is permitted only on when power is limited to
no more than 100 watts
19
Group T2C –
Public Service Communications
Operations
• The FCC rules always apply to the operation of an
amateur station
• Amateur station control operators are permitted to
operate outside the frequency privileges of their license
class only if necessary in situations involving the
immediate safety of human life or protection of property
• If the commercial power is out, one way to recharge a
12-volt lead-acid station battery is to connect the battery
in parallel with a vehicle’s battery and run the engine
Organizations
• Both RACES and ARES may provide communications
during emergencies
• The Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) is
licensed amateurs who have voluntarily registered their
qualifications and equipment for communications
duty in the public service
• All of the following describes the Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Service (RACES):
o A radio service using amateur frequencies for
emergency
management
or
civil
defense
communications
o A radio service using amateur stations for emergency
management or civil defense communications
o An emergency service using amateur operators
certified by a civil defense organization as being
enrolled in that organization
Networks
• The accepted practice for an amateur operator who has
checked into an emergency traffic net is to remain on
frequency without transmitting until asked to do so by the
net control station
• The accepted practice to get the immediate attention of a
net control station when reporting an emergency is to
begin the transmission by saying “Priority” or
“Emergency” followed by your call sign
Handling Message Traffic
• A characteristic of good emergency traffic handling is
passing messages exactly as received
• The preamble in a formal traffic message refers to the
information needed to track the message as it passes
through the amateur radio traffic handling system
20
• In reference to a formal traffic message, the “check” is a
count of the number of words or word equivalents in the
text portion of the message
• To insure that voice message traffic containing proper
names and unusual words are copied correctly by the
receiving station, such words and terms should be spelled
out using a standard phonetic alphabet
Group T2C –
Public Service Communications
1.
When do the FCC rules NOT apply to the operation of an
amateur station? A.
When operating a RACES station
B. When operating under special FEMA rules
C. When operating under special ARES rules
D. Never, FCC rules always apply
D.
6.
Which of the following is an accepted practice to get the
immediate attention of a net control station when reporting
an emergency?
A. Repeat the words SOS three times followed by the call
sign of the reporting station
B. Press the push-to-talk button three times
C. Begin your transmission by saying "Priority" or
"Emergency"
followed by your call sign
D. Play a pre-recorded emergency alert tone followed by
your call sign
2.
What is one way to recharge a 12-volt lead-acid station
battery if the commercial power is out? A. Cool the
battery in ice for several hours
B. Add acid to the battery
C. Connect the battery in parallel with a vehicle’s battery
and run the engine
D. All of these choices are correct
3.
What should be done to insure that voice message traffic
containing proper names and unusual words are copied
correctly by the receiving station?
A. The entire message should be repeated at least four
times
B. Such messages must be limited to no more than 10
words
C. Such words and terms should be spelled out using a
standard phonetic alphabet
D. All of these choices are correct
A.
5.
enrolled in that
organization
All of these choices are correct
7. Which of the following is an accepted practice for an
amateur operator who has checked into an emergency traffic
net?
A. Provided that the frequency is quiet, announce the
station call sign and location every 5 minutes
B. Move 5 kHz away from the net's frequency and use
high power to ask other hams to keep clear of the net
frequency
C. Remain on frequency without transmitting until asked
to do so by the net control station D. All of the choices
are correct
4. What do RACES and ARES have in common?
They represent the two largest ham clubs in the United
States
B. Both organizations broadcast road and weather
information
C. Neither may handle emergency traffic supporting
public service agencies
D. Both organizations may provide communications
during emergencies
8. Which of the following is a characteristic of good
emergency traffic handling? A.
Passing messages exactly
as received
B. Making decisions as to whether or not messages
should be relayed or delivered
C. Communicating messages to the news media for
broadcast outside the disaster area D. All of these
choices are correct
Which of the following describes the Radio Amateur Civil
Emergency Service (RACES)?
A. A radio service using amateur frequencies for
emergency management or civil defense
communications
B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency
management or civil defense communications
C. An emergency service using amateur operators
certified by a civil defense organization as being
9.
Are amateur station control operators ever permitted to
operate outside the frequency privileges of their license
class?
A. No
B. Yes, but only when part of a FEMA emergency plan
C. Yes, but only when part of a RACES emergency plan
21
D.
Yes, but only if necessary in situations involving the
immediate safety of human life or protection of
property
10. What is the preamble in a formal traffic message?
A. The first paragraph of the message text
B. The message number
C. The priority handling indicator for the message
D. The information needed to track the message as it
passes through the amateur radio traffic handling
system
11. What is meant by the term “check” in reference to a formal
traffic message?
A. The check is a count of the number of words or word
equivalents in the text portion of the message
B. The check is the value of a money order attached to the
message
C.
D.
The check is a list of stations that have relayed the
message
The check is a box on the message form that tells you
the message was received
12. What is the Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)?
A. Licensed amateurs who have voluntarily registered
their qualifications and equipment for communications
duty in the public service
B. Licensed amateurs who are members of the military
and who voluntarily agreed to provide message
handling services in the case of an emergency
C. A training program that provides licensing courses for
those interested in obtaining an amateur license to use
during emergencies
D. A training program that certifies amateur operators for
membership in the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency
Service
Group T3A – Practical Propagation
Electromagnetic Radiation
• Electromagnetic waves carry radio signals between
transmitting and receiving stations
• Inside buildings, UHF signals are often more effective
than VHF signals because the shorter wavelength of UHF
signals allows them to more easily penetrate the
structure of buildings
• When using a directional antenna, and if buildings or
obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight path,
your station may be able to access a distant repeater if you
try to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater
Multi-Path Distortion
• If another operator reports that your station’s 2 meter
signals were strong just a moment ago, but now they are
weak or distorted, the you should try moving a few feet or
changing the direction of your antenna if possible, as
reflections may be causing multi-path distortion
• The term picket fencing is commonly used to describe the
rapid fluttering sound sometimes heard from mobile
stations that are moving while transmitting
• The part of the atmosphere that enables the propagation
of radio signals around the world is the ionosphere
• A likely cause of irregular fading of signals that are being
received by ionospheric reflection is the random
combining of signals arriving via different paths
• If data signals propagate over multiple paths, error rates
are likely to increase
Antenna Polarization
22
• If the antennas at opposite ends of a VHF or UHF line of
sight radio link are not using the same polarization, that
is, both either horizontal or vertical, the signals could be
significantly weaker
• Horizontal antenna polarization is normally used for longdistance weak-signal CW and SSB contacts using the
VHF and UHF bands
• Because skip signals refracted from the ionosphere are
elliptically polarized, either vertically or horizontally
polarized antennas may be used for transmission or
reception
23
G
roup
T3A
–
Practi
cal
Propa
gatio
n
What should you do
if another operator reports that your station’s 2 meter
signals were strong just a moment ago, but now they
are weak or distorted?
A. Change the batteries in your radio to a different
type
B. Turn on the CTCSS tone
C. Ask the other operator to adjust his squelch
control
D. Try moving a few feet or changing the direction
of your antenna if possible, as reflections may
be causing
multi-path distortion
2.
A. Change from vertical to horizontal polarization
B. Try to find a path that reflects signals to the
repeater
C. Try the long path
D. Increase the antenna SWR
6. What term is commonly used to describe the rapid
fluttering sound sometimes heard from mobile stations
that are moving while transmitting?
A. Flip-flopping
B. Picket fencing
C. Frequency shifting
D. Pulsing
Why are UHF signals often more effective from inside
buildings than VHF signals? A. VHF signals lose
power faster over distance
B. The shorter wavelength allows them to more
easily penetrate the structure of buildings
C. This is incorrect; VHF works better than UHF
inside buildings
D. UHF antennas are more efficient than VHF
antennas
7.
8.
3. What antenna polarization is normally used for
longdistance weak-signal CW and SSB contacts using
the VHF and UHF bands? A. Right-hand circular
B. Left-hand circular
C. Horizontal
D. Vertical
4.
What can happen if the antennas at opposite ends of a
VHF or UHF line of sight radio link are not using the
same polarization?
A. The modulation sidebands might become inverted
B. Signals could be significantly weaker
C. Signals have an echo effect on voices
D. Nothing significant will happen
5. When using a directional antenna, how might your
station be able to access a distant repeater if buildings
or obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight
path?
24
9.
What type of wave carries radio signals between
transmitting and receiving stations?
A. Electromagnetic
B. Electrostatic
C. Surface acoustic
D. Magnetostrictive
Which of the following is a likely cause of irregular
fading of signals received by ionospheric reflection?
A. Frequency shift due to Faraday rotation
B. Interference from thunderstorms
C. Random combining of signals arriving via
different paths
D. Intermodulation distortion
Which of the following results from the fact that skip
signals refracted from the ionosphere are elliptically
polarized?
A. Digital modes are unusable
B. Either vertically or horizontally polarized
antennas may be used for transmission or
reception
C. FM voice is unusable
D. Both the transmitting and receiving antennas must
be of the same polarization
1.
10. What may occur if data signals propagate over
multiple paths?
A. Transmission rates can be increased by a factor
equal to the number of separate paths observed
B. Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor
equal to the number of separate paths observed
C. No significant changes will occur if the signals are
transmitting using FM
D. Error rates are likely to increase
11. Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation
of radio signals around the world?
A. The stratosphere
B. The troposphere
C. The ionosphere
D. The magnetosphere
Group T3B –
Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic Waves
• The two components of a radio wave are the electric and
magnetic fields
• The orientation of the electric field of a radio wave is used to
describe its polarization
Speed
• A radio wave travels through free space at the speed of light
• The approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travels through
free space is 300,000,000 meters per second
Frequency
• The frequency range of the high frequency spectrum (HF) is 3
to 30 MHz
• The frequency range of the very high frequency spectrum
(VHF) is 30 to 300 MHz
• The frequency range of the ultra-high frequency spectrum
(UHF) is 300 to 3000 MHz
Wavelength
• Wavelength is the distance a radio wave travels during one
complete cycle
• The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency increases
• The formula for converting frequency to approximate
wavelength is wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by
frequency in megahertz
300
fMHz
where λ is wavelength in meters and
fMHz is frequency in megahertz.
• The approximate wavelength of radio waves is often used to
identify the different frequency bands
25
Group T3B –
Electromagnetic Waves
What is the name
for the distance a radio wave travels during one
complete cycle?
A. Wave speed
B. Waveform
C. Wavelength
D. Wave spread
B. The wavelength gets shorter as the frequency
increases
C. There is no relationship between wavelength and
frequency
D. The wavelength depends on the bandwidth of the
signal
6.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the formula for converting frequency to
approximate wavelength in meters?
A. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz
multiplied by 300
B. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in hertz
divided by 300
C. Wavelength in meters equals frequency in
megahertz divided by 300
D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by
frequency in megahertz
What property of a radio wave is used to describe its
polarization?
A. The orientation of the electric field
B. The orientation of the magnetic field
C. The ratio of the energy in the magnetic field to the
energy in the electric field
D. The ratio of the velocity to the wavelength
What are the two components of a radio wave?
A. AC and DC
B. Voltage and current
C. Electric and magnetic fields
D. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
7.
What property of radio waves is often used to identify
the different frequency bands? A. The approximate
wavelength
B. The magnetic intensity of waves
C. The time it takes for waves to travel one mile
D. The voltage standing wave ratio of waves
How fast does a radio wave travel through free space?
A. At the speed of light
B. At the speed of sound
C. Its speed is inversely proportional to its
wavelength
D. Its speed increases as the frequency increases
8.
How does the wavelength of a radio wave relate to its
frequency?
A. The wavelength gets longer as the frequency
increases
What are the frequency limits of the VHF spectrum?
A. 30 to 300 kHz
B. 30 to 300 MHz
C. 300 to 3000 kHz
D. 300 to 3000 MHz
9.
What are the frequency limits of the UHF spectrum?
A. 30 to 300 kHz
B. 30 to 300 MHz
26
1.
C. 300 to 3000 kHz
D. 300 to 3000 MHz
11. What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave as it
travels through free space?
A. 3000 kilometers per second
B. 300,000,000 meters per second
C. 300,000 miles per hour
D. 186,000 miles per hour
10. What frequency range is referred to as HF?
A. 300 to 3000 MHz
B. 30 to 300 MHz
C. 3 to 30 MHz
D. 300 to 3000 kHz
Group T3C
– More Propagation
Direct Mode (Line-of-Sight)
• The radio horizon is the distance over which two stations
can communicate by direct path
• VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel somewhat
farther than the visual line of sight distance between two
stations because the earth seems less curved to
radio waves than to light
• The reason that direct (not via a repeater) UHF signals
rarely heard from stations outside your local coverage
area is because UHF signals are usually not reflected by
the ionosphere
Ionospheric Modes
• The ten and six meters bands may provide long distance
communications during the peak of the
sunspot cycle
• The best time generally for long-distance 10 meter band
propagation via the F layer is from dawn to shortly after
sunset during periods of high sunspot activity
Meteor Scattering
• The 6 meters band is best suited for communicating via
meteor scatter
Auroral Backscatter
• A characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral
reflection is that the signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of
strength and often sound distorted
