DBQ Sectional Differences - White Plains Public Schools

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NAME ______________________________________ SCHOOL ____________________________________
In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep this general definition in mind:
discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
argument; to present in some detail”
Part III
DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
Historical Context:
Between 1800 and 1860, economic, social, and political factors contributed to the
development of sectional differences between the North and the South. These
differences included how best to expand the United States economy, the extension
of slavery into the territories, and the relationship between the states and the
federal government. These differences laid the groundwork for the Civil War.
Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
• Discuss the economic, political, and/or social differences between the North
and the South that eventually led to the Civil War
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[11]
[OVER]
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
space provided.
Document 1a
Value of Manufacturing (in millions of dollars), 1860
Wash. T
Wash.
Territory
erritory
$1.4
Vt.
$14.6
Unorg.
Terr
err..
Terr.
Oreg.
$3.0
Nebraska
Territory
Territory
$0.6
Utah
Territory
Territory
$0.9
Calif.
$68.2
Minn.
$3.4
Wisc.
$27.8
Territory
Kansas Territory
$4.4
Indian
Territory
Territory
Texas
$6.6
Free States
Mich.
$32.7
Pa.
$200.1
Ohio
Ill.
Ind. $121.7
$57.6 $41.8
Va.
Mo.
$50.7
Ky.
$41.8
$37.9
N.C. $16.7
Tenn.$18.0
Ark.
S.C.
$2.9
$8.6
Ga.
Ala.
Miss.
$6.6 $10.6 $16.9
Iowa
$13.9
New Mexico
Territory
Territory
$1.2
N.Y.
$378.9
La.
$15.6
Me.
$38.2
N.H. $37.6
Mass. $255.6
R.I. $40.7
Conn. $81.9
N.J. $76.3
Del. $9.9
Md. $41.7
D.C. $5.4
Fla.
$2.4
Slave States
Territories
Source: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University Libraries,
and United States Census Bureau (adapted)
Document 1b
Value of Exports (in millions)
$350
$300
Total Exports
$250
$200
$150
Cotton Exports
$100
$ 50
1850
1852
1854
1856
1858
1860
Year
Source: Douglass C. North, The Economic Growth of the United States, 1790 –1860,
W. W. Norton & Co., 1966 (adapted)
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[12]
Document 1c
Major Railroads, 1860
L. Superior
Portland
ro
n
L. O
Buffalo
ntar
Boston
io
it
e
ke
au
li w
M
go
ica
Ch
Hu
D
et
ro
L. Mi
c
higan
L.
New York
ie
Er
L. Cleveland
Philadelphia
h
urg
ittsb
P
Louisville
Baltimore
Washington
Richmond
Norfolk
St. Louis
Cairo
Wilmington
Chattanooga
Memphis
Charleston
Atlanta
Savannah
Jacksonville
Mobile
New Orleans
Key
Galveston
Major
railroads
Source: Kownslar and Frizzle, Discovering American History,
Holt, Rinehart and Winston (adapted)
1 Based on these documents, state two differences between the economies of the North and the South before
the Civil War. [2]
(1)__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Score
(2)__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[13]
[OVER]
Document 2a
Agents of the American Anti-Slavery Society traveled throughout the United States to urge the abolition of
slavery.
Dear Sir—You have been appointed an Agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society; …
… Our object is, the overthrow of American slavery, the most atrocious and oppressive system
of bondage that has ever existed in any country. We expect to accomplish this, mainly by showing
to the public its true character and legitimate fruits [real effects], its contrariety [opposition] to
the first principles of religion, morals, and humanity, and its special inconsistency with our
pretensions [aims], as a free, humane, and enlightened people. In this way, by the force of truth,
we expect to correct the common errors that prevail respecting slavery, and to produce a just
public sentiment, which shall appeal both to the conscience and love of character, of our slaveholding fellow-citizens, and convince them that both their duty and their welfare require the
immediate abolition of slavery.…
Source: Barnes and Dumond, eds., Letters of Theodore Dwight Weld, Angelina Grimké Weld and
Sarah Grimké, 1822–1844, American Historical Association, 1934
2a Based on this document, state one reason the American Anti-Slavery Society opposed slavery. [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[14]
Document 2b
Thomas R. Dew defended slavery in a debate in the Virginia legislature.
According to the census of 1830, there were approximately 470,000 slaves in Virginia. The
average value of each slave is about $200. Thus the total value of the slave population in Virginia
in 1830 was $94,000,000. Allowing for the increase since, the present value of slaves in Virginia
is about $100,000,000. The assessed value of all the houses and lands in the state amounts to
$206,000,000. Do not these simple statistics speak volumes upon the subject? It is seriously
recommended to the state of Virginia that she give up her slaves. In other words, Virginia is
expected to sacrifice one-half of her total worth!
It is, in truth, the slave labor in Virginia which gives value to the soil and to her economy.
Take this away and you ruin her. Remove the slave population from the State and it is absolutely
safe to say that on the day this happens, Virginia will become a “waste howling wilderness.” “The
grass will be seen growing in the streets and the foxes peeping from their holes.”…
Source: Thomas R. Dew, Review of the Debate in the Virginia Legislature of 1831 and 1832,
in Martin W. Sandler et al., The People Make a Nation, Allyn and Bacon, 1971
2b According to Thomas R. Dew, what is one reason slavery was important to Virginia? [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[15]
[OVER]
Document 3
Historian Eric Foner on the role of westward expansion
Q: What is the relationship between slavery and westward expansion?
A: … But the frontier also carried with it the expansion of slavery. The westward expansion of
slavery was one of the most dynamic economic and social processes going on in this country.
The westward expansion carried slavery down into the Southwest, into Mississippi, Alabama,
crossing the Mississippi River into Louisiana. Finally, by the 1840’s, it was pouring into Texas.
So the expansion of slavery, which became the major political question of the 1850’s, was not
just a political issue. It was a fact of life that every American had experienced during this
period.…
Now, in the South, southern slave owners insisted that slavery was absolutely essential to that
story of progress. Without slavery, you could not have civilization, they said. Slavery freed the
upper class from the need to do manual labor, to worry about economic day-to-day realities,
and therefore gave them the time and the intellectual ability to devote themselves to the arts
and literature and mechanical advantages and inventions of all kinds. So that it was slavery
itself which made the progress of civilization possible.…
Source: Interview with Eric Foner, Africans in America, www.pbs.org/wgbh
3 According to Eric Foner, state one reason Southern slave owners supported the expansion of slavery into
the West. [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[16]
Document 4
In 1847, the Massachusetts legislature passed a resolution, written by Charles Sumner, opposing the war
with Mexico. This is an excerpt from the resolution.
Resolved, That the present war with Mexico has its primary origin in the unconstitutional
annexation to the United States of the foreign State of Texas, while the same was still at war with
Mexico; that it was unconstitutionally commenced by the order of the President, to General
Taylor, to take military possession of territory in dispute between the United States and Mexico,
and in the occupation of Mexico; and that it is now waged ingloriously—by a powerful nation
against a weak neighbor—unnecessarily and without just cause, at immense cost of treasure
[money] and life, for the dismemberment of Mexico, and for the conquest of a portion of her
territory, from which slavery has already been excluded, with the triple object of extending
slavery, of strengthening the “Slave Power,” and of obtaining the control of the Free States,
under the constitution of the United States.…
Source: Massachusetts House of Representatives
4 According to this resolution, what is one reason the Massachusetts legislature was opposed to the
Mexican War? [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[17]
[OVER]
Document 5
On January 29, 1850, Senator Henry Clay proposed a series of resolutions to settle “… all questions in
controversy between the free and the slave states.…” The list below contains excerpts from Clay’s speech.
Selected Proposals for the Compromise of 1850
1 That California ought to be admitted into the Union without restriction as to the inclusion or
exclusion of slavery.
2 That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory
acquired by the United States from the Republic of Mexico, it is not in the interest of Congress
to pass a law either establishing or prohibiting it in the land acquired from Mexico.…
5 That it is not wise to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia while slavery continues to
exist in Maryland without the consent of that state, the consent of the people of the District,
and without just payment to the owners of slaves within the District.
6 That, however, it is wise to prohibit in the District of Columbia, the bringing-in of slaves from
other states either to be used in the District or to be sold there for use in other states.
7 That stronger provision ought to be made by law for the capture and return of slaves who
may have escaped into any other state or territory in the Union.
8 That Congress has no power to prohibit or prevent the trading of slaves between States. This
depends completely on the laws of each individual state.
Source: Martin W. Sandler et al., The People Make a Nation, Allyn and Bacon, 1971
5a Based on this document, what is one way these proposals favored the North? [1]
Score
b Based on this document, what is one way these proposals favored the South? [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[18]
Document 6
… Slavery was not the only cause of North–South confrontation during the 1830s and 1840s.
Ever since the passage in 1828 of the high protective tariff, dubbed by Southerners “The Tariff
of Abominations,” the Southern states had been protesting not just its unfairness but also its
illegality. They managed to get it reduced in 1832, though that was not enough for many South
Carolinians who argued that an individual state, as a party to the original compact that created
the Union, had the right to declare null and void within its borders a Federal law that it
considered unconstitutional or unjust. On this basis a special state convention of South Carolina
nullified the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832, banned the collection of duties within its borders and
declared that any use of force by the Federal government would justify secession from the
Union. The Northern majority in Congress voted the President additional powers to enforce
collection of the revenues, but others successfully sought conciliatory [friendly] ways to avoid an
irrevocable [unstoppable] collision on this issue and the immediate crisis was averted, although
South Carolinians did not discard their secessionist arguments.…
Source: Batty and Parish, The Divided Union: The Story of the Great American War, 1861–65,
Salem House Publishers, 1987
6a According to Batty and Parish, what was one reaction by South Carolina to the passage of federal tariffs? [1]
Score
b According to Batty and Parish, what was one Northern response to the actions taken by South Carolina
regarding the tariff? [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[19]
[OVER]
Document 7
Confederate General John B. Gordon was a civilian-turned-soldier who became one of General
Robert E. Lee’s most trusted commanders.
… The South maintained with the depth of religious conviction that the Union formed under
the Constitution was a Union of consent and not of force; that the original States were not the
creatures but the creators of the Union; that these States had gained their independence, their
freedom, and their sovereignty from the mother country, and had not surrendered these on
entering the Union; that by the express terms of the Constitution all rights and powers not
delegated were reserved to the States; and the South challenged the North to find one trace of
authority in that Constitution for invading and coercing a sovereign State.
The North, on the other hand, maintained with the utmost confidence in the correctness of her
position that the Union formed under the Constitution was intended to be perpetual; that
sovereignty was a unit and could not be divided; that whether or not there was any express power
granted in the Constitution for invading a State, the right of self-preservation was inherent in all
governments; that the life of the Union was essential to the life of liberty; or, in the words of
Webster, “liberty and union are one and inseparable.”…
Source: John B. Gordon, Reminiscences of the Civil War, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1904
7a According to John B. Gordon, what was the Southern point of view regarding the power of states under the
Constitution? [1]
Score
b According to John B. Gordon, what was the Northern point of view regarding the Union created under the
Constitution? [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[20]
Document 8
The Results of the Election of 1860
ME
OR
Nebraska
Territory
ized
rgan
Uno rritory
Te
Washington
Territory
VT
MN
NY
WI
MI
PA
IA
Utah
Territory
IL
OH
IN
NJ
RI
CT
DE
MD
VA
Kansas
Territory
CA
NH
MA
MO
KY
NC
New Mexico
Territory
Indian
Territory
TN
SC
AR
MS
LA
TX
N
AL
GA
FL
W
E
S
Republican
Abraham Lincoln
Northern Democratic
Stephen A. Douglas
Southern Democratic
John C. Breckinridge
Constitutional Union
John Bell
Source: Herman J. Viola, Why We Remember, Addison–Wesley Publishing (adapted)
8 Based on this map, why was Abraham Lincoln considered a sectional president? [1]
Score
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[21]
[OVER]
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
Historical Context:
Between 1800 and 1860, economic, social, and political factors contributed to the
development of sectional differences between the North and the South. These
differences included how best to expand the United States economy, the extension
of slavery into the territories, and the relationship between the states and the
federal government. These differences laid the groundwork for the Civil War.
Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
history, write an essay in which you
• Discuss the economic, political, and/or social differences between the North
and the South that eventually led to the Civil War
Guidelines:
In your essay, be sure to
• Develop all aspects of the task
• Incorporate information from at least five documents
• Incorporate relevant outside information
• Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
• Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
are beyond a restatement of the theme
U.S. Hist. & Gov’t. – Jan. ’12
[22]
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