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```PHYS 1444 – Section 004
Lecture #11
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
Dr. Jaehoon Yu
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electric Power
Alternating Current
Power Delivered by AC
Microscopic View of Electric Current
Ohm’s Law in Microscopic View
EMF and Terminal Voltage
Today’s homework is #7, due 10pm, Tuesday, Mar. 6!!
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
1
Announcements
– CH25. 8 – 25.10
• Colloquium this week
– 4pm Wednesday, SH101
• Dr. P. Slaine
– Mark your calendar on triple credit colloquium on April 4.
• Dr. Youngkee Kim
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
2
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
3
Special Project #3
• Make a list of the rated power and the resistance of all electric and
electronic devices at your home and compiled them in a table. (0.5 points
each for the first 10 items and 0.1 points each additional item.)
– What is an item?
• Similar electric devices count as one item.
– All light bulbs make up one item, computers another, refrigerators, TVs, dryers (hair and clothes), electric
cooktops, heaters, microwave ovens, electric ovens, dishwashers, etc.
– All you have to do is to count add all wattages of the light bulbs together as the power of the item
• Estimate the cost of electricity for each of the items (taking into account
the number of hours you use the device) on the table using the electricity
cost per kWh of the power company that serves you and put them in a
separate column in the above table for each of the items. (0.2 points each
for the first 10 items and 0.1 points each additional items). Clearly write
down what the unit cost of the power is per kWh above the table.
• Estimate the the total amount of energy in Joules and the total electricity
cost per month and per year for your home. (4 points)
Monday,Beginning
Feb. 27, 2012 of the class
PHYS
1444-004, Spring 2012
Dr. 7
4
• Due:
Wednesday,
Mar.
Jaehoon Yu
•
Electric
Power
Why is the electric energy useful?
– It can transform into different forms of energy easily.
• Motors, pumps, etc, transform electric energy to mechanical energy
• Heaters, dryers, cook-tops, etc, transforms electricity to thermal energy
• Light bulb filament transforms electric energy to light energy
– Only about 10% of the energy turns to light and the 90% lost via heat
– Typical household light bulb and heating elements have resistance of order a few
ohms to a few hundred ohms
• How does electric energy transforms to thermal energy?
– Flowing electrons collide with the vibrating atoms in the wire.
– In each collision, part of electron’s kinetic energy is transferred to the atom it
collides with.
– The kinetic energy of the wire’s atoms increases, and thus the temperature of the
wire increases.
– The increased thermal energy can be transferred as heat through conduction and
convection to the air in a heater or to food on a pan, through radiation to bread in a
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
5
Electric Power
• How do we find out the power transformed by an electric device?
– What is definition of the power?
• The rate at which work is done or the energy is transformed
• What is the energy transformed when an infinitesimal charge dq
moves through a potential difference V?
– dU=Vdq
– If dt is the time required for an amount of charge dq to move through the
potential difference V, the power P is
What is this?
– P  dU dt  V dq dt
2
V
– Thus, we obtain P  VI . In terms of resistance P  I 2 R 
R
– What is the unit? Watts = J/s
– What kind of quantity is the electrical power?
• Scalar
– P=IV can apply to any devices while the formula with resistance can
only apply to resistors.
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
6
Example 25 – 8
resistance of a 40-W automobile
Since the power is 40W and the voltage is 12V, we use the
formula with V and R.
V2
P
R
Solve for R
12V 
V

