63Cu FT-NMR Studies of Tetrahedral Copper(I)

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63
Cu FT-NMR Studies of Tetrahedral Copper(I)-Phosphorus
Complexes
Peter Kroneck
Fakultät für Biologie, Universität Konstanz
and
Otto Lutz, Alfons Nolle, and Horst Oehler
Physikalisches Institut, Universität Tübingen
Z. Naturforsch. 35a, 221-225 (1980); received December 24, 1979
Tetrahedrally coordinated copper(I) complexes C11L4X have been synthesized, L being P(OR)3,
PR3 or P(R) n (OR)3-n, and X being a non-coordinating anion such as Perchlorate or tetrafluoroborate. Depending on the nature of the bound phosphorus ligand the Cu(I) complexes give
well resolved 63Cu NMR spectra including a quintet signal due to spin-spin coupling between
63Cu and 31 P. The 63Cu NMR spectra have been analyzed with reference to the chemical shift (),
the shielding constant a* (given on an absolute atomic scale), the linewidth Av, and the coupling
constant J(63Cu-31P). Generally, the relative magnitude of these NMR parameters are in satisfactory agreement with results reported for isoelectronic Ni(O) complexes with the phosphorus
ligands mentioned above. Furthermore, the NMR properties of the Cu(I) compounds are discussed
in terms of cr-donor or 7r-acceptor capacities of the ligands coordinated, and stereochemical
properties of the complexes.
Introduction
Over the past few years the technique of Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance ( N M R ) was successfully applied to the investigation of numerous transition
metal compounds, including those of biological
interest, as reviewed in Ref. [ 1 ] . In the case of copper, which has two stable isotopes, G3 Cu and C5 Cu,
both with a nuclear spin and magnetic moment, only
a very limited number of NMR measurements were
performed so far in the liquid state [ 2 — 7 ] . Hereby,
tetrahedrally coordinated cuprous complexes such as
Cu (CH 3 CN) 4 C10 4 or the corresponding tetrafluoroborate compound were shown to be most suitable
f o r NMR analysis yielding absolute shielding constants for both copper isotopes [ 6 ] . In addition,
large chemical shifts, linewidths and spin-spin
coupling constants J ( 6 3 Cu- 3 1 P) could be determined
for a series of different cuprous complexes [ 7 ] .
These results clearly demonstrated that the N M R
technique can develop into a rather powerful tool for
the investigation of diamagnetic copper compounds.
On the other hand, despite most favorable receptivities for both copper isotopes [ 6 ] , no Cu N M R
signal could be detected in several cuprous complexes of different coordination symmetries. This
included also the photosynthetic electron-carrier
plastocyanin (isolated from the alga
Scenedesmus
[ 8 ] ) , which in view of the symmetry at the copper
site seemed to be rather suitable for Cu NMR [ 9 ] .
In this paper we wish to report further systematic
N M R measurements of tetracoordinated complexes
of C u ( I ) with phosphorus containing ligands. Investigations of this kind are necessary to enlarge the
data basis of Cu NMR with reference to chemical
shifts, linewidth and spin-spin coupling constants,
which consequently will allow NMR experiments
with more complicated systems as mentioned above.
Experimental
The copper isotope C:5Cu has a natural abundance
of 69.1%, a nuclear spin 7 = 3 / 2 and a quadrupole
moment Q = - 0.211 • 1CT28 m 2 [ 1 0 ] . The Larmor
frequency v at 2.114 T is about 23.86 MHz. The
N M R measurements were performed on a multinuclei
Bruker pulse spectrometer S X P 4 - 1 0 0 at ( 2 9 8
± 2 ) K in a magnetic field of 2.114 T externally
stabilized by a Bruker NMR stabilizer B-SN 15. The
free induction decays were accumulated and Fourier
transformed by the Bruker B-NC 12 data unit. Nonrotating cylindrical samples of 10 mm o.d. were
used. The chemical shifts are given in
(3(Cu) = [»'sample->'ref.) K e f . ] -
Reprint requests to: Prof. Dr. O. Lutz.. Physikalisches Institut der Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle,
D-7400 Tübingen.
A 0.1 molal solution of Cu (CH 3 CN) 4 BF 4 in dist.
CH.jCN was used as the reference throughout the
0340-4811 I 80 / 237-0230 $ 01.00/0. — Please order a reprint rather than mak ing your own copy.
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222
P. Kroneck et al. • Tetrahedral Copper (I)-Phosphorus Complexes
present investigation. Hereby the linewidth for
63 Cu
was 5 4 0 Hz [ 6 ] .
gas. In most cases the N M R tubes were sealed under
argon to allow careful studies over a longer time
Detailed studies on the
C3 Cu
NMR properties of
period.
the cation C u ( C H 3 C N ) 4 + with reference to different
anions, concentration, solvent and temperature will
be reported in a consecutive publication [ 1 1 ] .