Sporadic E Propagation
• Often when VHF signals are being received from long
distances, it is because the signals are being refracted
from a sporadic E layer
• Sporadic E is most common cause of occasional strong
over-the-horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands
Tropospheric Ducting
27
• Tropospheric ducting is caused by temperature inversions
in the atmosphere
• Tropospheric scatter is responsible for allowing overthehorizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of
about 300 miles on a regular basis
Knife-Edge Diffraction
• Knife-edge diffraction might cause radio signals to be
heard despite obstructions between the transmitting and
receiving stations
G
roup T3C – More Propagation
Why are direct (not
via a repeater) UHF signals rarely heard from stations
outside your local coverage area?
A. They are too weak to go very far
B. FCC regulations prohibit them from going more
than 50 miles
C. UHF signals are usually not reflected by the
ionosphere
D. They collide with trees and shrubbery and fade
out
2. Which of the following might be happening when
VHF signals are being received from long distances?
A. Signals are being reflected from outer space
B. Signals are arriving by sub-surface ducting
C. Signals are being reflected by lightning storms in
your area
D. Signals are being refracted from a sporadic E
layer
3.
What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via
auroral reflection?
A. Signals from distances of 10,000 or more miles
are common
B. The signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strength
and often sound distorted
C. These types of signals occur only during winter
nighttime hours
D. These types of signals are generally strongest
when your antenna is aimed west
4. Which of the following propagation types is most
commonly associated with occasional strong overthehorizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands? A.
Backscatter
28
B. Sporadic E
C. D layer absorption
D. Gray-line propagation
5. Which of the following effects might cause radio
signals to be heard despite obstructions between the
transmitting and receiving stations?
A. Knife-edge diffraction
B. Faraday rotation
C. Quantum tunneling
D. Doppler shift
6. What mode is responsible for allowing overthehorizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges
of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis?
A. Tropospheric scatter
B. D layer refraction
C. F2 layer refraction
D. Faraday rotation
7.
What band is best suited for communicating via
meteor scatter? A. 10 meters
B. 6 meters
C. 2 meters
D. 70 cm
8. What causes tropospheric ducting?
A. Discharges of lightning during electrical storms
B. Sunspots and solar flares
C. Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoes
D. Temperature inversions in the atmosphere
1.
9.
What is generally the best time for long-distance 10
meter band propagation via the F layer?
A. From dawn to shortly after sunset during periods
of high sunspot activity
B. From shortly after sunset to dawn during periods
of high sunspot activity
C. From dawn to shortly after sunset during periods
of low sunspot activity
D. From shortly after sunset to dawn during periods
of low sunspot activity
D. The shortest distance between two points on the
Earth's surface
11. Why do VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel
somewhat farther than the visual line of sight distance
between two stations?
A. Radio signals move somewhat faster than the
speed of light
B. Radio waves are not blocked by dust particles
C. The Earth seems less curved to radio waves than
to light
D. Radio waves are blocked by dust particles
10. What is the radio horizon?
A. The distance over which two stations can
communicate by direct path
B. The distance from the ground to a horizontally
mounted antenna
C. The farthest point you can see when standing at
the base of your antenna tower
12. Which of the following bands may provide long
distance communications during the peak of the
sunspot cycle? A. Six or ten meters
B. 23 centimeters
C. 70 centimeters or 1.25 meters
D. All of these choices are correct
Group
T4A – Station Setup
Grounding and Power
• A flat strap is the best conductor to use for RF grounding
• For communications equipment, use a regulated power
supply because it prevents voltage fluctuations from
reaching sensitive circuits
Microphones
• Microphone connectors on amateur transceivers differ
from each other because some connectors include pushto-talk and voltages for powering the microphone To
cure distorted audio caused by RF current flowing on the
shield of a microphone cable, install a ferrite choke on the
cable
Computers
• The ways that a computer could be used in an amateur
radio station include all of the following: o For logging
contacts and contact information o For sending and/or
receiving CW o For generating and decoding digital
signals
• When using a computer in digital communications, the
computer’s sound card provides audio to the microphone
input and converts received audio to digital form
• In packet radio stations, a terminal node controller
(TNC) connects the computer to the
transceiver
29
Between Transmitter and Antenna
• To monitor the standing wave ratio of the station antenna
system, an in-line SWR meter should be installed in series
with the feed line, between the transmitter and antenna
• A filter installed between the transmitter and the antenna
can reduce any harmonic emission from your station
Mobile Installations
• The negative return connector of a mobile transceiver's
power cable should be connected at the battery or
engine block ground strap
• If a mobile transceiver’s received audio has a highpitched
whine that varies with engine speed, then the source is the
alternator
• if another operator reports a variable high-pitched whine
on the audio from your mobile transmitter, then probably
noise from the vehicle’s electrical system is being
transmitted along with your speech audio
G
roup T4A – Station Setup
Which of the
following is true concerning the microphone
connectors on amateur transceivers?
A. All transceivers use the same microphone
connector type
B. Some connectors include push-to-talk and
voltages for powering the microphone
C. All transceivers using the same connector type are
wired identically
D. Un-keyed connectors allow any microphone to be
connected
2.
4.
5.
How might a computer be used as part of an amateur
radio station?
A. For logging contacts and contact information
B. For sending and/or receiving CW
C. For generating and decoding digital signals
D. All of these choices are correct
3.
Which is a good reason to use a regulated power
supply for communications equipment?
A. It prevents voltage fluctuations from reaching
sensitive circuits
B. A regulated power supply has FCC approval
C. A fuse or circuit breaker regulates the power
D. Power consumption is independent of load
30
6.
Where must a filter be installed to reduce harmonic
emissions from your station? A. Between the
transmitter and the antenna
B. Between the receiver and the transmitter
C. At the station power supply
D. At the microphone
Where should an in-line SWR meter be connected to
monitor the standing wave ratio of the station antenna
system?
A. In series with the feed line, between the
transmitter and antenna
B. In series with the station's ground
C. In parallel with the push-to-talk line and the
antenna
D. In series with the power supply cable, as close as
possible to the radio
Which of the following would be connected between a
transceiver and computer in a packet radio station? A.
Transmatch
B. Mixer
C. Terminal node controller
D. Antenna
1.
7. How is a computer’s sound card used when
conducting digital communications using a computer?
A. The sound card communicates between the
computer CPU and the video display
B. The sound card records the audio frequency for
video display
C. The sound card provides audio to the microphone
input and converts received audio to digital form
D. All of these choices are correct
8.
9.
10. What is the source of a high-pitched whine that varies
with engine speed in a mobile transceiver’s receive
audio? A. The ignition system
B. The alternator
C. The electric fuel pump
D. Anti-lock braking system controllers
11. Where should the negative return connection of a
mobile transceiver's power cable be connected?
A. At the battery or engine block ground strap
B. At the antenna mount
C. To any metal part of the vehicle
D. Through the transceiver’s mounting bracket
Which type of conductor is best to use for RF
grounding? A. Round stranded wire
B. Round copper-clad steel wire
C. Twisted-pair cable
D. Flat strap
12. What could be happening if another operator reports a
variable high-pitched whine on the audio from your
mobile transmitter?
A. Your microphone is picking up noise from an
open window
B. You have the volume on your receiver set too high
C. You need to adjust your squelch control
D. Noise on the vehicle’s electrical system is being
transmitted along with your speech audio
Which of the following could you use to cure distorted
audio caused by RF current flowing on the shield of a
microphone cable?
A. Band-pass filter
B. Low-pass filter
C. Preamplifier
D. Ferrite choke
Group T4B –
Receive and Transmit Setup
Frequency Control
• The keypad or VFO knob can be used to enter the operating
frequency on a modern transceiver
• A quick way access to a favorite frequency is to store it in a
memory channel
• "Repeater offset" is the difference between the repeater’s
transmit and receive frequencies
Transmit Setup
• Setting the microphone gain is set too high may cause the output
signal to become distorted
Receive Setup
• The function of automatic gain control (AGC) is to keep the
received audio volume relatively constant
• The purpose of the squelch control is to mute receiver output
noise when no signal is being received
• To reduce ignition interference, turn on the noise blanker
• “RIT” means Receiver Incremental Tuning
• The RIT or clarifier can be used if the voice pitch of a singlesideband signal seems too high or low
31
• The advantage of having multiple receive bandwidth choices on
a multimode transceiver is that it permits noise or interference
reduction by selecting a bandwidth matching the mode
• The appropriate receive bandwidth for SSB reception is 2400
Hz
• The appropriate receive bandwidth for CW reception is
500 Hz
Group T4B
– Receive and Transmit Setup
What may happen
if a transmitter is operated with the microphone
gain set too high? A. The output power might be
too high
B. The output signal might become distorted
C. The frequency might vary
D. The SWR might increase
2.
3.
D. To mute receiver output noise when no signal is
being received
4.
What is a way to enable quick access to a favorite
frequency on your transceiver?
A. Enable the CTCSS tones
B. Store the frequency in a memory channel
C. Disable the CTCSS tones
D. Use the scan mode to select the desired frequency
Which of the following can be used to enter the
operating frequency on a modern transceiver?
A. The keypad or VFO knob
B. The CTCSS or DTMF encoder
C. The Automatic Frequency Control
D. All of these choices are correct
What is the purpose of the squelch control on a
transceiver?
A. To set the highest level of volume desired
B. To set the transmitter power level
C. To adjust the automatic gain control
32
5.
6.
Which of the following would reduce ignition
interference to a receiver? A. Change frequency
slightly
B. Decrease the squelch setting
C. Turn on the noise blanker
D. Use the RIT control
Which of the following controls could be used if the
voice pitch of a single-sideband signal seems too high
or low? A. The AGC or limiter
1.
B. The bandwidth selection
C. The tone squelch
D. The receiver RIT or clarifier
7.
What does the term “RIT” mean? A. Receiver Input
Tone
B. Receiver Incremental Tuning
C. Rectifier Inverter Test
D. Remote Input Transmitter
8.
9.
What is the advantage of having multiple receive
bandwidth choices on a multimode transceiver? A.
Permits monitoring several modes at once
B. Permits noise or interference reduction by
selecting a bandwidth matching the mode
C. Increases the number of frequencies that can be
stored in memory
D. Increases the amount of offset between receive
and transmit frequencies
Which of the following is an appropriate receive filter
bandwidth to select in order to minimize noise and
interference for SSB reception?
A. 500 Hz
B. 1000 Hz C. 2400 Hz D. 5000 Hz
10. Which of the following is an appropriate receive filter
bandwidth to select in order to minimize noise and
interference for CW reception?
A. 500 Hz
B. 1000 Hz C. 2400 Hz
D. 5000 Hz
11. Which of the following describes the common
meaning of the term "repeater offset"?
A. The distance between the repeater’s transmit and
receive antennas
B. The time delay before the repeater timer resets
C. The difference between the repeater’s transmit
and receive frequencies
D. Matching the antenna impedance to the feed line
impedance
12. What is the function of automatic gain control or
AGC?
A. To keep received audio relatively constant
B. To protect an antenna from lightning
C. To eliminate RF on the station cabling
D. An asymmetric goniometer control used for
antenna matching
33
–
Group T5A Basic Electricity
Electrical Current
• Current is the flow of electrons in an electric circuit
• The unit of electrical current is the ampere
• Direct current (DC) is an electrical current that flows in only one direction
• Alternating current (AC) is an electrical current that reverses direction on a regular basis
• Frequency is the number of times per second that an alternating current reverses direction
Voltage
• Voltage is the electromotive force (EMF) that causes electron flow
• The unit of electromotive force is the volt
• A mobile transceiver usually requires about 12 volts
Electrical Power
• Power is the rate at which electrical energy is used
• The unit of electrical power is the watt
Materials
• Copper is a good electrical conductor of electrical current
• Glass is a good electrical insulator
Group T5A Basic Electricity
34
–
1.
Electrical
current is measured in which of the following
units? A. Volts
B. Watts
C. Ohms
D. Amperes
2.
3.
4.
5.
Electrical power is measured in which of the
following units? A. Volts
B. Watts
C. Ohms
D. Amperes
What is the name for the flow of electrons in an
electric circuit?
A. Voltage
B. Resistance
C. Capacitance
D. Current
What is the name for a current that flows only in
one direction? A. Alternating current
B. Direct current
C. Normal current
D. Smooth current
What is the electrical term for the electromotive
force (EMF) that causes electron flow?
A. Voltage
B. Ampere-hours
C. Capacitance
D. Inductance
6.
9.
10. Which term describes the rate at which
electrical energy is used? A. Resistance
B. Current
C. Power
D. Voltage
11. What is the basic unit of electromotive force?
A. The volt
B. The watt
C. The ampere
D. The ohm
12. What term describes the number of times per
second that an alternating current reverses
direction? A. Pulse rate
B. Speed
C. Wavelength
D. Frequency
How much voltage does a mobile transceiver
usually require? A. About 12 volts
B. About 30 volts
C. About 120 volts
D. About 240 volts
7.
Which of the following is a good electrical
conductor? A. Glass
B. Wood
C. Copper
D. Rubber
8.
Which of the following is a good electrical
insulator?
A. Copper
B. Glass
C. Aluminum
D. Mercury
What is the name for a current that reverses
direction on a regular basis?
A. Alternating current
B. Direct current
C. Circular current
D. Vertical current
35
–
Group T5B
Units Conversion
Pico-, Nano-, and MicroUnits
• 1,000,000 picofarads is 1 microfarad
10
watts
1
10 log
,000,000 pF 1,000 nf 1 μF
10 log 2
3 dB
5
• A microvolt is one one-millionth of a volt
watts
1
μV
0.001 mV
V
• A decrease from 12 watts to 3 watts is power change of
approximately -6 dB
0.000 001
3 watts
MIlli- Units
• 500 milliwatts is 0.5 watts
500 mW
0.500 W 0.5 W
• A current of 1.5 amperes is 1,500 milliamperes
10 log
10 log
12 watts
6 dB
4
• An increase from 20 watts to 200 watts is a power
increase of 10 dB
1
.5 A 1.500 A 1,500 mA
200
watts
• If an ammeter is calibrated in amperes and is used to
measure a 3000 milliampere current, then the meter
would show a reading of 3
amperes
3000 mA 3.000 A
3A
10 log
10 log 10
10 dB
20
watts
Kilo- , Mega- , and GigaUnits
• One kilovolt is one thousand volts
pico
nano
micro
milli
p
n
μ
m
10-12
10-9
10-6
10-3
100
0.000 000 000 001
0.000 000 001
0.000 001
0.001
1
English
word
trillionth
billionth
millionth
thousandth
one
kilo
mega
giga
tera
k
M
G
T
103
106
109
1012
1,000
1,000,000
1,000,000,000
1,000,000,000,000
thousand
