Mark Scheme Results Summer 2009

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Mark Scheme Results
Summer 2009
GCE
GCE Psychology (6PS01/01)
Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750
Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH
General Guidance on Marking
All candidates must receive the same treatment.
Examiners should look for qualities to reward rather than faults to penalise. This does NOT mean giving
credit for incorrect or inadequate answers, but it does mean allowing candidates to be rewarded for
answers showing correct application of principles and knowledge.
Examiners should therefore read carefully and consider every response: even unconventional answers
may be worthy of credit.
Candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. Make sure that the answer
makes sense. Do not give credit for correct words/phrases which are put together in a meaningless
manner. Answers must be in the correct context.
Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.
When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response,
the Team Leader must be consulted.
Using the mark scheme
The mark scheme gives:
• an idea of the types of response expected
• how individual marks are to be awarded
• the total mark for each question
• examples of responses that should NOT receive credit (where applicable).
1
2
3
4
5
/ means that the responses are alternatives and either answer should receive full credit.
( ) means that a phrase/word is not essential for the award of the mark, but helps the
examiner to get the sense of the expected answer.
[ ] words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners.
Phrases/words in bold indicate that the meaning of the phrase or the actual word is essential
to the answer.
TE (Transferred Error) means that a wrong answer given in an earlier part of a question is used
correctly in answer to a later part of the same question.
Quality of Written Communication
Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to:
•
•
•
show clarity of expression
construct and present coherent arguments
demonstrate an effective use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Full marks can only be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities.
Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated “QWC” in the mark scheme
BUT this does not preclude others.
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Unit 1: Social and Cognitive Psychology
Section A
Question
Number
1
Question
Which of the following is an example of social comparison?
Answer
Mark
A. Khuram wears the shirt of the local cricket team he supports
(1 AO1)
B. Rosie is a basketball supporter and goes to more away games than
her friends.
C. Max tells his friend that all the other football teams cheat more
than his team.
D. Shakira adopts the identity of her rugby team
Question
Number
2
Question
In Hofling’s study on obedience it was found that ___ out of 22 nurses
obeyed the doctor’s instructions.
Answer
Mark
A. 18
(1 AO1)
B. 20
C. 21
D. 22
Question
Number
3
Question
Godden and Baddeley’s study on context dependent memory found that:
Answer
A. Words were remembered better when recalled in the same
environment
Mark
(1 AO3)
B. Words were remembered better when recalled in a different
environment
C. There was no difference in words remembered regardless of
environment
D. Words were remembered better underwater than on land in all
conditions
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Question
Number
4
Question
Your teacher is demonstrating Levels of Processing theory and asks you a
number of questions. Which two of the following questions would result
in the lowest level of recall?
Answer
Mark
A. Does it rhyme with 'lot'?
(2 AO3)
B. Has it got 6 letters in it?
C. Is it an item of clothing?
D. Is it in small letters?
E. Is it a type of fruit?
Question
Number
5
Question
The measurement that has as many scores above it as below it is known
as the
Answer
Mark
A. Mean
(1 AO3)
B. Mode
C. Median
D. Range
Question
Number
6
Question
Practice and __________ effects are examples of order effects.
Answer
Mark
A. Demand
(1 AO3)
B. Fatigue
C. Experimenter
D. Interviewer
4
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Question
Number
7
Question
Structured interviews involve
Answer
Mark
A. Fixed, predetermined questions
(1 AO3)
B. No fixed questions or ways of answering
C. Open-ended questions with phrasing and timing left up to the
interviewer
D. The interviewer’s next question depending upon the interviewee’s
last answer
Question
Number
8
Question
A weakness of the volunteer sampling method is
Answer
Mark
A. Biased as every fifth person is chosen
(1 AO3)
B. Can be very time consuming and expensive
C. Can be unrepresentative through choosing only friends and family
D. Biased as participants tend to be more motivated and perform
better
Question
Number
9
Question
You are conducting your first psychology practical and you have written
a hypothesis. Your teacher asks you to define your variables so they can
be precisely measured. What is this process known as?