 3.6
R
P
40W
2
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
2
7
Power in Household Circuits
• Household devices usually have small resistance
– But since they draw current, if they become large enough,
• Why is using thicker wires safer?
– Thicker wires has less resistance, lower heat
– Overloaded wire can set off a fire at home
• How do we prevent this?
– Put in a switch that would disconnect the circuit when
• Fuse or circuit breakers
• They open up the circuit when
the current is over certain
value
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
8
Example 25 – 11
Will a fuse blow?: Determine the
total current drawn by all the
devices in the circuit in the figure.
The total current is the sum of current
drawn by individual device.
P  IV
Bulb
Solve for I
I PV
Heater I H  1800W 120 V  15.0 A
I B  100W 120 V  0.8 A
Stereo I S  135W 120 V  2.9 A
Dryer I D  1200W 120 V  10.0 A
Total current
I T  I B  I H  I S  I D  0.8 A  15.0 A  2.9 A  10.0 A  28.7 A
PS  2012
PD Dr. 100W  1800W  350W  1200W 9 3450W
 P1444-004,
Monday,is
Feb.
27, 2012
B  PH Spring
What
the
total power?PT PHYS
Jaehoon Yu
Alternating Current
• Does the direction of the flow of current change while a battery
is connected to a circuit?
– No. Why?
• Because its source of potential difference stays put.
– This kind of current is called the Direct Current (DC), and it does not
change its direction of flow while the battery is connected.
• How would DC look as a function of time?
– A straight line
• Generators at electric power plant produce alternating current
(AC)
– AC reverses direction many times a second
– AC is sinusoidal as a function of time
• Most the currents supplied to homes and
are AC.
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
10
The Alternating Current
• The voltage produced by an AC electric generator is
sinusoidal
– This is why the current is sinusoidal
• Voltage produced can be written as
V  V0 sin 2 ft  V0 sin  t
• What are the maximum and minimum voltages?
– V0 (–V0) and 0
– The potential oscillates between +V0 and –V0, the peak voltages or
amplitude
– What is f?
• The frequency, the number of complete oscillations made per second. What is
the unit of f? What is the normal size of f in the US?
– f=60Hz in the US and Canada.
– Many European countries have f=50Hz.
–  2f
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
11
Alternating Current
• Since V=IR, if a voltage V exists across a resistance R, the
What is this?
current I is
V V0
I 
sin 2 ft  I 0 sin  t
R R
• What are the maximum and minimum currents?
– I0 (–I0) and 0.
– The current oscillates between +I0 and –I0, the peak currents or
amplitude. The current is positive when electron flows to one
direction and negative when they flow opposite.
– AC is as many times positive as negative. What’s the average
current?
• Zero. So there is no power and no heat is produced in a heater?
– Yes there is! The electrons actually flow back and forth, so power is delivered.
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
12
Power Delivered by Alternating Current
• AC power delivered to a resistance is:
P  I 2 R  I 02 R sin 2  t
– Since the current is squared, the power is always positive
1
P  I 02 R
2
• The average power delivered is
• Since the power is also P=V2/R, we can obtain
P

V02

1  V0
P 
2  R
2
R sin  t
2
Average power



• The average of the square of current and voltage are
important in calculating power: 2 1 2
1 2
2
I 
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
2
I0
V  V0
2
13
Power Delivered by Alternating Current
• The square root of each of these are called root-mean-square,
or rms:
V0
I0
2
2
I rms  I 
2
 0.707 I 0
Vrms  V 
2
 0.707V0
• rms values are sometimes called effective values
– These are useful quantities since they can substitute current and
voltage directly in power, as if they are in DC
1 2
2
P  I 0 R  I rms
R
2
2
2
1 V0 Vrms
P

2 R
R
P  I rmsVrms
– In other words, an AC of peak voltage V0 or peak current I0 produces
as much power as DC voltage of Vrms or DC current Irms.
– So normally, rms values in AC are specified or measured.
•
•
•
•
US uses 115V rms voltage. What is the peak voltage?
V0  2Vrms 
2  115V  162.6V
V0  2Vrms 
2  240V  340V
Europe uses 240V
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
14
Example 25 – 13
Hair Dryer. (a) Calculate the resistance and the peak current
in a 1000-W hair dryer connected to a 120-V AC line. (b)
What happens if it is connected to a 240-V line in Britain?
The rms current is:
I rms 
The peak current is:
P
 1000W  8.33 A
Vrms
120V
I 0  2 I rms  2  8.33 A  11.8 A
Thus the resistance is:
R
P
2
I rms