million
billion
trillion
Prefix
1
kV 1.000 kV 1,000 V
• A radio signal frequency of 1,500,000 hertz is 1500 kHz
Symbol
1
,5000,000 Hz 1,500.000
kHz 1,500 kHz
• If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows a
reading of 3.525 MHz, then it would show 3525 kHz if it
were calibrated in kilohertz
3.525 MHz 3525
kHz
• The frequency 28,400 kHz is 28.400 MHz
10n
Decimal
Tab
le T5B – Metric Prefixes
2
8,400 kHz
1
28.400 MHz
• If a frequency readout shows a reading of 2425 MHz, then
the frequency is 2.425 GHz
2425 MHz 2.425
GHz
Power Changes in Decibels
(dB)
• An increase from 5 watts to 10 watts is a power change of
approximately of 3 dB
36
–
1.
Group T5B
Units Conversion
How many
milliamperes is 1.5 amperes?
A. 15 milliamperes
B. 150 milliamperes
C. 1,500 milliamperes
D. 15,000 milliamperes
2.
What is another way to specify a radio signal
frequency of 1,500,000 hertz?
A.
1500 kHz
B.
1500 MHz
C.
15 GHz
D.
150 kHz
3.
4.
5.
How many volts are equal to one kilovolt?
A.
One one-thousandth of a volt
B.
One hundred volts
C.
One thousand volts
D.
One million volts
How many volts are equal to one microvolt?
A.
One one-millionth of a volt
B.
One million volts
C.
One thousand kilovolts
D.
One one-thousandth of a volt
Which of the following is equivalent to 500
milliwatts? A. 0.02 watts
B. 0.5 watts
C. 5 watts
D. 50 watts
6. If an ammeter calibrated in amperes is used to
measure a 3000-milliampere current, what reading
would it show? A. 0.003 amperes
B. 0.3 amperes
C. 3 amperes
8.
How many microfarads are 1,000,000 picofarads?
A.
0.001 microfarads
B.
1 microfarad
C.
1000 microfarads
D.
1,000,000,000 microfarads
9. What is the approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power increase
from 5 watts to 10 watts?
A.
2 dB B. 3 dB
C. 5 dB
D. 10 dB
10. What is the approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power decrease
from 12 watts to 3 watts?
A.
-1 dB B. -3 dB C. -6 dB
D. -9 dB
11. What is the approximate amount of change,
measured in decibels (dB), of a power increase
from 20 watts to 200 watts?
A.
10 dB B. 12 dB C. 18 dB
D. 28 dB
12. Which of the following frequencies is equal to
28,400 kHz?
A.
28.400 MHz
B.
2.800 MHz
C.
284.00 MHz
D.
28.400 kHz
13. If a frequency readout shows a reading of 2425
MHz, what frequency is that in GHz?
A.
0.002425 GHZ
B.
24.25 GHz
C. 2.425 GHz
Group T5C Electrical Units
D. 2425 GHz
D. 3,000,000 amperes
Radio Waves
•
A
usual
name
for
electromagnetic
waves
that travel
7. If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows
through space is radio waves
a reading of 3.525 MHz, what would it show if it were
calibrated in kilohertz?
• “RF” refers to radio frequency signals of all types
A.
0.003525 kHz
• The unit of frequency is the hertz
B.
35.25 kHz
C.
3525 kHz
Impedance
D.
3,525,000 kHz
• Impedance is a measure of the opposition to AC current
flow in a circuit
37
–
• The units of impedance are ohms
Capacitance and Inductance
• The ability to store energy in an electric field is called
capacitance
• The basic unit of capacitance is the farad
• The ability to store energy in a magnetic field is called
inductance
• The basic unit of inductance is the henry
Electrical Power
• Power (P) equals voltage (E) multiplied by current (I).
P EI
• If the applied voltage is 13.8 volts DC and the current is 10
amperes, then the power being used is 138 watts P
13.8 V
10 A
EI
138 W
• When the applied voltage is 12 volts DC and the current is
2.5 amperes, then the power is 30 watts P
V
EI
12
2.5 A
30 W
Memory Aid for
Electrical Power
• When the applied voltage is 12 volts DC and the load is 120
watts, there are 10 amperes flowing in the circuit
P
P
I
120 W
10 A
E
12 V
I
Group T5C
Electrical Units
What is the ability
to store energy in an electric field called?
A. Inductance
B. Resistance
C. Tolerance
D. Capacitance
2.
3.
4.
D. The ohm
5.
What is the basic unit of inductance?
A. The coulomb
B. The farad
C. The henry
What is the unit of frequency?
A. Hertz
B. Henry C. Farad
D. Tesla
What does the abbreviation “RF” refer to?
A. Radio frequency signals of all types
B. The resonant frequency of a tuned circuit
C. The real frequency transmitted as opposed to the
apparent frequency
D. Reflective force in antenna transmission lines
What is the basic unit of capacitance?
A. The farad
B. The ohm
C. The volt
D. The henry
What is the ability to store energy in a magnetic field
called? A. Admittance
B. Capacitance
C. Resistance
D. Inductance
E
6.
7.
8.
What is a usual name for electromagnetic waves that
travel through space? A. Gravity waves
B. Sound waves
C. Radio waves
D. Pressure waves
What is the formula used to calculate electrical power
in a DC circuit?
38
–
1.
A. Power (P) equals voltage (E) multiplied by
current (I)
B. Power (P) equals voltage (E) divided by current
(I)
C. Power (P) equals voltage (E) minus current (I)
D. Power (P) equals voltage (E) plus current (I)
9.
How much power is being used in a circuit when the
applied voltage is 13.8 volts DC and the current is 10
amperes?
A. 138 watts
B. 0.7 watts
C. 23.8 watts
D. 3.8 watts
10. How much power is being used in a circuit when the
applied voltage is 12 volts DC and the current is 2.5
amperes? A. 4.8 watts
B. 30 watts
C. 14.5 watts
D. 0.208 watts
11. How many amperes are flowing in a circuit when the
applied voltage is 12 volts DC and the load is 120
watts?
A. 0.1 amperes
B. 10 amperes
C. 12 amperes
D. 132 amperes
12. What is meant by the term impedance?
A. It is a measure of the opposition to AC current
flow in a circuit
B. It is the inverse of resistance
C. It is a measure of the Q or Quality Factor of a
component
D. It is a measure of the power handling capability of
a component
13. What are the units of impedance?
A. Volts
B. Amperes
C. Coulombs
D. Ohms
39
Group
T5D – Ohm’s Law
Memory Aid for Ohm’s Law
• Current (I) equals voltage (E) divided by resistance (R).
E
E
I
R I
R
• In a circuit with an applied voltage of 120 volts and a resistance of 80 ohms, the current
flow is 1.5 amperes
Calculating Current
E
120 V
I
1.5 A
80
R
• In a circuit with a 100-ohm resistor connected across
200 volts, the current flow is 2 amperes
E
200 V
2A
100
I
R
In a circuit with a 24ohm resistor connected across
240 volts, the current flow is 10 amperes
E
240 V
10 A
R 24
I
Calculating Voltage
• Voltage (E) equals current (I) multiplied by resistance (R).
E
IR
• If 0.5 amperes flow through a 2-ohm resistor, the voltage across
the resistor is 1 volt
E
IR
0.5 A
2
1V
• If 1 ampere flow through a 10-ohm resistor, the voltage across
the resistor is 10 volts
E
IR
1A
10
10 V
10
20 V
• If 2 amperes flow through a 10-ohm resistor, the voltage across
the resistor is 20 volts
E
IR
2A
Calculating Resistance
• Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) divided by current (I)
R
40
E
.
I
1.
• If the source is 90 volts and the current through the resistor is 3
amperes, then the resistance is 30 ohms
E
90 V
30
I
3A
R
• If applied voltage is 12 volts and the current flow is 1.5 amperes,
then the resistance is 8 ohms
E
12 V
8
1.5 A
R
I
• If the source is 12 volts and the circuit draws 4 amperes, then the
resistance is 3 ohms
E
R
I
12 V
3
4A
Grou
p T5D – Ohm’s Law
What formula is
used to calculate current in a circuit?
A. Current (I) equals voltage (E) multiplied by
resistance (R)
B. Current (I) equals voltage (E) divided by
resistance (R)
C. Current (I) equals voltage (E) added to resistance
(R)
D. Current (I) equals voltage (E) minus resistance
(R)
2.
4.
What is the resistance of a circuit in which a current
of 3 amperes flows through a resistor connected to 90
volts?
A. 3 ohms
B. 30 ohms
C. 93 ohms
D. 270 ohms
5. What is the resistance in a circuit for which the
applied voltage is 12 volts and the current flow is 1.5
amperes?
A. 18 ohms
B. 0.125 ohms
C. 8 ohms
D. 13.5 ohms
What formula is used to calculate voltage in a circuit?
A. Voltage (E) equals current (I) multiplied by
resistance (R)
B. Voltage (E) equals current (I) divided by
resistance (R)
C. Voltage (E) equals current (I) added to resistance
(R)
D. Voltage (E) equals current (I) minus resistance
(R)
6.
3.
What formula is used to calculate resistance in a
circuit?
A. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) multiplied by
current (I)
B. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) divided by
current (I)
C. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) added to
current (I)
D. Resistance (R) equals voltage (E) minus current
(I)
7.
41
What is the resistance of a circuit that draws 4
amperes from a 12-volt source?
A. 3 ohms
B. 16 ohms
C. 48 ohms
D. 8 Ohms
What is the current flow in a circuit with an applied
voltage of 120 volts and a resistance of 80 ohms?
A. 9600 amperes
B. 200 amperes
C. 0.667 amperes
D. 1.5 amperes
8.
9.
What is the current flowing through a 100-ohm
resistor connected across 200 volts?
A. 20,000 amperes
B. 0.5 amperes
C. 2 amperes
D. 100 amperes
What is the current flowing through a 24-ohm resistor
connected across 240 volts?
A. 24,000 amperes
B. 0.1 amperes
C. 10 amperes
D. 216 amperes
10. What is the voltage across a 2-ohm resistor if a
current of 0.5 amperes flows through it?
A. 1 volt
B. 0.25 volts
C. 2.5 volts
D. 1.5 volts
11. What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a
current of 1 ampere flows through it?
A. 1 volt
B. 10 volts
C. 11 volts
D. 9 volts
12. What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a
current of 2 amperes flows through it?
A. 8 volts
B. 0.2 volts
C. 12 volts
D. 20 volts
Group T6A – Passive
Components
Resistors
• A resistor is used to oppose the flow of current in a DC circuit
• Resistance is the electrical parameter is controlled by a
potentiometer
• A potentiometer is a type of variable resistor. A potentiometer
is often used as an adjustable volume control
Capacitors and Inductors
• A capacitor stores energy in an electric field
• A capacitor consists of two or more conductive surfaces
separated by an insulator
• An inductor stores energy in a magnetic field
• An inductor is usually composed of a coil of wire
Switches and Fuses
• A switch is used to connect or disconnect electrical circuits
• A fuse is used to protect other circuit components from current
overloads
Batteries
• All of the following battery types are rechargeable o Nickelmetal hydride o Lithium-ion o Lead-acid gel-cell
• A carbon-zinc battery types is not rechargeable
Group T6A –
Passive Components
42
1.
What electrical
component is used to oppose the flow of current in a
DC circuit?
A. Inductor
B. Resistor
C. Voltmeter
D. Transformer
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
B. Capacitor
C. Inductor
D. Diode
7.
What electrical component is usually composed of a
coil of wire?
A. Switch
B. Capacitor
C. Diode
D. Inductor
What type of component is often used as an
adjustable volume control? A. Fixed resistor
B. Power resistor
C. Potentiometer
D. Transformer
What electrical parameter is controlled by a
potentiometer?
A. Inductance
B. Resistance
C. Capacitance
D. Field strength
What electrical component stores energy in an
electric field?
A. Resistor
B. Capacitor
C. Inductor
D. Diode
What type of electrical component consists of two or
more conductive surfaces separated by an insulator?
A. Resistor
B. Potentiometer
C. Oscillator
D. Capacitor
8.
9.
What electrical component is used to connect or
disconnect electrical circuits?
A. Magnetron B. Switch
C. Thermistor
D. All of these choices are correct
What electrical component is used to protect other
circuit components from current overloads?
A. Fuse
B. Capacitor
C. Inductor
D. All of these choices are correct
10. Which of the following battery types is rechargeable?
A. Nickel-metal hydride
B. Lithium-ion
C. Lead-acid gel-cell
D. All of these choices are correct
11. Which of the following battery types is not
rechargeable? A. Nickel-cadmium
B. Carbon-zinc
C. Lead-acid
D. Lithium-ion
What type of electrical component stores energy in a
magnetic field? A. Resistor
Group T6B – Active Components
Transistors
• Transistors are capable of using a voltage or current signal to
control current flow
• The transistor can amplify signals
• The transistor can be used as an electronic switch or amplifier
• Gain is the term that describes a transistor's ability to amplify a
signal
Field Effect Transistors
• The abbreviation FET stands for Field Effect Transistor
43
• The source, gate, and drain are the three electrodes of a field
effect transistor
Bipolar Junction Transistors
• The three electrodes of a PNP or NPN transistor are the emitter,
base, and collector
• The transistor can be made of three layers of semiconductor
material
Diodes
• The diode allows current to flow in only one direction
• The names of the two electrodes of a diode are the anode and
cathode
• The cathode lead of a semiconductor diode is usually identified
with a stripe
• The abbreviation LED stands for Light Emitting Diode
Group T6B –
Active Components
What class of
electronic components is capable of using a voltage or
current signal to control current flow?
A. Capacitors
B. Inductors
C. Resistors
D. Transistors
2.
What electronic component allows current to flow in
only one direction? A. Resistor
B. Fuse
C. Diode
D. Driven Element
3.
44
Which of these components can be used as an
electronic switch or amplifier?
1.
A. Oscillator
B. Potentiometer
C. Transistor
D. Voltmeter
B. Fast Electron Transistor
C. Free Electron Transition
D. Field Emission Thickness
9.
4.
Which of the following components can be made of
three layers of semiconductor material?
A. Alternator
B. Transistor
C. Triode
D. Pentagrid converter
5.
Which of the following electronic components can
amplify signals? A. Transistor
B. Variable resistor
C. Electrolytic capacitor
D. Multi-cell battery
6.
How is the cathode lead of a semiconductor diode
usually identified? A. With the word cathode
B. With a stripe
C. With the letter C
D. All of these choices are correct
7.
What does the abbreviation LED stand for?
A. Low Emission Diode
B. Light Emitting Diode
C. Liquid Emission Detector
D. Long Echo Delay
8.
What does the abbreviation FET stand for?
A. Field Effect Transistor
What are the names of the two electrodes of a diode?
A. Plus and minus
B. Source and drain
C. Anode and cathode
D. Gate and base
10. What are the three electrodes of a PNP or NPN
transistor?
A. Emitter, base, and collector
B. Source, gate, and drain
C. Cathode, grid, and plate
D. Cathode, drift cavity, and collector
11. What at are the three electrodes of a field effect
transistor?
A. Emitter, base, and collector
B. Source, gate, and drain
C. Cathode, grid, and plate
D. Cathode, gate, and anode
12. What is the term that describes a transistor's ability to
amplify a signal?
A. Gain
B. Forward resistance
C. Forward voltage drop
D. On resistance
Group T6C – Schematic Symbols
Schematics
• The name for standardized representations of
components in
an electrical wiring diagram is
schematic symbols
• The symbols on an electrical circuit schematic diagram represent
electrical components
• Electrical circuit schematic diagrams represent the way components
are interconnected
Resistors
• Figure T1, component 1 is a resistor
• Figure T2, component 9 is a variable resistor
Figure T1
Capacitors
45
• Figure T2, component 6 is a capacitor
Inductors and
Transformers
• Figure T2, component 4 is a transformer
• Figure T3, component 3 is a variable inductor
Semiconductors
• Figure T1, component 2 is a transistor
• Figure T2, component 8 is a light emitting diode
Figure T2
Some Other Components
• Figure T1, component 3 is a lamp
• Figure T1, component 4 is a battery
• Figure T3, component 4 is an antenna
Figure T3
Group T6C –
Schematic Symbols
What is the name
for standardized representations of components in an
electrical wiring diagram?
A. Electrical depictions
B. Grey sketch
C. Schematic symbols
D. Component callouts
2.
C.
D.
What is component 1 in figure T1?
A.
Resistor
B.
Transistor
46
Battery
Connector
3.
What is component 2 in figure T1?
A.
Resistor
B.
Transistor
C.
Indicator lamp
D.
Connector
4.
What is component 3 in figure T1?
1.
A.
B.
D.
Resistor
Transistor
C.
Lamp
Ground symbol
5.
What is component 4 in figure T1?
A.
Resistor
B.
Transistor
C.
Battery
D.
Ground symbol
6.
What is component 6 in figure T2?
A.
Resistor
B.
Capacitor
C.
Regulator IC
D.
Transistor
7.
What is component 8 in figure T2?
A.
Resistor
B.
Inductor
C.
Regulator IC
D.
Light emitting diode
8.
What is component 9 in figure T2?
A.
Variable capacitor
B.
Variable inductor
C.
Variable resistor
D.
Variable transformer
9.
What is component 4 in figure T2?
A.
Variable inductor
B.
Double-pole switch
C.
Potentiometer
D.
Transformer
B. Logic states
C. Digital codes
D. Traffic nodes
13. Which of the following is accurately represented in