The shielding constant o* of the reference is given
Results and Discussion
1. Classification
on an absolute atomic shielding scale: o* ( 6 3 Cu in
complexes
Cu
anion
(CH3CN)4BF4,
0.1 molal
in CH 3 CN, vs. the
free Cu atom) = - ( 1 8 2 0 ± 8 0 ) • 10~6
( f o r details
see [ 6 ] ) .
A typical
perimental
Due
to
6 3 Cu
N M R spectrum including all ex-
parameters
our
is
shown
experience
in
in
Figure
copper
1.
and properties
of
CuL^X, X being a
tetracoordinated
non-coordinating
The phosphorus ligands used in this work are
devided into three categories (Table 1) :
a)
Phosphites P ( O R ) 3 , R being an aliphatic or aromatic residue.
NMR,
C U [ P ( 0 C 2 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 C 1 0 4 in chloroform is proposed as
b)
Phosphines P R 3 , R as in a ) .
a more convenient reference sample.
c)
" M i x e d " phosphines P ( R ) f J ( 0 R ) 3 _ H , R as in a)
All
chemicals
reagent
grade.
were
commercially
Acetonitrile
and
the
available
in
phosphorus
ligands were carefully purified by distillation
or
recrystallizalion from the appropriate solvent. The
C u ( I ) complexes were prepared as described earlier
[6, 7 ] . Hereby ETPB is used as abbreviation for
4-ethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phospha-bicyclo-(2,2,2)-octane,
and Tetraphos-2 for tris(2-diphenylphosphinoethyl)phosphine. A detailed description of the synthetic
procedure including the
31P
NMR data of the C u ( I )
compounds will be published elsewhere [ 1 2 ] .
All N M R samples were handled under strict exclusion of dioxygen using purified argon as the inert
or b ) .
Cuprous complexes with the ligands mentioned above
have been investigated in great detail, applying
31P
N M R [ 1 3 ] , X-ray diffraction [ 1 4 , 1 5 ] conductivity
measurements
[16]
or other techniques [ 1 7 ] . Al-
though in many cases no crystal structure is available at present,
tetrahedral
or
pseudotetrahedral
geometry is assumed for CuL 4 X both in solution and
in the crystalline state. Furthermore, CuL 4 X is regarded to be the dominant species in solution [13 —
17],
although in cases of
R being an
aromatic
residue several mononuclear and polynuclear complexes can exists, i. e. CuL 3 X, CuL 2 X or Cu 2 L 3 X 2
depending on the coordinative properties of X [ 1 7 ] .
On the basis of elementary analysis all the C u ( I )
complexes listed in Table 1 have a metal to phosphorus ratio of 1 : 4. This is also true for the rather
constrained
ligand
ETPB,
4-ethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-
phospha-bicyclo-(2,2,2,)-octane, as demonstrated by
the well resolved
In
contrast
31P
hereto,
[ 1 2 ] and
C3 Cu
N M R spectra.
triscyclohexylphosphine
[16]
will only form the 2 : 1-complex CuL 2 X, X being a
halogenide or nitrate anion [17, 1 8 ] , due to steric
overcrowding at the C u ( I )
no
(i3 Cu
nucleus. Consequently,
N M R signals have been detected for the
products of the reaction of C u ( C H 3 C N ) 4 C 1 0 4 with
\J
Fig. 1. 63Cu FT NMR signal near 23.860 MHz of a 0.1 molar
solution of Cu(I)[P(0C2H5)3]4C104 in CHCI3 with a linewidth of 137 Hz. Experimental spectrum width: 2 x 25 kHz
(quadrature), number of pulses: 1600, measuring time:
8 min, 2 X 600 data points were accumulated, followed
by 2 X 7592 points of zerofilling before Fourier transformation.
P(C6II5)3
and P ( C c H n ) 3
in agreement with the
results reported earlier [ 7 ] .
2.