Answer
Mark
A. Experimenter effects
(1 AO3)
B. Randomisation
C. Operationalisation
D. Order effects
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Question
Number
10
Question
In ______ _______ designs the same participants are used in both
conditions.
Answer
Mark
A. cross-sectional
(1 AO3)
B. Independent groups
C. Matched pairs
D. Repeated measures
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Section B.
Question
Number
11
Question
Number
11
General Instructions
Marking points are indicative, not comprehensive and other points should be
credited. In each case other words to that effect. Each bullet point is a marking
point unless otherwise stated, and each point made by the candidate must be clearly
and effectively communicated. If more than one answer given accept the first one
Question
A field experiment was carried out to see if environmental cues can aid
recall. A student ice hockey team learned a list of 20 unrelated words in
an ice rink. Half the group were then taken to a library (control group)
whilst the other half (experimental group) stayed in the ice rink. Both
groups then had to recall as many of the 20 words as possible.
The results are shown in the table below:
Mean Number of
Words Recalled
(out of 20)
(a)
Control group
(Library)
Experimental group (Ice
rink)
10
16
Which design is being used in this study?
Answer
Reject methods or ‘different participants’.
Mark
(1 AO3)
If more than one answer given accept the first one.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Independent measures
Unrelated design
Independent groups
Independent [single word only]
Between groups design
Unrelated [single word only]
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Question
Number
(b)
Question
Explain why this design is appropriate for this study.
Answer
2 marks for a complete answer, 1 mark for a partial answer.
If more than one advantage given mark all and credit the best.
Mark
(2 AO3)
There is no practice/fatigue effect/eq; 1 mark
As the participants either went to the library or the ice rink/eq; 1
mark
No order effects/eq; 1 mark
No order effects as different participants are used in each
condition/eq; 2 marks
Need two groups to compare the results/eq; 1 mark
A comparison group is required to see if the change in environment had
an effect on recall/eq; 2 marks
Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer
Question
Number
(c)
Question
Which measure of central tendency is being used in the table above?
Answer
If more than one answer given accept the first one
•
Question
Number
(d)
Mark
(1 AO3)
Mean
Question
Would this study have high or low validity? Explain your answer.
Answer
2 marks for a complete answer, 1 mark for a partial answer. A suitable
example would serve as elaboration. MAX 1 mark if no reference made
to the actual study.
Mark
(2 AO3)
High validity as it was in a natural setting for the hockey team (ice
rink)/eq; 1 mark
Even the students in the library were in their natural setting as well as
those in the ice rink which would be high validity/eq; 1 mark
Low validity as learning a wordlist is an artificial task which is not
carried out in everyday life/eq; 1 mark
Low (construct) validity as a task such as learning a list of words may
not be testing how memory normally works/eq; 1 mark
Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer
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Question
Number
(e)
Question
The researchers would have followed ethical guidelines. With reference
to this study, explain two ethical guidelines they would have to
consider.
Answer
1 mark for each guideline (ID mark) + 1 for each explanation
Mark
(4 AO3)
NB: 1 mark for ID, second mark in each case must relate the study
to the ethical guideline to gain credit
There are many guidelines that could be chosen. If more than two are
given mark all and credit the best.
Right to withdraw; ID mark
The ice hockey team/players had to know that they could pull out
from the memory experiment at any time and withdraw the data they
had recalled/eq;
Debriefing; ID mark
The ice hockey team should be told all about the purpose of the
experiment on cue dependent memory so they know what they have
participated in/eq;
Informed consent; ID mark
The ice hockey team/student team must give their permission to take
part in the memory experiment after they are told what is
involved/eq;
Confidentiality; ID mark
The results and personal details of the ice hockey team/‘group’ should
not in any way be made public to anyone without their permission/eq;
Look for other reasonable ethical guidelines and other ways of
expressing this answer
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Question
Numb
er
(f)
Question
Outline one weakness of field experiments in
general.