electrical circuit schematic diagrams? A. Wire
lengths
B. Physical appearance of components
C. The way components are interconnected
D. All of these choices are correct
Figu
re T1
Fig
ure T2
10. What is component 3 in figure T3?
A.
Connector
B.
Meter
C.
Variable capacitor
D.
Variable inductor 11. What is
component 4 in figure T3?
A. Antenna
B. Transmitter
C. Dummy load
D. Ground
12. What do the symbols on an electrical circuit
schematic diagram represent?
A. Electrical components
Figur
e T3
Group T6D – Component
and Circuit Functions
47
Switches
• Figure T2, component 3 represents a single-pole single-throw
switch
• A relay is a switch controlled by an electromagnet
Semiconductors
• The function of figure T1, component 2 is to control the flow of
current
• A rectifier changes an alternating current into a varying direct
current signal
• An integrated circuit combines several
Figure T1
semiconductors and other components into one
package
Indicators
• A LED is commonly used as a visual indicator
• A meter can be used to display signal strength on a
numeric scale
Power Supplies
• A regulator circuit controls the amount of voltage from a
power supply
• A transformer is commonly used to change 120V AC
Figure T2 house current to a lower AC voltage for other uses
Tuned Circuit
• A simple resonant or tuned circuit is an inductor and a capacitor connected in series or parallel to
form a filter
• A capacitor is used together with an inductor to make a tuned circuit
Shielding
• A common reason to use shielded wire is to prevent coupling of unwanted signals to or from the
wire
48
1.
Group T6D –
Component and Circuit Functions
Which of the
following devices or circuits changes an alternating
current into a varying direct current signal? A.
Transformer
B. Rectifier
C. Amplifier
D. Reflector
B. Transformer
C. Transistor
D. Diode
7.
Which of the following is commonly used as a visual
indicator?
A. LED
B. FET
C. Zener diode
D. Bipolar transistor
2. What best describes a relay?
A. A switch controlled by an electromagnet
B. A current controlled amplifier
C. An optical sensor
D. A pass transistor
3.
8.
What type of switch is represented by component 3 in
figure T2? A. Single-pole single-throw
B. Single-pole double-throw
C. Double-pole single-throw
D. Double-pole double-throw
4.
5.
6.
9.
Which of the following can be used to display signal
strength on a numeric scale?
A. Potentiometer
B. Transistor
C. Meter
D. Relay
Which of the following is used together with an
inductor to make a tuned circuit?
A. Resistor
B. Zener diode
C. Potentiometer
D. Capacitor
What is the name of a device that combines several
semiconductors and other components into one
package? A. Transducer
B. Multi-pole relay
C. Integrated circuit
D. Transformer
10. What is the function of component 2 in Figure T1?
A. Give off light when current flows through it
B. Supply electrical energy
C. Control the flow of current
D. Convert electrical energy into radio waves
What type of circuit controls the amount of voltage
from a power supply? A. Regulator
B. Oscillator
C. Filter
D. Phase inverter
11. What is a simple resonant or tuned circuit?
A. An inductor and a capacitor connected in series or
parallel to form a filter
B. A type of voltage regulator
What component is commonly used to change 120V
AC house current to a lower AC voltage for other
uses? A. Variable capacitor
49
C. A resistor circuit used for reducing standing wave
ratio
D. A circuit designed to provide high fidelity audio
12. Which of the following is a common reason to use
shielded wire?
A. To decrease the resistance of DC power
connections
B. To increase the current carrying capability of the
wire
C. To prevent coupling of unwanted signals to or
from the wire
D. To couple the wire to other signals
Figure T1
Figure T2
Group T7A
– Radio Subsystems
Oscillators and Mixers
• An oscillator is a circuit that generates a signal of a desired
frequency
• A mixer is used to convert a radio signal from one frequency to
another
Receivers
• Sensitivity describes the ability of a receiver to detect the
presence of a signal
• Selectivity describes the ability of a receiver to discriminate
between multiple signals
• An RF preamplifier is installed between the antenna and receiver
Transmitters
• Modulation describes combining speech with an RF carrier
signal
• A transverter takes the output of a low-powered 28 MHz SSB
exciter and produces a 222 MHz output signal
• An RF power amplifier increases the low-power output from a
handheld transceiver
Transceivers
• A transceiver is a unit combining the functions of a transmitter
and a receiver
50
1.
• A multi-mode VHF transceiver is most useful for VHF weaksignal communication
• “PTT” refers to the push-to-talk function, which switches
between receive and transmit
G
roup T7A – Radio Subsystems
Which term
describes the ability of a receiver to detect the
presence of a signal?
A. Linearity
B. Sensitivity
C. Selectivity
D. Total Harmonic Distortion
4.
5.
2. What is a transceiver?
A. A type of antenna switch
B. A unit combining the functions of a
transmitter and a receiver
C. A component in a repeater which filters out
unwanted interference
D. A type of antenna matching network
3.
6.
Which of the following is used to convert a radio
signal from one frequency to another?
A. Phase splitter
B. Mixer
C. Inverter
D. Amplifier
Which term describes the ability of a receiver to
discriminate between multiple signals?
A. Discrimination ratio
B. Sensitivity
C. Selectivity
D. Harmonic Distortion
What is the name of a circuit that generates a signal
of a desired frequency? A. Reactance modulator
B. Product detector
C. Low-pass filter
D. Oscillator
What device takes the output of a low-powered 28
MHz SSB exciter and produces a 222 MHz output
signal? A. High-pass filter
B. Low-pass filter
C. Transverter
D. Phase converter
7. What is meant by term “PTT”?
A. Pre-transmission tuning to reduce transmitter
harmonic emission
51
B. Precise tone transmissions used to limit
repeater access to only certain signals
C. A primary transformer tuner use to match
antennas
D. The push to talk function which switches
between receive and transmit
8.
9.
Which of the following describes combining
speech with an RF carrier signal?
A. Impedance matching
B. Oscillation
C. Modulation
D. Low-pass filtering
Which of the following devices is most useful for
VHF weak-signal communication?
A. A quarter-wave vertical antenna
B. A multi-mode VHF transceiver
C. An omni-directional antenna
D. A mobile VHF FM transceiver
10. What device increases the low-power output from a
handheld transceiver? A. A voltage divider
B. An RF power amplifier
C. An impedance network
D. All of these choices are correct
11. Where is an RF preamplifier installed? A. Between
the antenna and receiver
B. At the output of the transmitter's power amplifier
C. Between a transmitter and antenna tuner
D. At the receiver's audio output
52
1.
Group T7B – Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
Creating a Clean Signal
• If you are told your FM handheld or mobile transceiver is
over-deviating, you can talk farther away from the
microphone
• All of the following may be a cause of radio frequency
interference o Fundamental overload o Harmonics o
Spurious emissions
• A symptom of RF feedback in a transmitter or
transceiver is reports of garbled, distorted, or
unintelligible
transmissions
• All of the following might be the problem if you receive
a report that your audio signal through the repeater is
distorted or unintelligible o Your transmitter may be
slightly off frequency o Your batteries may be running
low o You could be in a bad location
• If something in a neighbor’s home is causing harmful
interference to your amateur station, all of the following
are correct actions:
o Work with your neighbor to identify the offending
device
o Politely inform your neighbor about the rules that
prohibit the use of devices which cause interference
o Check your station and make sure it meets the
standards of good
amateur practice
• All of the following may be useful in correcting a radio
frequency interference problem: o Snap-on ferrite chokes
o Low-pass and high-pass filters o Band-reject and
band-pass filters
Reducing Susceptibility
• If a neighbor tells you that your station’s transmissions
are interfering with their radio or TV reception, you
should make sure that your station is functioning
properly and that it does not cause interference to your
own radio or television when it is tuned to the same
channel
• A broadcast AM or FM radio could unintentionally
receive an amateur radio transmission if the receiver is
unable to reject strong signals outside the AM or FM
band
• To reduced or eliminated the overload of a nonamateur
radio or TV receiver by an amateur signal, block the
amateur signal with a filter at the antenna
input of the affected
receiver
• A first step to resolve cable TV interference from your
ham radio transmission is to be sure all TV coaxial
connectors are installed
properly
• A way to reduce or eliminate interference by an amateur
transmitter to a nearby telephone is to put a
RF filter on the
telephone
Mitigating RF Noise
• A Part 15 device is an unlicensed device that may emit
low powered radio signals on frequencies used by a
licensed service
53
G
roup T7B – Radio
Frequency
Interference (RFI)
1.
2.
What can you do if you are told your FM handheld or
mobile transceiver is over-deviating?
A. Talk louder into the microphone
B. Let the transceiver cool off
C. Change to a higher power level
D. Talk farther away from the microphone
D.
7.
What would cause a broadcast AM or FM radio to receive an
amateur radio transmission unintentionally?
A. The receiver is unable to reject strong signals outside
the AM or FM band
B. The microphone gain of the transmitter is turned up too
high
C. The audio amplifier of the transmitter is overloaded
D. The deviation of an FM transmitter is set too low
3.
What should you do if something in a neighbor’s home is
causing harmful interference to your amateur station?
A. Work with your neighbor to identify the offending
device
B. Politely inform your neighbor about the rules that
prohibit the use of devices which cause interference
C. Check your station and make sure it meets the standards
of good amateur practice D. All of these choices are
correct
Which of the following may be a cause of radio frequency
interference? A. Fundamental overload
B. Harmonics
C. Spurious emissions
D. All of these choices are correct
9. What is a Part 15 device?
An unlicensed device that may emit low powered radio
signals on frequencies used by a licensed service
B. A type of amateur radio that can legally be used in the
citizen’s band
C. A device for long distance communications using
special codes sanctioned by the International Amateur
Radio Union
D. A type of test set used to determine whether a
transmitter is in compliance with FCC regulation
91.15
A.
Which of the following is a way to reduce or eliminate
interference by an amateur transmitter to a nearby
telephone?
A. Put a filter on the amateur transmitter
B. Reduce the microphone gain
C. Reduce the SWR on the transmitter transmission line
D. Put a RF filter on the telephone
6.
Which of the following may be useful in correcting a radio
frequency interference problem? A.
Snap-on ferrite
chokes
B. Low-pass and high-pass filters
C. Band-reject and band-pass filters
D. All of these choices are correct
8.
4.
5.
Install a harmonic doubler on the output of your
transmitter and tune it until the interference is
eliminated
How can overload of a non-amateur radio or TV receiver by
an amateur signal be reduced or eliminated?
A. Block the amateur signal with a filter at the antenna
input of the affected receiver
B. Block the interfering signal with a filter on the amateur
transmitter
C. Switch the transmitter from FM to SSB
D. Switch the transmitter to a narrow-band mode
10. What might be the problem if you receive a report that your
audio signal through the repeater is distorted or
unintelligible?
A. Your transmitter may be slightly off frequency
B. Your batteries may be running low
C. You could be in a bad location
D. All of these choices are correct
Which of the following actions should you take if a neighbor
tells you that your station’s transmissions are interfering
with their radio or TV reception?
A. Make sure that your station is functioning properly and
that it does not cause interference to your own radio or
television when it is tuned to the same channel
B. Immediately turn off your transmitter and contact the
nearest FCC office for assistance
C. Tell them that your license gives you the right to
transmit and nothing can be done to reduce the
interference
11. What is a symptom of RF feedback in a transmitter or
transceiver?
A. Excessive SWR at the antenna connection
B. The transmitter will not stay on the desired frequency
C. Reports of garbled, distorted, or unintelligible
transmissions
D. Frequent blowing of power supply fuses
12. What might be the first step to resolve cable TV interference
from your ham radio transmission? A.
Add a low pass
filter to the TV antenna input
54
1.
B.
C.
Add a high pass filter to the TV antenna input
Add a preamplifier to the TV antenna input
D.
Be sure all TV coaxial connectors are installed properly
Group T7C –
Antenna System Measurements
Coaxial cable
• A common use of coaxial cable is carrying RF signals
between a radio and antenna
• The power lost in a feed line is converted into heat
• The most common cause for failure of coaxial cables is
moisture contamination
• The outer jacket of coaxial cable should be resistant to
ultraviolet light because ultraviolet light can damage the
jacket and allow water to enter the cable
• When compared to foam or solid dielectric types, a
disadvantage of air core coaxial cable is that it requires
special techniques to prevent water absorption
Antenna Analyzer
• An antenna analyzer can be used to determine if an antenna is
resonant at the desired operating frequency
Standing Wave Ratio
• The standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of how well a
load is matched to a transmission line
• A reading of 1 to 1 on an SWR meter indicates a perfect
impedance match between the antenna and the feed line
• An approximate SWR value of 2 to 1 and above causes the
protection circuits in most solid-state transmitters begin to
reduce transmitter power
• An SWR reading of 4:1 indicates an impedance mismatch
• Instead of an SWR meter you could use a directional
wattmeter to determine if a feed line and antenna are properly
matched
Dummy Load
• The primary purpose of a dummy load is to prevent the
radiation of signals when making tests
• A dummy load consist of a non-inductive resistor and a heat
sink
Group T7C –
Antenna System Measurements
What is the primary
purpose of a dummy load?
A. To prevent the radiation of signals when making
tests
B. To prevent over-modulation of your transmitter
C. To improve the radiation from your antenna
D. To improve the signal to noise ratio of your
receiver
55
2.
Which of the following instruments can be used to
determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired
operating frequency?
A. A VTVM
B. An antenna analyzer
C. A Q meter
D. A frequency counter
3.
What, in general terms, is standing wave ratio
(SWR)?
A. A measure of how well a load is matched to a
transmission line
B. The ratio of high to low impedance in a feed line
C. The transmitter efficiency ratio
D. An indication of the quality of your station’s
ground connection
4.
5.
What reading on an SWR meter indicates a perfect
impedance match between the antenna and the feed
line? A. 2 to 1 B. 1 to 3
C. 1 to 1
D. 10 to 1
What is the approximate SWR value above which the
protection circuits in most solid-state transmitters
begin to reduce transmitter power?
A. 2 to 1
B. 1 to 2
C. 6 to 1
D. 10 to 1
6.
What does an SWR reading of 4:1 indicate?
A. Loss of -4dB
B. Good impedance match
C. Gain of +4dB
D. Impedance mismatch
7.
What happens to power lost in a feed line?
A. It increases the SWR
B. It comes back into your transmitter and could
cause damage
C. It is converted into heat
D. It can cause distortion of your signal
8.
What instrument other than an SWR meter could you
use to determine if a feed line and antenna are
properly matched? A. Voltmeter
B. Ohmmeter
C. Iambic pentameter
D. Directional wattmeter
9.
Which of the following is the most common cause for
failure of coaxial cables?
A. Moisture contamination
B. Gamma rays
C. The velocity factor exceeds 1.0
D. Overloading
10. Why should the outer jacket of coaxial cable be
resistant to ultraviolet light?
A. Ultraviolet resistant jackets prevent harmonic