63Cu
NMR properlies
complexes
of
tetracoordinated
CuL4X
Table 1 summarizes the NMR parameters of the
copper complexes investigated in this work, with
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223 P. Kroneck et al. • Tetrahedral Copper (I)-Phosphorus Complexes
Table 1. 63Cu NMR parameter of tetracoordinated Cu(I) complexes with phosphites (compounds 1 — 7), phosphines
(compounds (8—10) and "mixed alkoxyphosphines" (compounds 11 — 15). Each sample contains approx. 0.8 g/1.8 ml
chloroform giving a 0.1 M solution. Sample No. 1 is dissolved in CDCI3.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
(j
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Compound C11L4CIO4
CU|P(0CH3)3]C104
CU[P(0C 2 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 C10 4
CU[P(0CH(CH 3 ) 2 ) 3 ] 4 C10 4
CU[P(0C4H9)3]4C104
CU[ETPB]4C104
CU[P(0C6H5)3]4C104
CU[P(0-P-C1-C6H4)3]4C1Ü4
CU[P(CH3)(C6H3)2]4C104
Cu[Tetraphos-2]C104
CU[P(CH3)2(C6H5)]4C104
CU[P(0CH 3 )(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 4 C10 4
CU[P(0CH 3 ) 2 (C 6 H 5 )]4CI0 4
CU[P(0C2H5)2(C6H5)]4C104
CU[P(0C 4 H 9 )(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 4 C10 4
CU[P(0C 4 H 9 ) 2 (CGH 5 )] 4 C10 4
Chemical
shift
h (ppm)
82(1)
88(1)
Shielding
constant
ü*/10 6
-
Line width
Jr/Hz
Coupling
constant
J(63Cu- 31 P)/Hz
1902
1908
106
137
1223(10)
1209(8)
- 1911
- 1893
430
750
1312(20)
1458(70)
2750
4250
530
520
4130
650
1109(33)
1113(40)
—
91(1)
73(3)
—
—
-
—
247(4)
178(5)
136(1)
138(1)
173(5)
134(1)
reference to the chemical shift d, the shielding constant o*, the linewidth Av, and the coupling constant
/ (63Cu-31P).
a) C h e m i c a l s h i f t a n d s h i e l d i n g
cons t a n t : With respect to d of the 6 3 Cu N M R signal
clearly the phosphite complexes (Table 1, compounds 1 — 7) exhibit the smallest values ranging
from 73 ppm for the ETPB complex to 91 ppm in
the case of the tributylphosphite complex. The
chemical shift is drastically increased upon coordination of a phosphine to C U ( I ) , as demonstrated for
the CU(I) complex of dimethylphenylphosphine
(compound 1 0 ) , which now gives a (5-value of
247 ppm. Intermediate values of the chemical shift
are obtained for the " m i x e d " phosphorus ligands
P ( R ) . ( O R ) 8 - „ , such as P ( C a H 5 ) ( O C H , ) s . Its
C u ( I ) complex (compound 12) gives a Ö of 136 ppm
vs. 88 ppm in C u [ P ( 0 C H 3 ) 3 ] 4 C 1 0 4 (compound 1)
or 178 ppm in C U [ P 0 C H 3 ( C 6 H 5 ) O ] 4 C 1 0 4 ( c o m p o u n d
1 1 ) . Within the series of phosphite complexes the
differences in d are relatively small compared to the
differences discussed above. The lowest S value,
73 pprn, is measured f o r the ETPB complex which
is 15 ppm lower than the corresponding CU(I) complex of trimethoxyphosphite.
With reference to d, comparable results have been
obtained by Tohnan [ 1 9 , 2 0 ] for a series of zerovalent Ni complexes with the phosphorus ligands of
-
2067
1998
1956
1958
1993
1954
1200(70)
Table 1. From his data it can be readily seen, that
there is no general correlation between 1) the 3 1 P
chemical shift of the free ligand, and 2) with the
3 1 P chemical shift of the N i ( O )
complex with the
electron donor or .i-acceptor character of the coordinated ligand. Thus, despite a large electronic
difference between P ( O C 2 H 5 ) 3 and ETPB on the
basis of IR studies, yet the stabilities of the corresponding tetrakis N i ( O ) complexes are the same.
Furthermore, despite P ( O C 6 H 5 ) 3 being a much
stronger ^-acceptor for metal ^ ligand back donation in comparison to P ( O C 2 H 5 ) 3 , the ethyl derivative forms the stronger complex with N i ( O ) . The
dominant factor governing the stability of the Ni ( 0 )
complexes seems to be linked to stereochemical properties of the ligand, i. e. the so-called cone angle
occupied by the bound ligand at the metal nucleus.
Thus, in the series of P ( O R ) 3 ligands the cone angle
increases from ETPB, C H 3 , C.,H 5 , C 4 H 9 , CH ( C H 3 ) . , ,
C 6 H 5 . For ETPB a value of ( 1 0 6 ± 2 ) ° has been
calculated vs. ( 1 4 5 ± 2) 0 in the case of P ( O C 6 H 5 ) 3 .
Much larger angles are derived for the analogous
phosphine complexes, i . e .
( 1 1 8 + 4 ) ° f o r the
P ( C H 3 ) 3 complex vs. ( 1 4 5 ± 2 ) ° in the P ( C 6 H 5 ) 3
complex or ( 1 7 9 ± 1 0 ) ° in the P ( C G I I 1 I ) 3 species.
b ) L i n e vv i d t h : As already pointed out in an
earlier communication within this series [ 7 ] , reasonably narrow lines are only observed for those
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224
P. Kroneck et al. • Tetrahedral Copper (I)-Phosphorus Complexes
cuprous complexes having a tetrahedral coordination
c)
Copper-63-Phosphorus-31
Spin-
symmetry, i . e . a symmetric charge distribution at
Spin
the copper
for / ( 6 3 C u - 3 1 P ) listed in Table 1 it can be deduced,
planar
nucleus.
copper
Thus,
complexes
digonal
were
and
trigonal
practically
Coupling
/ ( c 3 C u - 3 1 P ) : From the values
NMR
that ] is always larger f o r the phosphite complexes
silent, as described in Ref. [ 6 ] and [ 7 ] . A second
than for the phosphine complexes. Typically, the
factor influencing the linewidth of the
NMR
cuprous ETPB compound exhibits the largest cou-
signal seems to be linked to the metal .T ligand ac-
pling constant of 1458 Hz amongst the complexes
ceptor
investigated, whereas f o r comparison
properties
of
G3 Cu
the phosphorous
ligand,
as
documented for the increasing linewidth within the
Cu(I)[P(0CH3)2(CliH5)]C104
series CH 3 CN < pyridine < bipyridine or o-phenanthroline. These earlier findings are supported by the
data collected
in Table
1, column
3.
Thus,
by
substituting an aromatic residue R for an aliphatic R
the linewidth of the copper N M R signal generally increases, as documented by the series of complexes
Cu[(R1)„(OR2)3-wP]4X
R2
with
R1
being C 6 H 5 -
and
being CH 3 — (compounds 1, 11 and 1 2 ) . The
NMR
silence
of
the
triphenylphosphite
(compound 6) or its p-chlor-derivative
complex
(compound
7) could be due to the same effect, also in these two
cases CUL 4 X might not be the dominant species in
solution, as most likely in the case of the tris-ipropylphosphite
complex
(compound
3),
due
to
steric hindrance, in agreement with other investigations [17, 18, 2 0 ] . In this context it should be noted
that in the corresponding
sured at 2 9 8 K) of these
31P
6 3 Cu
NMR spectra
(mea-
NMR silent complexes a
relatively broad line is observed with no fine structure resulting from Cu-P spin-spin-interaction
[12].
On the other hand, for the majority of the copper
complexes summarized in Table 1 which show a
(>3Cu
gives a value of approx. 1110 Hz. This result agrees
very
well
with
earlier
experiments
on
tungsten
complexes with phosphorus ligands by Keiter and
Verkade
[ 2 1 ] . These authors explain the increase
of / ( 1 8 3 W - 3 1 P )
the
bound
with increasing electronegativity of
phosphorus,
i.e.
increase
of
the
o-
character of the metal-phosphorus bond, or increase
of the positive charge on the liganded phosphorus
atom. Within the series of phosphite compounds the
following upward trend for 7 ( 6 3 C u - 3 1 P )
P(OCH3)3 «
is f o u n d :
P ( 0 C 2 H 5 ) 3 < P ( 0 C 4 H 9 ) 3 < ETPB.
Again, this trend was also found for the corresponding tungsten complexes [ 2 1 ] , and correlated to the
decreasing o-donating capacity of the coordinated
phosphorus
atom.
Other
factors
influencing
the
magnitude of / , such as the cone angle [ 2 0 ] , the
ionization
potential
of
the metal,
or
the partial
charge on the phosphorus nucleus and its polarizabilitv must be considered as discussed at length in
[13].
NMR signal, well resolved quartets were found
for the
31P
mentioned
resonance in chloroform solution. As
earlier
by
Tolman
[20],
substitution
A ckn oivledgeni en t
of alphatic groups by phenyl groups at the phos-
W e thank Prof. H. Krüger for his support of this
phorus increases the cone-angle of the ligands co-
work and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for
ordinated
their financial support. W e like to thank J. Kodweiß
to copper
drastically. This increase is
paralleled by increase of the ligand exchange rate.
[1] R. K. Harris and B. E. Mann, NMR and the Periodic
Table, Academic Press. London 1978.
[2] H. 31. McConnell and H. E. Weaver, J. Chem. Phys.
25. 307 (1956).
[3] T. Yamamoto, H. Haraguchi, and S. Fujiwara, J.
PhVs. Chem. 74. 4369 (1970).
[4] R. W. Mebs, G.C.Carter, B.J.Evans, and L. H.
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[6] O. Lutz, H. Ochler, and P. Kroneek, Z. Physik A 288,
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[7] O. Lutz. H. Ochler, and P. Kroneek, Z. Naturforsch.
33a. 1021 (1978).
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Transition Metal Complexes (P. Diehl, E. Fluck, and
R. Kosfeld, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1979.
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225 P. Kroneck et al. • Tetrahedral Copper (I)-Phosphorus Complexes
[14] J. T. Gill, J. J. Mayerle, P. S. Welcker, D. F. Lewis,
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