Answer
2 marks for a complete answer, 1 mark for a
partial answer.
If more than one weakness mark all and
credit the best
E.g.
Lack of full control over variables/eq;1 mark
Mark
(2
A
O
3
)
Difficult to replicate due to lack of full
control over extraneous variables /eq; 2
marks
E.g.
Could be lack of informed consent/eq; 1
mark
Informed consent is difficult to obtain as
informing the participants they are being
studied
would
disrupt
natural
behaviour/eq; 2 marks
E.g.
May be more expensive
consuming/eq; 1 mark
and
time
The researcher may require additional skills
in arranging and setting up a field
experiment compared to the skills
required for a lab experiment/eq; 2
marks
Look for other reasonable
expressing this answer
10
ways
of
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Question
Number
12 (a)
Question
Complete the table below. For the following statements write either
prejudice or discrimination in the appropriate box.
Answer
No credit for more than one answer given in any one box.
No marks for 0 or 1 correct.
1 mark for 2 or 3 correct.
2 marks if all four correct.
Accept ‘P’ or ‘D’ or ‘Prej’ and ‘Disc’ [or any other short appropriate
abbreviation]
Statement
Prejudice or
Discrimination
A doorman refuses entry to a group of
teenagers into a nightclub because the
males are not wearing ties.
Nick believes all women drivers are
rubbish and should not be allowed on
the road.
Edith applies for a job but does not get
it because the manager wants a younger
person.
Beth is rejected from Claire’s social
networking site because of her taste in
music.
Discrimination
11
Mark
(2 AO1)
Prejudice
Discrimination
Discrimination
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Question
Number
12(b) - 15
Question
Number
(b)
General Instructions
Marking points are indicative, not comprehensive and other points should be
credited. In each case other words to that effect. Each bullet point is a marking
point unless otherwise stated, and each point made by the candidate must be clearly
and effectively communicated. 1 mark per marking point or elaboration unless
otherwise stated.
Question
Describe Social Identity Theory as an explanation of prejudice.
Answer
Mark
1 mark for each point and/ or elaboration. Examples should be credited
(4 AO1)
if they help illustrate a point and are fully explained max 1 mark.
If all 3 processes below are named but not elaborated then Max 1 list
mark.
The full range of marks can be accessed for description of SIT without
any reference to these 3 terms.
• Prejudice can be explained by our tendency to identify ourselves
as part of a group, and to classify other people as either within
or outside that group/eq;
• Conflict may not even be necessary for prejudice to occur,
merely being in a group and being aware of the existence of
another group is sufficient for prejudice to develop/eq;
• Social categorisation Æ we categorise ourselves and others as
members of particular social groups/eq;
• Social identification Æ we adopt the identity of the group we
have categorised ourselves as belonging to/eq;
• Social comparison Æ this is the final stage, once we have
categorised ourselves as part of a group and identified with that
group, we compare that group with others/eq;
• We deliberately put down others to try and raise our own self –
esteem/eq;
• E.g. Males will dismiss women’s driving ability to make
themselves feel better/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points.
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(c)
Young people are getting a ‘bad press’ coverage for hanging around
towns in groups and wearing ‘hoodies’.
Using Social Identity Theory explain why teenagers might be getting
negative media coverage.
Answer
If no reference to concepts from SIT then max 1 mark. The teenagers
can be discussed as being part of the in group or the out group.
•
•
•
•
Look
Question
Number
13(a)
Mark
(3 AO2)
Teenagers tend to classify them selves as part of a group and
classify others as either in or outside that group/eq;
The bad press is coming from others/the out group who cannot
identify with the teenagers/eq;
Teenagers are therefore put down in order for the self esteem of
the other groups to be maintained/eq;
This might be self fulfilling so teenagers take on board the label
and act accordingly/eq;
for other reasonable marking points.
Question
You will have studied two of the following studies in detail from social
psychology.
Hofling et al (1966)
Sherif (1961/1988)
Tajfel et al (1970/1971)
Reicher and Haslam (2003/2006)
State the aim of your chosen study.
