(LRMP) for Pacific Salmon in the North Pacific Ocean

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NORTH PACIFIC ANADROMOUS FISH COMMISSION
Special Publication No. 1
A LONG-TERM RESEARCH AND MONITORING PLAN (LRMP) FOR PACIFIC
SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS SPP.) IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
The North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission is an international governmental
organization where researchers can share their data and interpretations to determine
how to forecast the effects of a changing ocean ecosystem on Pacific salmon production.
A Long-term Research and Monitoring Plan (LRMP) for Pacific
salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean
Lead Authors: R.J. