Chapter 10 section 1-3 PP notes

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Chapter 10, Section 1: Geography and the Rise of Rome p. 294-299
The Big Idea: ________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea #1: p. 294-295 _________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Most of Italy is covered with ___________. Italians built their cities on the
_____________ for ______________.
 Two major mountain ranges, the _____________ and the __________________ created
rugged land that was hard to cross.
 Some of Italy’s mountains were _______________. They could devastate towns.
 They also built cites near rivers for a source of fresh water. Rome lies on the
______________ River.
 Rome had a mild _______________ that led to a plentiful food supply and the
city’s early growth.
****Fact Check****How did Rome’s location affect its early history? ______________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea#2: p296-297 ___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Little is known about Rome’s early history because no ________________ records
exist. People told legends or stories about the past.
 The Romans believed they could trace their history to a great Trojan leader
named _________________.
 The _______________, an epic poem by _____________, tells about his trip to Italy
after the Greeks destroyed Troy. He became a ruler in Italy after making an
alliance with the ____________ and marrying the daughter of a Latin king.
 According to legend, the founders of Rome were orphaned twin brothers
named _________________ and __________________ who were raised by wolves.
 Romulus killed Remus then built a city that he named ________________.
 Early Rome was a monarchy. Roman records list seven kings who ruled the
city, some of whom were __________________.
 The Etruscans made contributions such as huge _______________ and Rome’s
first _____________. Some believe that Rome learned the _______________ and
_________________ from the Etruscans.
 The last Roman King was said to be cruel and a group of nobles overthrew
him. They created a new _____________________.
*****Fact Check**** What types of stories were the tales of Romulus and
Remus and the epic of Aeneas? _______________________________________________________
Why did the Romans decide to get rid of the monarchy? ____________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea #3: p298-299 __________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
 The Romans created a __________________ in 509 BC in which elected officials
ran the city
 They protected against anyone staying in power too long by limiting
___________ to one year.
 During difficult wars, the Romans chose ________________ who ruled with
absolute power, to lead the city. They could stay in power only six months.
 One famous dictator was ______________________. He defeated his enemies and
returned to being a farmer before his six-month term was up.
****Fact Check****What type of government did the Romans create in
509 BC? ____________________________________________________________________________
How were plebeians and patricians different? _______________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 10, Section 2: Government and Society p.302-307
The Big Idea: ________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Roman Government p. 302-304
Main Idea#1: _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
 When the __________________ complained about Rome’s government, the leaders
knew they had to make changes.
 They developed the ______________________, or three-part government.
 Magistrates: the first part was made up of _________________ officials. The two
most powerful positions were called the ________________. Each magistrate was
elected for a one-year term.
 Senate: The second part was the Roman _________________, a council of wealthy
and powerful Romans who advised the city’s leaders. They were elected for
_____________.
 Assemblies and Tribunes: This part protected the ________________ people and
had two ________________.
o The first branch was made up of both _________________ and
____________________ and they elected the _______________________.
o The second branch was made up of the _________________ who could veto
actions by other officials. They were elected by the ____________________.
Civic Duty and Checks and Balances:
 Rome’s government would not have worked without the participation of the
___________________. People participated because they felt it was their _________.
They attended meetings, voted, and the wealthy held office.
 Checks and Balances were created to ensure no one part of the government
had more ___________________. It is a method of balancing power keeping one
part of the government from becoming stronger than the others.
****Fact Check****What were the three parts of the Roman Government?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Why did the Romans create a system of checks and balances? ____________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Written Laws Keep Order: p. 305
Main Idea #2: _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Many people were punished for breaking ______________ they did not know .
 To prevent this, Rome’s first __________ _____________ was written and displayed
in the ___________, Rome’s public meeting place.
 They developed a code called the Law of _______________ ____________________.
****Fact Check****Why would people want a written code of laws? _____________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
The Roman Forum p.306-307
Main Idea #3: _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
 The Roman forum, where the Law of the Twelve Tables was kept, was the
______________ of the city.
 It was the site of many important government ________________ and ______________
 It was also a popular ________________ place for Roman citizens to shop, chat,
and gossip.
****Fact Check**** Why do you think the Romans posted the Law of Twelve
Tables in the city’s forum? ________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 10, Section 3: The Late Republic p. 308-313
Big Idea: _____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea#1: ________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Growth of Territory and Trade: p.308-309
 Roman territory grew as a result of ____________________ ____________________.
 _______________ and many of Rome’s neighboring cities tried to attack and were
defeated. Rome soon gained controlled most of the Italian Peninsula.
 One reason for Roman success against invaders was the organization of the
army into __________________, or groups of up to 6,000 soldiers.
 This organization allowed the army to be more ________________.
 Each legion was divided into ________________, or groups of 100 soldiers. The
army could fight as one large group or as several smaller ones.
Farming and Trade:
 As the Republic grew, many people left their ____________ to move to Rome.
 Wealthy farmers built large farms run by ________________ in the countryside,
but Roman farmers could not grow enough food to support the population.
 As a result, __________________ brought goods to Rome and increased ____________.
****Fact Check****
Why did the Romans decide to conquer all of Italy? __________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
How did the growth of territory increase Roman Trade? ___________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea #2: _______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rome Grows Beyond Italy: p. 309-311
 As Rome’s power grew, other cultures came to see it as a _______________ and
declared war.
 After defeating its opponents, Rome gained _________________ throughout the
________________________________.
The Punic Wars (264-146 BC)
 Rome fought a series of wars called The Punic Wars against __________________,
a city in northern Africa.
 Rome first beat Carthage in ___________________, when Carthage invaded. (20
years)
 Later, (218 BC) _____________________ tried to attack Rome itself but was
defeated.
 Finally, (140s BC) Rome invaded __________________, burned the city, and took
control of northern Africa.
 During the Punic Wars, Rome took control of Sicily, ______________, ______________,
and North Africa.
 The Romans went on to conquer parts of _________________ and __________________.

Rome never completely took over Greece, but it adopted ideas about
literature, art, philosophy, religion, and _____________________ from the Greeks.
*****Fact Check**** How did the Romans gain territory? ___________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why did the Romans borrow so many ideas from the Greeks?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Main Idea #3 ________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Crisis Strikes the Republic: P. 312-313
 As Rome’s territory grew, problems arose in the republic. Rich citizens
gained most of the wealth, and many leaders feared that violence would
erupt between ___________ and _____________.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus:
 Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were brothers who both served as _______________.
 They tried to address the growing problems by creating ________________ for
poor Romans to keep them happy and prevent _____________________.
 In two separate events, ___________________ citizens opposed this idea and
rioted. Both brothers were killed years apart in separate riots.
 From this point on people saw __________________ as a political weapon to use
when they disagreed with ___________________.
Marius and Sulla
 Gaius Marius encouraged poor people to join the _______________, in order to
make up for troop shortages. The _________________ of his army gave him great
political power.
 Following this example, Lucius Cornelius Sulla built an army to support him
the same way Marius had.
 The two leaders started a ________________ _________________ in which Sulla
defeated Marius and became ___________________. (80s BC) This was the
beginning of the end of the Republic.
Spartacus
 Thousands of _________________ led by Spartacus rose up and demanded
freedom.
 They defeated an army sent to stop them and took over most of _______________
____________.
 Spartacus died in battle and the revolt fell apart. 6,000 rebellious slaves were
______________ as an example to other slaves.
****Fact Check**** How did the death of the Gracchus brothers change Roman
Politics? ______________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
How did Marius and Sulla influence later leaders? ___________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why do you think various crises could possibly lead to major government
changes in Rome? __________________________________________________________________________
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