Answer
Mark
(2 AO1)
E.g. Hofling et al (1966)
•
•
•
To see whether nurses would obey doctors / authority
figures/eq;
To see if nurses would obey doctors who were authority figures
even if it meant breaking hospital regulations/eq; 2 marks
To discover whether nurses would comply with an instruction
which would involve them having to infringe both hospital
regulations & medical ethics/eq; 2 marks
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E.g. Sherif (1961/1988)
•
•
•
•
To see if in and out groups would cause prejudice/eq;
To see if working together on a common goal would reduce the
prejudice/eq;
To test the idea that if you create an in-group/out-group
situation and then creating conflict between them, prejudice
will arise/eq; 2 marks
To see if prejudice would be reduced if the two groups were set
a (superordinate) goal that needed their co-operation to
achieve/eq; 2 marks
E.g. Tajfel et al (1970/1971)
•
•
•
•
To see if in groups and out groups would cause prejudice/eq;
To see if members of the groups only allocated points to their
own in group/eq;
To see if participants consistently displayed prejudice towards
those identified as being in the same group as themselves, and
against those as being identified as in a different group/eq; 2
marks
Whether being categorised as belonging to one of two groups was
sufficient to induce prejudice against the other group/eq; 2
marks
E.g. Reicher and Haslam (2003/2006)
•
•
•
•
To see how social roles affect a person’s behaviour in an
artificial setting/eq;
To see if being in an institution changes the behaviour of
groups/eq;
To see how people define themselves in terms of their ascribed
group memberships and act in terms of group identities/eq; 2
marks
To create an institution that resembled a prison to investigate
the behaviour of groups that were unequal in terms of power,
status, and resources/eq; 2 marks
Look for any other reasonable marking points
Question
Number
13 (b)
Question
Evaluate your chosen study.
Answer
The evaluation must come from the same study outlined in 13 (a)
which must be one from the list.
TE: If (a) is blank and (b) correctly gives an evaluation of one of the
studies in the list then (b) can gain up to 4 marks.
If (b) evaluates one of the listed studies but a different one from that
given in (a) then if the evaluation is appropriate ,maximum 2 marks.
14
Mark
(4 AO2)
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The answer must evaluate one of the four specified studies or zero
marks.
One point per evaluation or for elaboration unless otherwise indicated.
Giving marks for elaboration where appropriate is particularly
important so that the full range of marks is available.
E.g. Hofling (1966)
•
The breaking of regulations may have been through fatigue and
not obedience/eq; 1 mark
•
Results may only be generalisable to American nurses in the
1960’s/eq; 1 mark
•
The nurses self esteem may have been damaged by the
experiment/eq; 1 mark
•
It was high in ecological validity as nurses were being studied in
their normal environment (1 mark) doing their usual work in
their ward in a hospital which they are familiar with /eq; 1
mark (elaboration)
•
The study has implications for nurses training and hospital policy.
Hofling has shown how nurses could breach hospital regulations
and endanger the lives of patients/eq; 2 marks
•
The nurses did not give informed consent to take part in the
experiment. They were unaware they were part of a study which
breaks one of the BPS guidelines which states experimenters
must gain their participants permission before using them in
psychological investigations/eq; 2 marks
•
Hofling used a field experiment which meant the experimenters
would not have had full control of all the variables. This in turn
implies the nurses’ level of obedience may not just have been
due to the phone call from the doctor but other factors too/eq;
2 marks
E.g. Sherif (1961/1988)
•
Researcher still had some control over the variables Sherif was
able to introduce the element of competition into the study/eq;
1 mark
•
The participants were unaware they were taking part so could
not give their consent/right to withdraw/eq; 1 mark
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•
It is vulnerable to extraneous variables as the situation is not
carefully controlled/eq; 1 mark
•
The study is high in ecological validity as it is based on a summer
camp which is a natural environment and involves activities
commonly carried out in these camps/eq; 2 marks
•
The study is ethnocentric as participants were all 12 years old,
and white middle-class American boys, so generalisation to the
American population as a whole is not possible/eq; 2 marks
•
There is less possibility of demand characteristics as the boys
were unaware they are taking part and are so less likely to ‘act
up’ /eq; 1 mark
E.g. Tajfel (1970)
•
The researcher has more control over variables than in other
settings or with other research methods so high levels of
precision can be achieved/eq; 1 mark
•
If all variables are controlled successfully then cause and effect
can be established/eq; 1 mark
•
Laboratory experiments are replicable as the researcher has
control over variables/eq; 1 mark
•
The experiment suffers from low ecological validity as it is
artificial and different from real life situations. Having to
allocate points like this is rarely done in everyday life/eq; 2
marks
•
Demand characteristics may have threatened the validity of the
experiment. The boys may try to behave in some way that they
perceive as being helpful to the researcher. They may respond
to some specific cues made by the researcher such as
differences in tone of voice/eq; 2 marks
E.g. Reicher and Haslam (2006)
•
The sample is biased as it consisted of all males and so can’t be
generalised further/eq; 1 mark
•
The sample is volunteer so may be biased in that participants
tend to be more motivated to perform/eq; 1 mark
•
They were randomly assigned to the role of prisoner or guard
giving each participant an equal chance of being either making it
fair/eq; 1 mark
•
No major interventions were necessary to address ethical
concerns after the study, the ethical committee described the
conduct of the study as ‘exemplary’/eq; 1 mark
•
Failure of the guards to exert their authority (or the prisoners to
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accept it), reflects the fact that the study context was simply
too artificial for participants to become engaged in/eq; 1 mark
•
Participants may fake it for the camera as they know they are
being filmed/eq; 1 mark
•
Participants signed a comprehensive consent form informing
them that they may be subject to a series of factors – including
physical and psychological discomfort, confinement, constant
surveillance and stress –which may involve risk/eq; 2 marks
•
Because two independent clinical psychologists monitored the
study throughout, this enabled the researchers to see any
participant at any time or to demand that any participant be
removed from the study/eq; 2 marks
Look for other reasonable marking points
Question
Number
14 (a)
Question
Identify one model or theory of memory.
Answer
If more than one theory or model mark all and credit the first given
answer. 1 mark for identification. Credit for either name or for
researcher / theorist.
The theory/model must be identifiable and not just general
information about memory.
•
•
•
•
•
Mark
(1 AO1)
e.g. Multi Store model / Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
e.g. Reconstructive memory / Bartlett (1932)
e.g. Levels of Processing / Craik and Lockhart (1972)
e.g. Working memory / Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
e.g. Spreading activation /Collins and Loftus (1975)
Look for any other suitable model.
Reject cue dependent.
Question
Number
14 (b)
Question
Describe the model or theory of memory that you identified in 14 (a).
Answer
TE: If (a) is blank and (b) correctly describes an appropriate model of
memory then (b) can gain up to 4 marks.
If (a) is incorrect (e.g. a model of forgetting) and (b) appropriately
describes a model of memory that is identifiable then maximum 2
marks can be given. Max 1 mark for an example that enhances
understanding.
Mark
(4 AO1)
e.g. Multi Store model / Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
NOTE Max 1 mark for accurate and fully labelled diagram
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•
•
•
•
•
Information moves through three systems (SSM STM LTM) under
the control of various cognitive processes (attention, rehearsal,
etc.)/eq;
The distinctions among the three structures is made on the basis
of three characteristics; capacity, duration and encoding/eq;
We receive information from the environment through our
senses, which is automatically stored briefly in a sensory
register/eq;
Coding and rehearsal determine the fate of this information.