radiation
B. Ultraviolet light can increase losses in the cable’s
jacket
C. Ultraviolet and RF signals can mix together,
causing interference
D. Ultraviolet light can damage the jacket and allow
water to enter the cable
11. What is a disadvantage of air core coaxial cable when
compared to foam or solid dielectric types? A. It has
more loss per foot
B. It cannot be used for VHF or UHF antennas
C. It requires special techniques to prevent water
absorption
D. It cannot be used at below freezing temperatures
12. Which of the following is a common use of coaxial
cable?
A. Carrying dc power from a vehicle battery to a
mobile radio
B. Carrying RF signals between a radio and antenna
C. Securing masts, tubing, and other cylindrical
objects on towers
D. Connecting data signals from a TNC to a
computer
13. What does a dummy load consist of? A. A high-gain
amplifier and a TR switch
B. A non-inductive resistor and a heat sink
C. A low voltage power supply and a DC relay
D. A 50 ohm reactance used to terminate a
transmission line
Group T7D – At the Workbench
56
1.
Voltage Measurement
• You would use a voltmeter to measure electric potential or
electromotive force
• The correct way to connect a voltmeter to a circuit is in parallel
with the circuit
• When measuring high voltages with a voltmeter, ensure that the
voltmeter and leads are rated for use at the voltages to be
measured
Current Measurement
• An ammeter is used to measure electric current
• An ammeter is usually connected in series with the circuit being
measured
Resistance Measurement
• An ohmmeter is used to measure resistance
• When measuring circuit resistance with an ohmmeter, ensure
that the circuit is not powered
• If an ohmmeter, connected across an unpowered circuit, initially
indicates a low resistance and then shows increasing resistance
with time, then probably
the circuit contains a large capacitor
Multimeters
• Voltage and resistance measurements are commonly made using
a multimeter
• Attempting to measure voltage when using the resistance setting
can damage a multimeter
Solder
• Rosin-core solder is best for radio and electronic use
• The characteristic appearance of a cold solder joint is a grainy or
dull surface
57
Group T7D – At
the Workbench
Which instrument
would you use to measure electric potential or
electromotive force?
A. An ammeter
B. A voltmeter
C. A wavemeter
D. An ohmmeter
2.
3.
4.
What is the correct way to connect a voltmeter to a
circuit?
A. In series with the circuit
B. In parallel with the circuit
C. In quadrature with the circuit
D. In phase with the circuit
D. An ohmmeter
6.
Which of the following might damage a multimeter?
A. Measuring a voltage too small for the chosen
scale
B. Leaving the meter in the milliamps position
overnight
C. Attempting to measure voltage when using the
resistance setting
D. Not allowing it to warm up properly
7.
Which of the following measurements are commonly
made using a multimeter? A. SWR and RF power
B. Signal strength and noise
C. Impedance and reactance
D. Voltage and resistance
How is an ammeter usually connected to a circuit?
A. In series with the circuit
B. In parallel with the circuit
C. In quadrature with the circuit
D. In phase with the circuit
Which instrument is used to measure electric current?
A. An ohmmeter
B. A wavemeter
C. A voltmeter
D. An ammeter
5.
What instrument is used to measure resistance?
A. An oscilloscope
B. A spectrum analyzer
C. A noise bridge
58
8.
9.
Which of the following types of solder is best for
radio and electronic use? A. Acid-core solder
B. Silver solder
C. Rosin-core solder
D. Aluminum solder
What is the characteristic appearance of a cold solder
joint?
A. Dark black spots
B. A bright or shiny surface
C. A grainy or dull surface
D. A greenish tint
1.
10. What is probably happening when an ohmmeter,
connected across an unpowered circuit, initially
indicates a low resistance and then shows increasing
resistance with time? A. The ohmmeter is defective
B. The circuit contains a large capacitor
C. The circuit contains a large inductor
D. The circuit is a relaxation oscillator
D. Ensure that the circuit is operating at the correct
frequency
12. Which of the following precautions should be taken
when measuring high voltages with a voltmeter?
A. Ensure that the voltmeter has very low impedance
B. Ensure that the voltmeter and leads are rated for
use at the voltages to be measured
C. Ensure that the circuit is grounded through the
voltmeter
D. Ensure that the voltmeter is set to the correct
frequency
11. Which of the following precautions should be taken
when measuring circuit resistance with an ohmmeter?
A. Ensure that the applied voltages are correct
B. Ensure that the circuit is not powered
C. Ensure that the circuit is grounded
Group T8A – Signal Modulation
Continuous Wave (CW)
• CW has the narrowest bandwidth
• The approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW
signal is 150 Hz
Single Sideband (SSB)
• Single sideband is a form of amplitude modulation
• The approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal is 3
kHz
• As a voice mode, SSB is most often used for longdistance (weak
signal) contacts on the VHF and UHF bands
• For voice transmissions, the primary advantage of single sideband
over FM is SSB signals have narrower bandwidth
• Upper sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF
single-sideband communications
Frequency Modulation (FM)
• The approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal is
between 10 and 15 kHz
• FM is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters
• FM is most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions
Television (TV)
• The typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the
70 cm band is about 6 MHz
Group T8A –
Signal Modulation
Which of
the following is a form of amplitude
modulation? A. Spread-spectrum
B. Packet radio
C. Single sideband
D. Phase shift keying
2.
59
What type of modulation is most commonly used for
VHF packet radio transmissions?
A. FM
B. SSB
C. AM
D. Spread Spectrum
3.
4.
7.
Which type of voice mode is most often used for longdistance (weak signal) contacts on the VHF and UHF
bands?
A. FM
B. DRM
C. SSB
D. PM
Which type of modulation is most commonly used for
VHF and UHF voice repeaters?
A. AM
B. SSB C. PSK
D. FM
5.
6.
Which of the following types of emission has the
narrowest bandwidth? A. FM voice
B. SSB voice
C. CW
D. Slow-scan TV
Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF,
VHF and UHF single-sideband communications?
A. Upper sideband
B. Lower sideband
C. Suppressed sideband
D. Inverted sideband
What is the primary advantage of single sideband over
FM for voice transmissions? A. SSB signals are easier
to tune
B. SSB signals are less susceptible to interference
C. SSB signals have narrower bandwidth
D. All of these choices are correct
8.
9.
What is the approximate bandwidth of a single
sideband voice signal?
A. 1 kHz B. 3 kHz
C. 6 kHz
D. 15 kHz
What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater
FM phone signal? A. Less than 500 Hz
B. About 150 kHz
C. Between 10 and 15 kHz
D. Between 50 and 125 kHz
10. What is the typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV
transmissions on the 70 cm band?
A. More than 10 MHz
B. About 6 MHz C. About 3 MHz
D. About 1 MHz
11. What is the approximate maximum bandwidth
required to transmit a CW signal?
A. 2.4 kHz
B. 150 Hz
C. 1000 Hz
D. 15 kHz
Group T8B – Space
Communications
Privilege
• Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to
transmit on the satellite uplink frequency may be the
control operator of a station communicating through an
amateur satellite or space station
• Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license
may make contact with an amateur station on the
International Space Station using 2 meter and 70 cm band
amateur radio frequencies
Software Programs
• All of the following are provided by satellite tracking
programs
o Maps showing the real-time position of the satellite track over
the earth
60
1.
o The time, azimuth, and elevation of the start, maximum altitude,
and end of a pass
o The apparent frequency of the satellite transmission, including
effects of Doppler shift
• The Keplerian elements (satellite orbit parameters) are inputs to
a satellite tracking program
Practices
• That a satellite is operating in mode U/V means that the satellite
uplink is in the 70 cm band and the
downlink is in the 2 meter band
• The transmitter power used on the uplink frequency of an
amateur satellite or space station should be the minimum
amount of power needed to complete the contact
• FM Packet is a commonly used method of sending signals to
and from a digital satellite
Satellite specific
• In satellite communications, Doppler shift is an observed
change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between
the satellite and the earth station
• Spin fading is caused by rotation of the satellite and its antennas
• The initials LEO indicate that the satellite is in a Low Earth
Orbit
• A satellite beacon is a transmission from a space station that
contains information about a satellite
Group T8B – Space
Communications
Who may be the
control operator of a station communicating through
an amateur satellite or space station?
A. Only an Amateur Extra Class operator
B. A General Class licensee or higher licensee who
has a satellite operator certification
C. Only an Amateur Extra Class operator who is also
an AMSAT member
D. Any amateur whose license privileges allow them
to transmit on the satellite uplink
frequency
61
2.
How much transmitter power should be used on the
uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space
station?
A. The maximum power of your transmitter
B. The minimum amount of power needed to
complete the contact
C. No more than half the rating of your linear
amplifier
D. Never more than 1 watt
3.
Which of the following are provided by satellite
tracking programs?
A. Maps showing the real-time position of the
satellite track over the earth
B. The time, azimuth, and elevation of the start,
maximum altitude, and end of a pass
C. The apparent frequency of the satellite
transmission, including effects of Doppler shift D.
All of these answers are correct
4.
Which amateur stations may make contact with an
amateur station on the International Space Station
using 2 meter and 70 cm band amateur radio
frequencies?
A. Only members of amateur radio clubs at NASA
facilities
B. Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class
license
C. Only the astronaut's family members who are
hams
D. You cannot talk to the ISS on amateur radio
frequencies
5. What is a satellite beacon?
A. The primary transmit antenna on the satellite
B. An indicator light that that shows where to point
your antenna
C. A reflective surface on the satellite
D. A transmission from a space station that contains
information about a satellite
6.
Which of the following are inputs to a satellite
tracking program? A. The weight of the satellite
B. The Keplerian elements
C. The last observed time of zero Doppler shift
D. All of these answers are correct
7.
With regard to satellite communications, what is
Doppler shift?
A. A change in the satellite orbit
B. A mode where the satellite receives signals on one
band and transmits on another
C. An observed change in signal frequency caused
by relative motion between the satellite and the
earth station
D. A special digital communications mode for some
satellites
8.
What is meant by the statement that a satellite is
operating in mode U/V?
A. The satellite uplink is in the 15 meter band and
the downlink is in the 10 meter band
B. The satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the
downlink is in the 2 meter band
C. The satellite operates using ultraviolet frequencies
D. The satellite frequencies are usually variable
9.
What causes spin fading when referring to satellite
signals?
A. Circular polarized noise interference radiated
from the sun
B. Rotation of the satellite and its antennas
C. Doppler shift of the received signal
D. Interfering signals within the satellite uplink band
10. What do the initials LEO tell you about an amateur
satellite?
A. The satellite battery is in Low Energy Operation
mode
B. The satellite is performing a Lunar Ejection Orbit
maneuver
C. The satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit
D. The satellite uses Light Emitting Optics
11. What is a commonly used method of sending signals
to and from a digital satellite?
A. USB AFSK
B. PSK31
C. FM Packet
D. WSJT
Group T8C – Amateur Activities
Direction Finding
• Radio direction finding is used to locate sources of noise
interference or jamming
• A directional antenna is useful for a hidden transmitter hunt
Contesting
• Contesting is a popular operating activity that involves
contacting as many stations as possible during a
62
1.
specified period of time
• When contacting another station in a radio contest, send
only the minimum information needed for proper
identification and the contest exchange
• A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a
geographic location
Radio Control Models
• The maximum power allowed when transmitting
telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt
• When sending signals to a radio control model using
amateur frequencies, instead of on-air station identification,
there must be a label indicating the licensee’s name, call
sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
• As used in amateur radio, Voice Over Internet Protocol
(VoIP) is a method of delivering voice communications
over the Internet using digital techniques
• A gateway is an amateur radio station that is used to
connect other amateur stations to the Internet
• You might obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP from
a repeater directory
Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP)
• Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP) is a technique to
connect amateur radio systems, such as repeaters, via the
Internet using Voice Over Internet Protocol
• Access to an IRLP node is accomplished by using DTMF
signals
• To select a specific IRLP node when using a portable
transceiver, use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID
Group T8C –
Amateur Activities
Which of the
following methods is used to locate sources of noise
interference or jamming?
A. Echolocation
B. Doppler radar
C. Radio direction finding
D. Phase locking
63
2.
Which of these items would be useful for a hidden
transmitter hunt? A. Calibrated SWR meter
B. A directional antenna
C. A calibrated noise bridge
D. All of these choices are correct
3.
What popular operating activity involves contacting as
many stations as possible during a specified period of
time?
A. Contesting
B. Net operations
C. Public service events
D. Simulated emergency exercises
4.
Which of the following is good procedure when
contacting another station in a radio contest?
A. Be sure to sign only the last two letters of your
call if there is a pileup calling the station
B. Work the station twice to be sure that you are in
his log
C. Send only the minimum information needed for
proper identification and the contest exchange D.
All of these choices are correct
5. What is a grid locator?
A. A letter-number designator assigned to a
geographic location
B. A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth
and elevation
C. An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier
D. An instrument for radio direction finding
6. How is access to an IRLP node accomplished?
A. By obtaining a password which is sent via voice to
the node
B. By using DTMF signals
C. By entering the proper Internet password
D. By using CTCSS tone codes
7. What is the maximum power allowed when
transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled
models? A. 500 milliwatts
B. 1 watt
C. 25 watts
D. 1500 watts
8. What is required in place of on-air station
identification when sending signals to a radio control
model using amateur frequencies? A. Voice
identification must be transmitted every
10 minutes
B. Morse code ID must be sent once per hour
C. A label indicating the licensee’s name, call sign
and address must be affixed to the transmitter
D. A flag must be affixed to the transmitter antenna
with the station call sign in 1 inch high
letters or larger
9.
How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use
VoIP?
A. From the FCC Rulebook
B. From your local emergency coordinator
C. From a repeater directory
D. From the local repeater frequency coordinator
10. How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a
portable transceiver? A. Choose a specific CTCSS
tone
B. Choose the correct DSC tone
C. Access the repeater autopatch
D. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID
11. What name is given to an amateur radio station that is
used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet?
A. A gateway
B. A repeater
C. A digipeater
D. A beacon
12. What is meant by Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
as used in amateur radio?
A. A set of rules specifying how to identify your
station when linked over the Internet to another
station
B. A set of guidelines for working DX during
contests using Internet access
C. A technique for measuring the modulation quality
of a transmitter using remote sites monitored via
the Internet
D. A method of delivering voice communications
over the Internet using digital techniques
13. What is the Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP)?
A. A technique to connect amateur radio systems,
such as repeaters, via the Internet using Voice
Over Internet Protocol
B. A system for providing access to websites via
amateur radio
C. A system for informing amateurs in real time of
the frequency of active DX stations
D. A technique for measuring signal strength of an
amateur transmitter via the Internet
Group T8D – Digital
Communications and TV
64
1.
CW
• CW is sent using International Morse
• All of the following can be used to transmit CW in the
amateur bands o Straight Key o Electronic Keyer o
Computer Keyboard
Digital
• Digital communications methods include all of the
following examples o Packet o PSK31 o MFSK
• All the following may be included in packet
transmissions
o A check sum which permits error detection o A
header which contains the call sign of the station
to which the information is being sent
o Automatic repeat request in case of error
• PSK means Phase Shift Keying
• PSK31 is a low-rate data transmission mode
• An ARQ transmission system is a digital scheme whereby the
receiving station detects errors and sends a request to the
sending station to retransmit the information
Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS)
• “APRS” means Automatic Packet Reporting System
• An example of an application of APRS (Automatic Packet
Reporting System) is providing real time tactical digital
communications in conjunction with a map
showing the locations of stations
• A Global Positioning System receiver provides data to the
transmitter when sending automatic position reports from a
mobile amateur radio station
TV
• The term NTSC refers to an analog fast scan color TV signal
Group T8D – Digital
Communications and TV
Which of the
following is an example of a digital communications
method?
65
A. Packet
B. PSK31
C. MFSK
2.
3.
D. All of these choices are correct
D. Phased Slide Keying
What does the term “APRS” mean? A. Automatic
Packet Reporting System
B. Associated Public Radio Station
C. Auto Planning Radio Set-up
D. Advanced Polar Radio System
7. What is PSK31?
A. A high-rate data transmission mode
B. A method of reducing noise interference to FM
signals
C. A method of compressing digital television signals
D. A low-rate data transmission mode
Which of the following devices provides data to the
transmitter when sending automatic position reports
from a mobile amateur radio station?
A. The vehicle speedometer
B. A WWV receiver
C. A connection to a broadcast FM sub-carrier
receiver
D. A Global Positioning System receiver
4.
What type of transmission is indicated by the term
NTSC?
A. A Normal Transmission mode in Static Circuit
B. A special mode for earth satellite uplink
C. An analog fast scan color TV signal
D. A frame compression scheme for TV signals
5.
Which of the following is an application of APRS
(Automatic Packet Reporting System)?
A. Providing real time tactical digital
communications in conjunction with a map
showing the locations of stations
B. Showing automatically the number of packets
transmitted via PACTOR during a specific time
interval
C. Providing voice over Internet connection between
repeaters
D. Providing information on the number of stations
signed into a repeater
6.
What does the abbreviation PSK mean?
A. Pulse Shift Keying
B. Phase Shift Keying
C. Packet Short Keying
8.
9.
Which of the following may be included in packet
transmissions?
A. A check sum which permits error detection
B. A header which contains the call sign of the
station to which the information is being sent
C. Automatic repeat request in case of error
D. All of these choices are correct
What code is used when sending CW in the amateur
bands? A. Baudot
B. Hamming
C. International Morse
D. Gray
10. Which of the following can be used to transmit CW in
the amateur bands? A. Straight Key
B. Electronic Keyer
C. Computer Keyboard
D. All of these choices are correct
11. What is an ARQ transmission system?
A. A special transmission format limited to video
signals
B. A system used to encrypt command signals to an
amateur radio satellite
C. A digital scheme whereby the receiving station
detects errors and sends a request to the sending
station to retransmit the information
D. A method of compressing the data in a message so
more information can be sent in a shorter time
Group T9A – Antennas
Polarization
• A simple dipole mounted so the conductor is parallel to the
Earth's surface is a horizontally polarized antenna
• For vertical antennas, the electric field is perpendicular to
the Earth
Electrical Length
66
1.
• The approximate length, in inches, of a quarterwavelength
vertical antenna for 146 MHz has an approximate length of
19 inches
0.95
0.95
4
1 300 Mm 39.37 in
19 in
4 146 MHz
m
• A 6 meter 1/2-wavelength wire dipole antenna has an
approximate length of 112 inches
1
0.95
0.95
6m
2
2
39.37 in
112 in
m
• To make a dipole antenna resonant on a higher frequency,
you would shorten it
• “Loading” an antenna refers to inserting an inductor in the
radiating portion of the antenna to make it
electrically longer
Rubber Duck Antennas
• A disadvantage of the “rubber duck” antenna supplied with
most handheld radio transceivers is that it does not transmit
or receive as effectively as a full-sized antenna
• A good reason not to use a “rubber duck” antenna inside
your car is that signals can be significantly weaker than
when it is outside of the vehicle
Radiation Pattern
• The direction in which the radiation is strongest from a
half-wave dipole antenna in free space is broadside to the
antenna
• The gain of an antenna is the increase in signal strength in a
specified direction when compared to a reference antenna
• A beam antenna is an antenna that concentrates signals in
one direction
• The quad, Yagi, and dish antennas are directional antennas
• A reason to use a properly mounted 5/8 wavelength
antenna for VHF or UHF mobile service is that it offers a
lower angle of radiation and more gain than a 1/4
wavelength antenna and usually provides improved
coverage
• VHF or UHF mobile antennas are often mounted in the
center of the vehicle roof because a roof mounted antenna
normally provides the most uniform radiation pattern
67
G
r
o
u
p
T
9
A
–
A
n
t
e
n
n
a
s
1. What is a beam antenna?
A. An antenna built from aluminum I-beams
B. An omnidirectional antenna invented by Clarence
Beam
C. An antenna that concentrates signals in one direction
D. An antenna that reverses the phase of received signals
2.
Which of the following is true regarding vertical antennas?
A. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the Earth
B. The electric field is perpendicular to the Earth
C. The phase is inverted
D. The phase is reversed
3.
Which of the following describes a simple dipole mounted
so the conductor is parallel to the Earth's surface?
A. A ground wave antenna
B. A horizontally polarized antenna
C. A rhombic antenna
D. A vertically polarized antenna
4.
C.
5.
6.
7.
What type of antennas are the quad, Yagi, and dish?
A. Non-resonant antennas
B. Loop antennas
C. Directional antennas
D. Isotropic antennas
What is a good reason not to use a “rubber duck” antenna
inside your car?
A. Signals can be significantly weaker than when it is
outside of the vehicle
B. It might cause your radio to overheat
C. The SWR might decrease, decreasing the signal
strength
D. All of these choices are correct
8. What is the approximate length, in inches, of a
quarterwavelength vertical antenna for 146 MHz?
A. 112
B. 50 C. 19
D. 12
What is a disadvantage of the “rubber duck” antenna
supplied with most handheld radio transceivers?
A. It does not transmit or receive as effectively as a
fullsized antenna
B. It transmits a circularly polarized signal
If the rubber end cap is lost it will unravel very quickly
D. All of these choices are correct
9.
How would you change a dipole antenna to make it resonant
on a higher frequency?
A. Lengthen it
B. Insert coils in series with radiating wires
C. Shorten it
D. Add capacitive loading to the ends of the radiating
wires
What is the approximate length, in inches, of a 6 meter 1/2wavelength wire dipole antenna?
A. 6
B. 50
C. 112
D. 236
10. In which direction is the radiation strongest from a halfwave
dipole antenna in free space? A. Equally in all directions
B. Off the ends of the antenna
C. Broadside to the antenna
D. In the direction of the feed line
68
1.
11. What is meant by the gain of an antenna?
The additional power that is added to the transmitter
power
B. The additional power that is lost in the antenna when
transmitting on a higher frequency
C. The increase in signal strength in a specified direction
when compared to a reference antenna
D. The increase in impedance on receive or transmit
compared to a reference antenna
13. Why are VHF or UHF mobile antennas often mounted in the
center of the vehicle roof?
A. Roof mounts have the lowest possible SWR of any
mounting configuration
B. Only roof mounting can guarantee a vertically
polarized signal
C. A roof mounted antenna normally provides the most
uniform radiation pattern
D. Roof mounted antennas are always the easiest to install
12. What is a reason to use a properly mounted 5/8 wavelength
antenna for VHF or UHF mobile service?
A. It offers a lower angle of radiation and more gain than a
1/4 wavelength antenna and usually provides improved
coverage
B. It features a very high angle of radiation and is better
for communicating via a repeater
C. The 5/8 wavelength antenna completely eliminates
distortion caused by reflected signals
D. The 5/8 wavelength antenna offers a 10-times power
gain over a 1/4 wavelength design
14. Which of the following terms describes a type of loading
when referring to an antenna?
A. Inserting an inductor in the radiating portion of the
antenna to make it electrically longer
B. Inserting a resistor in the radiating portion of the
antenna to make it resonant
C. Installing a spring at the base of the antenna to absorb
the effects of collisions with other objects
D. Making the antenna heavier so it will resist wind effects
when in motion
A.
Group
T9B – Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cables
• The reason that coaxial cable is used more often than any
other feed line for amateur radio antenna systems is that it is
easy to use and requires few special
installation considerations
• As the frequency of a signal passing through coaxial cable is
increased, the loss increases
• Air-insulated hard line has the lowest loss at VHF and UHF
frequencies
• In typical amateur radio installations, the impedance of the
most commonly used coaxial cable is 50 ohms
• The electrical difference between the smaller RG-58 and
larger RG-8 coaxial cables is that the RG-8 cable has less loss
at a given frequency
Connectors
• PL-259 type coax connectors are commonly used at HF
frequencies
• A Type N connector is the more suitable connector for
frequencies above 400 MHz
• Coax connectors that are exposed to the weather should be
sealed against water intrusion to prevent an increase in feed
line loss
Maintaining Low SWR
69
• It is important to have a low SWR in an antenna system that
uses coaxial cable feed line in order to allow the efficient
transfer of power and reduce losses
• An antenna tuner matches the antenna system impedance to
the transceiver's output impedance
• Erratic changes in SWR readings could be caused by a loose
connection in an antenna or a feed line
G
roup T9B – Coaxial Cable
Why is it important
to have a low SWR in an antenna system that uses
coaxial cable feed line? A. To reduce television
interference
B. To allow the efficient transfer of power and
reduce losses
C. To prolong antenna life
D. All of these choices are correct
2.
C. It can handle more power than any other type of
feed line
D. It is less expensive than any other types of feed
line
4. What does an antenna tuner do?
A. It matches the antenna system impedance to the
transceiver's output impedance
B. It helps a receiver automatically tune in weak
stations
C. It allows an antenna to be used on both transmit
and receive
D. It automatically selects the proper antenna for the
frequency band being used
What is the impedance of the most commonly used
coaxial cable in typical amateur radio installations?
A. 8 ohms
B. 50 ohms
C. 600 ohms
D. 12 ohms
5.
3.
Why is coaxial cable used more often than any other
feed line for amateur radio antenna systems?
A. It is easy to use and requires few special
installation considerations
B. It has less loss than any other type of feed line
70
What generally happens as the frequency of a signal
passing through coaxial cable is increased?
A. The apparent SWR increases
B. The reflected power increases
C. The characteristic impedance increases
D. The loss increases
1.
6.
Which of the following connectors is most suitable for
frequencies above 400 MHz? A. A UHF (PL-259/SO239) connector
B. A Type N connector
C. An RS-213 connector
D. A DB-25 connector
A. The transmitter is being modulated
B. A loose connection in an antenna or a feed line
C. The transmitter is being over-modulated
D. Interference from other stations is distorting your
signal
Which of the following is true of PL-259 type coax
connectors?
A. They are preferred for microwave operation B.
They are water tight
C. They are commonly used at HF frequencies
D. They are a bayonet type connector
10. What electrical difference exists between the
smaller RG-58 and larger RG-8 coaxial cables?
A. There is no significant difference between the two
types
B. RG-58 cable has less loss at a given frequency
C. RG-8 cable has less loss at a given frequency
D. RG-58 cable can handle higher power levels
8.
Why should coax connectors exposed to the weather
be sealed against water intrusion? A. To prevent an
increase in feed line loss
B. To prevent interference to telephones
C. To keep the jacket from becoming loose
D. All of these choices are correct
11. Which of the following types of feed line has the
lowest loss at VHF and UHF? A. 50-ohm flexible
coax
B. Multi-conductor unbalanced cable
C. Air-insulated hard line
D. 75-ohm flexible coax
9.
What might cause erratic changes in SWR readings?
7.
Group
T0A – Electrical Safety
Electrical Shock
• Current flowing through the body causes all of the
following health hazards o By heating tissue o It disrupts
the electrical functions of cells o It causes involuntary
muscle contractions
• All of the following are good ways to guard against
electrical shock at your station o Use three-wire cords and
plugs for all AC powered equipment
o Connect all AC powered station equipment to a common safety
ground
o Use a circuit protected by a ground-fault interrupter
• The green wire in a three-wire electrical AC plug is
connected to the safety ground
• A hazard that might exist in a power supply when it is
turned off and disconnected is that you might receive an
electric shock from the charged stored in large capacitors
Fire Safety
• The purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit is to interrupt
power in case of overload
• It is unwise to install a 20-ampere fuse in the place of a 5ampere fuse because excessive current could cause a fire
71
• A fuse or circuit breaker in series with the AC hot
conductor should always be included in home-built
equipment that is powered from 120V AC power
circuits
Battery safety
• A hazard that is presented by a conventional 12-volt
storage battery is that explosive gas can collect if not
properly vented
• If a lead-acid storage battery is charged or discharged too
quickly the battery could overheat and give off flammable
gas or explode
• A safety hazard of a 12-volt storage battery is that
shorting the terminals can cause burns, fire, or an
explosion
Lightning Protection
• A precaution that should be taken when installing devices
for lightning protection in a coaxial cable feed line is to
ground all of the protectors to a common plate which is in
turn connected to an external ground
G