1000W
8.33 A
2
 14.4
(b) If connected to 240V in Britain …
The average power provide by the AC in UK is
P
2
Vrms
R

 240V 2
14.4
 4000W
So? The heating coils in the dryer will melt!
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
15
Microscopic View of Electric Current
• When a potential difference is applied to the two ends of a
wire w/ uniform cross-section, the direction of electric field is
parallel to the walls of the wire, this is possible since the
charges are moving
• Let’s define a microscopic vector quantity, the current density,
j, the electric current per unit cross-sectional area
– j=I/A or I = jA if the current density is uniform
– If not uniform I   j  dA
– The direction of j is the direction the positive charge would move
when placed at that position, generally the same as E
• The current density exists on any point in space while the
current I refers to a conductor as a whole so a macroscopic
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
16
Microscopic View of Electric Current
• The direction of j is the direction of a positive charge.
So in a conductor, since negatively charged electrons
move, the direction is –j.
• Let’s think about the current in a microscopic view
again:
–
–
–
–
When voltage is applied to the end of a wire
Electric field is generated by the potential difference
Electrons feel force and get accelerated
Electrons soon reach to a steady average speed due to
collisions with atoms in the wire, called drift velocity, vd
– The drift velocity is normally much smaller than electrons’
average random speed.
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
17
Microscopic View of Electric Current
• How do we relate vd with the macroscopic current I?
– In time interval t, the electrons travel l =vdt on average
– If wire’s x-sectional area is A, in time t electrons in a
volume V=l A=Avdt will pass through the area A
– If there are n free electrons ( of charge –e) per unit volume,
the total charge Q that pass through A in time t is
– Q   total number of charge, N   charge per particle   nV  e     nAv te
– The current I in the wire is I  Q  neAv
d
d
– The density in vector form is
– For any types of charge:
I
t
I
j    nevd
A
n q v
i i di A
i
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
j
n q v
i i di
i
18
Microscopic View of Electric Current
• The drift velocity of electrons in a wire is only about
0.05mm/s. How could we get light turned on
immediately then?
– While the electrons in a wire travels slow, the electric field
travels essentially at the speed of light. Then what is all the
• It is just like water. When you turn on the facet, water flows right off
the facet despite the fact that the water travels slow.
• Electricity is the same. Electrons fill the conductor wire and when
the switch is flipped on or a potential difference is applied, the
electrons closed to the positive terminal flows into the bulb.
• Interesting, isn’t it? Why is the field travel at the speed of light then?
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
19
Ohm’s Law in Microscopic View
• Ohm’s law can be written in microscopic quantities.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
l
A
Resistance in terms of resistivity is
We can rewrite the potential V and current I as: I=jA, V=El.
If electric field is uniform, from V=IR, we obtain
R
V  IR
 l
El   jA     j  l
 A
So
j
E
 E

In a metal conductor,  or  does not depend on V, thus,
the current density j is proportional to the electric field E 
Microscopic statement of Ohm’s Law
– In vector form, the density can be written as j  E   E
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu

20
Superconductivity
• At the temperature near absolute 0K, resistivity of certain
material becomes 0.
– This state is called the “superconducting” state.
– Observed in 1911 by H. K. Onnes when he cooled mercury to 4.2K (269oC).
• Resistance of mercury suddenly dropped to 0.
– In general superconducting materials become superconducting
below a transition temperature.
– The highest temperature superconductivity seen is 160K
• First observation above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen is in 1987 at
90k observed from a compound of yttrium, barium, copper and oxygen.
• Since much smaller amount of material can carry just as much
current more efficiently, superconductivity can make electric
cars more practical, computers faster, and capacitors store
higher energy
Monday, Feb. 27, 2012
PHYS 1444-004, Spring 2012 Dr.
Jaehoon Yu
21
```