Rehearsal is seen as a key process as it not only keeps
information in STM, but is also responsible for transferring it to
LTM/eq;
Material in the sensory register that is attended to is coded in
STM, and information in STM that is sufficiently rehearsed is
coded in LTM/eq;
e.g. Reconstructive memory / Bartlett (1932)
•
•
•
•
•
Memory is more of an imaginative reconstruction of past
events influenced by how we encode, store and retrieve
information/eq;
Memory is not like a blank video tape but is changed when we
recall it/eq;
Our attitudes and responses to events change our memory for
those events/eq;
We use schemas that we already have to interpret information
and incorporate these into our memory/eq;
Retrieval of stored memories thus involves an active process of
reconstruction using a range of information/eq;
e.g. Levels of Processing / Craik and Lockhart (1972)
If all three processes are not explained or elaborated then 1 list
mark only.
•
•
•
•
•
Memory is a consequence of how we process information the
deeper we process it the easier it will be remembered/eq;
Deep processing which is a form of elaborative rehearsal
produces longer lasting memory traces/eq;
The deepest level is semantic processing, and the shallowest is
structural processing/eq;
Information that is attended to on the basis of how it looks
(structural processing) is not very durable/eq;
Semantic analysis (understanding the meaning) results in deeper
processing and deeper processing results in a more durable
memory/eq;
e.g. Working memory / Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
NOTE Max 1 mark for accurate and fully labelled diagram
•
Working memory is an active store to hold and manipulate
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•
•
•
•
information that is currently being thought about/eq;
It consists of 3 separate components the central executive;
phonological loop and visio spatial sketchpad/eq;
The first monitors and co-ordinates the operation of the other
two slave systems/eq;
The second consists of two sub systems one which is an inner
voice the other which is an inner ear/eq;
The third component is an inner eye which holds visual and
spatial information from long term memory/eq;
Look for other reasonable marking points
Question
Number
15
Question
You are sitting in a lesson and suddenly hear a loud explosion outside.
You run to the window with all your classmates and see a large cloud of
smoke and people running around. You are questioned the next day by
the police about what happened.
Using concepts, theories and/or research from the cognitive psychology
explain why your later recall of the event might differ from others who
saw the same incident.
Answer
Mark
Concepts, theories and research from the cognitive psychology
(5 AO2)
include:
Key Issues (e.g. EWT; cognitive interview)
Methodology
Theories of Memory / Forgetting
Results / Conclusions of research e.g. memory and forgetting studies
DO NOT CREDIT descriptions of the studies themselves.
Terms and concepts can be drawn from (but are not limited to) the
terms listed in the specification.
More than one mark can be given to an explanation of just one concept.
Material in stimulus must be referred to at least once otherwise
MAX 3
e.g. Cue dependent
• Those interviewed in the classroom itself will be aided by cues
(context and state) and so may recall more detail than others
questioned elsewhere/eq;
e.g. Displacement
• In a limited capacity short term memory some details of the
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event may be displaced by others, causing forgetting of
important details for some in the class/eq;
e.g. LOP
• Those who used deeper processing are likely to remember more
than those classmates who used shallow processing/eq;
e.g. Multi store
• Some students may have though about and discussed what they
saw (rehearsal) so transferred information into LTM and will be
more able to recall detail than those who did not transfer
information from STM to LTM/eq;
e.g. Interference
• Students later learning / experiences may interfere with recall of
what they saw (retroactive interference) so those who were
more ‘active’ after the event may recall less than those who
were more ‘inactive’/eq;
e.g. Spreading activation
• There may be individual differences in recall based on each
classmates degree of associations in their semantic memory/eq;
e.g. Demand characteristics
• When being interviewed some classmates may be more prone to
saying things they think the police want to hear in a wish to
please them/eq;
e.g. EWT
• The use (or perception) of leading questions may produce
inaccurate memories for some classmates who may
underestimate or exaggerate what their saw based on the
question/eq;
e.g. Use of the cognitive interview
• Others may be able to give much more accurate detail if the
police use the cognitive interview asking them to recall events
from different perspectives or in a different order/eq;
e.g. Information processing
• There may be indidvidual differences in the way classmates input
and process what they see based on schemas which in turn may
lead to differences in recall/eq;
Look for other reasonable ways of expressing this answer
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Question
Numb
er
16.
Describe and evaluate one study of obedience from a country
other than Milgram’s
12 Marks (AO1 + AO2)
Indicative content
Possible studies include:
QWC
i,ii,iii
Meuss & Raaijmakers (1986)
Slater et al (2006)
Kilham & Mann (1971)
Reicher & Haslam (2003/2006)
There are others
Must be a published study
NO CREDIT for Hofling or Milgram’s original
experiment(1963)
Refer to banding at the end of the indicative content
A01 – These marks are gained by describing the study which
must be of obedience from another country other than the
USA.
A02 – For evaluating the study. NO credit for stating ‘it lacked
ecological validity’.
INDICATIVE CONTENT
E.g. Meuss & Raaijmakers (1986)
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AIMS:
To investigate a number of possible problems which may undermine
Milgram’s conclusions regarding obedience
To investigate the fact that Milgram’s design led to an ambiguous
situation which may have led to greater obedience i.e. mixed
messages that the shocks were dangerous but not harmful
To see whether more modern psychological-administrative violence
creates more /less obedience as compared to Milgram’s method
PROCEDURE:
39 participants responded to a newspaper advert and were paid for
their time
The research took place in a modern university building where
participants were led to believe that they were taking part in a
study into stress & performance
Participants believed that the Psychology department had been
commissioned to select candidates for a job and each applicant was
to take a test which would be administered by the participants
The test was vital to success, if applicants(who were
confederates/stooges)failed the test they lost the job
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Participants were asked to make 15 increasingly distressing remarks
to the applicants regarding how they were getting on with the test
“If you continue responding like this, you’re going to fail the test.”
“This job is much too difficult for you, according to this test.”
Participants also overheard the experimenter telling the
‘applicants’ false information about the study (e.g. it would not
affect their job chances)
It soon became obvious that the ‘applicant’ was getting extremely
distressed and that they would fail the test (and, therefore, not get
the job)
Two thirds of the way through the test the ‘applicant’ accused the
researchers of giving false information and withdrew his consent to
continue
If the subjects refused to continue to make the stressful remarks
they were prodded to continue by the experimenter
A participant who made all the stress remarks was seen as obedient
and those who refused to make all the stress remarks disobedient
RESULTS:
92% of the participants obeyed the experimenter to the end and
made all the stress remarks
The participants reported that they ‘intensely disliked’ making the
stress remarks
The participants were convinced that the applicant’s test scores
had been seriously affected by the stress remarks
96% of the participants were sure that they were dealing with a
‘real’ situation
CONCLUSIONS:
The researchers conclude that the level of obedience in their study
was considerably higher than in Milgram’s study
Furthermore, this shows that it is easier “to obey orders to use
psychological-administrative violence than to obey orders to use
physical violence”
EVALUATION:
Many participants were caused distress by their involvement they
made it clear that they found the treatment of the applicant to be
unfair
Participants intensely disliked making the stress remarks, were
relieved that the victim was not a real applicant and they had not
in reality caused someone harm
Participants were fully debriefed and given a follow up
questionnaire by mail a year later to ensure they were okay
In neither debriefing, however, were any indications seen that the
participants had suffered any serious negative effects from their
participation in the experiment
Participants were deceived as they thought the study was on stress
and performance (not obedience) and that the applicants were real
when in fact they were just actors
The volunteer sample may be biased as these participants tend to
be more motivated and perform better
The findings can help explain real life atrocities such as genocide
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and the war against Iraq
E.g. Slater et al (2006)
AIMS:
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To study human responses to interaction with a virtual character
using similar conflict created by Milgram's study
To test whether the stress would be greater in a situation where
the learner could be seen and heard in comparison to one where
she would only communicate with the participant through text
PROCEDURE:
34 participants were recruited by posters and email on the campus
at University College London, mean age was 29
23 were allocated to the Visible Condition (could see and hear
virtual learner) and 11 to the Hidden Condition (could not see or
hear her answers came through texts)
Their task was to read out 32 sets of these 5 words to the learner,