roup T0A – Electrical Safety
Which of the
following is a safety hazard of a 12-volt storage
battery?
A. Touching both terminals with the hands can cause
electrical shock
B. Shorting the terminals can cause burns, fire, or an
explosion
C. RF emissions from the battery
D. All of these choices are correct
2.
How does current flowing through the body cause a
health hazard? A. By heating tissue
B. It disrupts the electrical functions of cells
C. It causes involuntary muscle contractions
D. All of these choices are correct
3.
What is connected to the green wire in a three-wire
electrical AC plug? A. Neutral
B. Hot
C. Safety ground
D. The white wire
72
4.
What is the purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit?
A. To prevent power supply ripple from damaging a
circuit
B. To interrupt power in case of overload
C. To limit current to prevent shocks
D. All of these choices are correct
5.
Why is it unwise to install a 20-ampere fuse in the
place of a 5-ampere fuse?
A. The larger fuse would be likely to blow because it
is rated for higher current
B. The power supply ripple would greatly increase
C. Excessive current could cause a fire
D. All of these choices are correct
6.
What is a good way to guard against electrical shock at
your station?
A. Use three-wire cords and plugs for all AC
powered equipment
1.
B. Connect all AC powered station equipment to a
common safety ground
C. Use a circuit protected by a ground-fault
interrupter
D. All of these choices are correct
D. A capacitor across the AC power source
9.
7. Which of these precautions should be taken when
installing devices for lightning protection in a coaxial
cable feed line?
A. Include a parallel bypass switch for each protector
so that it can be switched out of the circuit when
running high power
B. Include a series switch in the ground line of each
protector to prevent RF overload from
inadvertently damaging the protector
C. Keep the ground wires from each protector
separate and connected to station ground
D. Ground all of the protectors to a common plate
which is in turn connected to an external
ground
8.
What kind of hazard is presented by a conventional
12-volt storage battery?
A. It emits ozone which can be harmful to the
atmosphere
B. Shock hazard due to high voltage
C. Explosive gas can collect if not properly vented
D. All of these choices are correct
10. What can happen if a lead-acid storage battery is
charged or discharged too quickly?
A. The battery could overheat and give off flammable
gas or explode
B. The voltage can become reversed
C. The memory effect will reduce the capacity of the
battery
D. All of these choices are correct
11. What kind of hazard might exist in a power supply
when it is turned off and disconnected?
A. Static electricity could damage the grounding
system
B. Circulating currents inside the transformer might
cause damage
C. The fuse might blow if you remove the cover
D. You might receive an electric shock from the
charged stored in large capacitors
What safety equipment should always be included in
home-built equipment that is powered from 120V AC
power circuits?
A. A fuse or circuit breaker in series with the AC hot
conductor
B. An AC voltmeter across the incoming power
source
C. An inductor in series with the AC power source
Group T0B –
Antenna and Tower Safety
Antenna Location
• Establish a minimum safe distance from a power line when
installing an antenna so that if the antenna falls
unexpectedly, no part of it can come closer than 10
feet to the power wires
• Avoid attaching an antenna to a utility pole because the
antenna could contact high-voltage power wires
Work Crew Safety
• An important safety precaution to observe when putting up
an antenna tower is to look for and stay clear of any
overhead electrical wires
• A crank-up tower must never be climbed unless it is in the
fully retracted position
• It is never safe to climb a tower without a helper or observer
• Before climbing an antenna tower, put on a climbing harness
and safety glasses
73
• Members of a tower work team should wear hard hats and
safety glasses at all times when any work is being done on
the tower
• The purpose of a gin pole is to lift tower sections or antennas
Tower Grounding
• Local electrical
codes establish
grounding requirements for an amateur radio tower or
antenna
• Proper grounding for a tower includes having separate eightfoot long ground rods for each tower leg, bonded to the
tower and each other
• When installing ground wires on a tower for lightning
protection, ensure that connections are short and direct
• Sharp bends must be avoided for the grounding conductors
used for lightning protection
Group
T0B – Antenna and Tower Safety
When should
members of a tower work team wear a hard hat and
safety glasses? A. At all times except when climbing
the tower
B. At all times except when belted firmly to the
tower
C. At all times when any work is being done on the
tower
D. Only when the tower exceeds 30 feet in height
2.
What is a good precaution to observe before climbing
an antenna tower?
A. Make sure that you wear a grounded wrist strap
B. Remove all tower grounding connections
C. Put on a climbing harness and safety glasses
74
D. All of the these choices are correct
3.
Under what circumstances is it safe to climb a tower
without a helper or observer? A. When no electrical
work is being performed
B. When no mechanical work is being performed
C. When the work being done is not more than 20
feet above the ground
D. Never
4. Which of the following is an important safety
precaution to observe when putting up an antenna
tower?
A. Wear a ground strap connected to your wrist at all
times
1.
B. Insulate the base of the tower to avoid lightning
strikes
C. Look for and stay clear of any overhead electrical
wires
D. All of these choices are correct
9.
Why should you avoid attaching an antenna to a
utility pole?
A. The antenna will not work properly because of
induced voltages
B. The utility company will charge you an extra
monthly fee
C. The antenna could contact high-voltage power
wires
D. All of these choices are correct
5. What is the purpose of a gin pole?
A. To temporarily replace guy wires
B. To be used in place of a safety harness
C. To lift tower sections or antennas
D. To provide a temporary ground
6.
7.
8.
10. Which of the following is true concerning grounding
conductors used for lightning protection? A. Only
non-insulated wire must be used
B. Wires must be carefully routed with precise rightangle bends
C. Sharp bends must be avoided
D. Common grounds must be avoided
What is the minimum safe distance from a power line
to allow when installing an antenna? A. Half the
width of your property
B. The height of the power line above ground
C. 1/2 wavelength at the operating frequency
D. So that if the antenna falls unexpectedly, no part
of it can come closer than 10 feet to the
power wires
11. Which of the following establishes grounding
requirements for an amateur radio tower or antenna?
A. FCC Part 97 Rules
B. Local electrical codes
C. FAA tower lighting regulations
D. Underwriters Laboratories' recommended
practices
Which of the following is an important safety rule to
remember when using a crank-up tower? A. This type
of tower must never be painted
B. This type of tower must never be grounded
C. This type of tower must never be climbed unless
it is in the fully retracted position
D. All of these choices are correct
12. Which of the following is good practice when
installing ground wires on a tower for lightning
protection?
A. Put a loop in the ground connection to prevent
water damage to the ground system
B. Make sure that all bends in the ground wires are
clean, right angle bends
C. Ensure that connections are short and direct
D. All of these choices are correct
What is considered to be a proper grounding method
for a tower?
A. A single four-foot ground rod, driven into the
ground no more than 12 inches from the base
B. A ferrite-core RF choke connected between the
tower and ground
C. Separate eight-foot long ground rods for each
tower leg, bonded to the tower and each other
D. A connection between the tower base and a cold
water pipe
Group T0C – RF Safety
Health Risk
• RF radiation
differs from
ionizing radiation
(radioactivity) because RF radiation does not have sufficient
energy to cause genetic damage
• VHF and UHF radio signals are non-ionizing radiation
• The exposure limits vary with frequency because the human
body absorbs more RF energy at some
frequencies than at others
75
• If a person accidentally touched your antenna while you were
transmitting, they might receive a painful RF burn
Evaluating Risk
• 50 watts PEP at the antenna is the maximum power level that an
amateur radio station may use at VHF frequencies before an RF
exposure evaluation is required
• All of the following are acceptable methods to determine that
your station complies with FCC RF
exposure regulations
o By calculation based on FCC OET Bulletin 65 o By
calculation based on computer modeling o By
measurement of field strength using calibrated equipment
• All of the following factors affect the RF exposure of
people near an amateur station antenna: o Frequency and
power level of the RF field o Distance from the antenna
to a person o Radiation pattern of the antenna
• 50 MHz has the lowest value for Maximum Permissible
Exposure limit
• Duty cycle is one of the factors used to determine safe RF
radiation exposure levels because it affects the average
exposure of people to radiation
• In calculating the average time of RF exposure, the duty
cycle is the percentage of time that a transmitter is
transmitting
Managing Risk
• You can make sure your station stays in compliance with
RF safety regulations by re-evaluating the station
whenever an item of equipment is changed
• One way amateur operators can prevent exposure to RF
radiation that exceed FCC-supplied limits is to relocate
antennas
• If the averaging time for exposure is 6 minutes, 2 times as
much power density is permitted if the signal is present
for 3 minutes and absent for 3 minutes rather than being
present for the entire 6 minutes
Group T0C
– RF Safety
What type of
radiation are VHF and UHF radio signals?
A. Gamma radiation
B. Ionizing radiation
C. Alpha radiation
D. Non-ionizing radiation
76
2.
Which of the following frequencies has the lowest
value for Maximum Permissible Exposure limit?
A. 3.5 MHz
B. 50 MHz
C. 440 MHz
1.
D. 1296 MHz
3.
4.
9.
How can you make sure your station stays in
compliance with RF safety regulations?
A. By informing the FCC of any changes made in
your station
B. By re-evaluating the station whenever an item of
equipment is changed
C. By making sure your antennas have low SWR
D. All of these choices are correct
What is the maximum power level that an amateur
radio station may use at VHF frequencies before an
RF exposure evaluation is required?
A. 1500 watts PEP transmitter output
B. 1 watt forward power
C. 50 watts PEP at the antenna
D. 50 watts PEP reflected power
10. Why is duty cycle one of the factors used to determine
safe RF radiation exposure levels?
A. It affects the average exposure of people to
radiation
B. It affects the peak exposure of people to radiation
C. It takes into account the antenna feed line loss
D. It takes into account the thermal effects of the
final amplifier
What factors affect the RF exposure of people near an
amateur station antenna? A. Frequency and power
level of the RF field
B. Distance from the antenna to a person
C. Radiation pattern of the antenna
D. All of these choices are correct
5. Why do exposure limits vary with frequency?
A. Lower frequency RF fields have more energy than
higher frequency fields
B. Lower frequency RF fields do not penetrate the
human body
C. Higher frequency RF fields are transient in nature
D. The human body absorbs more RF energy at some
frequencies than at others
11. What is the definition of duty cycle during the
averaging time for RF exposure?
A. The difference between the lowest power output
and the highest power output of a transmitter
B. The difference between the PEP and average
power output of a transmitter
C. The percentage of time that a transmitter is
transmitting
D. The percentage of time that a transmitter is not
transmitting
6.
Which of the following is an acceptable method to
determine that your station complies with FCC RF
exposure regulations?
A. By calculation based on FCC OET Bulletin 65
B. By calculation based on computer modeling
C. By measurement of field strength using calibrated
equipment
D. All of these choices are correct
7.
12. How does RF radiation differ from ionizing radiation
(radioactivity)?
A. RF radiation does not have sufficient energy to
cause genetic damage
B. RF radiation can only be detected with an RF
dosimeter
C. RF radiation is limited in range to a few feet
D. RF radiation is perfectly safe
What could happen if a person accidentally touched
your antenna while you were transmitting?
A. Touching the antenna could cause television
interference
B. They might receive a painful RF burn
C. They might develop radiation poisoning
D. All of these choices are correct
13. If the averaging time for exposure is 6 minutes, how
much power density is permitted if the signal is
present for 3 minutes and absent for 3 minutes rather
than being present for the entire 6 minutes?
A. 3 times as much
B. 1/2 as much
C. 2 times as much
D. There is no adjustment allowed for shorter
exposure times
8. Which of the following actions might amateur
operators take to prevent exposure to RF radiation in
excess of FCC-supplied limits? A. Relocate antennas
B. Relocate the transmitter
C. Increase the duty cycle
D. All of these choices are correct
Resources for Perspective Radio Amateurs
77
Study Guides
• Dan Romanchik, KB6NU, The No-Nonsense Technician Class License Study Guide, http://kb6nu.com/techmanual/ – A narrative study guide presenting the knowledge tested by question pool. The study guide is
available as a free version on-line, as an Amazon Kindle version, and as a Barnes & Noble Nook version.
• ARRL, Ham Radio License Manual 3rd Edition, ISBN 978-1-62595-013-0 – This text has well organized
chapters on basic amateur radio. Very good on-line practice test aligns with both the manual’s chapters and
question pool sub-elements.
• Gordon West, WB6NOA, Technician Class 2014-18 FCC Element 2 Radio License Preparation, ISBN
9780945053798, - A complete study guide with answers and explanations.
On-line Practice Exams
• http://arrlexamreview.appspot.com/index.html - requires registration and log-in
• http://hamexam.org/
• http://www.qrz.com/ht/ – immediate feedback; requires registration and log-in
• http://www.eham.net/exams/
• http://aa9pw.com/radio/technician/ – selectable sub-elements
• https://hamstudy.org/ - Flashcards, questions, and practice test
Test Locations
• http://www.arrl.org/find-an-amateur-radio-license-exam-session
Question Pool
• Element 2 Technician Class, http://ncvec.org/page.php?id=362
FCC Rules for the Amateur Radio Service
• Title 47 CFR Part 97, http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_08/47cfr97_08.html
Amateur Radio License Plate
Once you are licensed, get amateur radio vehicle
license plates.
• http://www.arrl.org/amateur-license-plate-information
• In California it is a one-time fee without an annual renewal fee.
o http://dmv.ca.gov/pubs/vctop/d03/vc5005.htm
o Use Special License Plate Application, Form 17A, http://apps.dmv.ca.gov/forms/reg/reg17a.pdf and not
Special Interest License Plate Application, Form 17.
License Search
http://wireless2.fcc.gov/UlsApp/UlsSearch/searchLicense.jsp
Do you need to protect your home address privacy?
When you take an Amateur Radio license exam, you must provide an FCC
Registration Number (FRN). To obtain your FRN, the FCC registration website
https://apps.fcc.gov/coresWeb/publicHome.do requires that you provide a contact
address. The contact address that you provide becomes an FCC public record and
78
1.
can be viewed on-line. To protect your home address privacy, you may want to
have a contact address, such as a post office box, that is different from your home
address. If you are taking only the preparation course and not the license exam, you
do not need an FRN.
79
Technician Class License
2014-2018 Question Pool Response Sheet with
Answers
T1A
T1B
ABCD
T1C
ABCD
1
13
2
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13    
T1D
ABCD
ABCD
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11    
12    
13    
T1E
2
3
4
5
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7
8
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13    
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T2A
T2B
ABCD
11