the first of which was a cue word and the others one of four
possible words
The learner was supposed to have memorised the words with the
cue word beforehand
On 20 out of the 32 trials the Learner gave the wrong answer, the
later trials more likely to result in a wrong answer than the earlier
ones
On the desk in front of the participant was an ‘electric shock
machine’ with a shock button, voltage indicators and a knob for
turning up the voltage level
The participant was instructed that each time the learner gave an
incorrect answer he or she should press the shock button which and
increase this by one unit each time
In the Visible condition the learner responded to the shocks with
increasing signs of discomfort, eventually protesting that she had
‘never agreed to this’ and wanted to stop
In the second Hidden condition the learner was not seen or heard
apart from a few seconds of introductions at the start of the
experiment
Various physiological indicators (e.g., ‘trembling or shaking’, ‘face
becoming hot’, ‘perspiration’) were measured via a questionnaire
It was administered to participants in both groups before the
experiment and then after the experiment
RESULTS:
High scores on the questionnaire were found to correlate positively
with anxiety, heart rate, skin conductance responses, respiration,
face temperature, and blood volume
All participants were aroused (skin conductance analysis), this was
associated with stress (ECG analysis)
The intensity was greater for those in the Visible condition
compared with those in the Hidden condition
Participants became distressed at giving shocks and even showed
care for the well being of the learner
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CONCLUSIONS:
This shows that in spite of their knowledge that the situation
was artificial the participants responded to the situation as if it
were real
EVALUATION:
Participants were caused increasing discomfort as witnessed by
their physiological responses and later comments during the postexperimental interviews
Several participants withdrew from the experiment before the end
due to simulator sickness
Some minimal cues from the learner may have been sufficient to
cause a stress response in participants as seen in the pilot study
Virtual environments can provide a useful tool in psychology by
providing an alternative methodology for laboratory based studies
This method could also be used beyond simple obedience studies
and look at reasons for bystander behaviour in street violence
(useful given the current level of perceived crime)
Unlike the Milgram experiments there was no need for deception
here as all participants were made fully aware of the virtual
learner
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Level
Level 1
Mark
0
1-3
marks
Level 2
4-6
marks
Level 3
7-9
marks
Level 4
10-12
marks
Descriptor
A01: Knowledge and understanding of one study
A02: Application/evaluation of knowledge and understanding of one study
Descriptors indicate possible ways in which candidates will have responded.
No rewardable material
Candidates will produce brief answers, making simple statements showing
some relevance to the question.
• Outline includes one of APRC
• Little or no attempt at the analytical/evaluation demands of the
question. Lack of relevant evidence.
The skills needed to produce effective writing will not normally be present.
The writing may have some coherence and will be generally
comprehensible, but lack both clarity and organisation. High incidence of
syntactical and /or spelling errors.
Description OR evaluation only OR limited attempt at each OR one is in less
detail than the other
• Description includes procedure and one of ARC.
• Evaluation attempted though general OR limited and related to
actual study
Candidates will produce statements with some development in the form of
mostly accurate and relevant factual material. There are likely to be
passages which lack clarity and proper organisation. Frequent syntactical
and /or spelling errors are likely to be present.
Candidate has attempted and answered both of the two injunctions in the
question well.
• Description includes procedure and any two of ARC.
• Evaluation includes appropriate strengths/weaknesses in relation to
actual study
The candidate will demonstrate most of the skills needed to produce
effective extended writing but there will be lapses in organisation. Some
syntactical and /or spelling errors are likely to be present.
Candidate has attempted and answered both of the two injunctions in the
question very well.
• Description includes APRC.
• Evaluation includes appropriate strengths/weaknesses in reasonable
detail and in relation to the study
The skills needed to produce convincing extended writing are in place. Very
few syntactical and /or spelling errors may be found. Very good
organisation and planning. Given time constraints and limited number of
marks, full marks must be given when the answer is reasonably detailed
even if not all the information is present.
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