T2C
ABCD
T3A
ABCD
1   
1 
2
2
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T3B
ABCD
1 
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10    

11   
T3C
ABCD
1 
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10    

11   
ABCD
1 
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10    

11   
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
 12 






















12    
13    
T4A
T4B
ABCD
T5A
ABCD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7





















T5B
ABCD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7














T5C
ABCD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
80














1
2
3
4
5
6
7
T5D
ABCD














1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ABCD














1
2
3
4
5
6
7














8
9
10
11
12





8
9
10 
11 
12 















13
8
9
10  
11  
12  
 










8
9
10    
11    
12  
13  
8
9
10 
11 
12 















8
9
10 
11 
12 















Technician Class License
2014-2018 Question Pool Response
Sheet with Answers
T6A
ABCD
12
T6C
T6D
T7A
T7B
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
1
  
1
2

2
3

3
4

4
5

5
6

6
7

7
8

8
9

9
10    
10  
11    
11  

12    

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10  

11  
12    






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  
12  












T7C
ABCD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

T7D
T8A
T8B
T8C
T8D
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
  










12    
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  






















1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  
11  











12    
13













13
12
T6B

13    
T9A
T9B
ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD
T0A
T0B
T0C
1   1   1   1   1  
81











2

2 
2
2
2
3

3 
3
3
3
4

4 
4
4
4
5
5
5
5




5
6
6
6
6
6























8
7
7
7
8
12










7
7


8
8
8
9

9 
9
9
9
10

10    
10    
10    
10    
11

11    
11    
11    
11    

12    
12    
13

13    
14

Technician Class License
2014-2018 Question Pool Response Sheet
T1A
A
BC
D
T1B
ABCD
T1C
ABCD
D. 1.25 meter band
2. What is a transceiver?
A. 3 times as much
4
4 4 4 4 4
5
5 5 5 5 5
6
6 6 6 6 6
7
7 7 7 7 7
8
8 8 8 8 8
9
9 9 9 9 9
10
10 10 10 10 10
11
11 11 11 11 11
12
12 12
12
13
13
14
T1D
ABCD
T1E
A
BC
D
T1F
A
BC
D
6
51
77
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
84
87
82
T2A
T2B
ABCD
T2C
ABCD
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
T3A
ABCD
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
T3B
ABCD
T3C
ABCD
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
ABCD
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
T4A
T4B
ABCD
ABCD
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
T5A
T5B
ABCD
T5C
ABCD
T5D
ABCD
ABCD
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
83
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
12
13
12
12
12
12
13
Technician Class License
2014-2018 Question Pool Response
Sheet
T6A
AB
T6B
CD
ABCD
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
T6C
8
T6D
ABCD
ABCD
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
T7A
AB
T7B
CD
AB
CD
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
9
10
11
12
12
9
10
11
9
10
11
9
10
11
8
9
10
11
12
8
9
10
11
12
13
T7C
ABCD
T7D
T8A
T8B
T8C
T8D
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
84
3
4
5
3
4
5
1
1
2
2
3
4
5
1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
6
7
8
9
10
6
7
8
9
10
6
7
8
9
10
6
7
8
9
10
11
11
11
11
12
6
7
8
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
T9A
ABCD
T9B
ABCD
T0A
ABCD
T0B
T0C
ABCD
1
ABCD
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
85
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
86
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
14
87

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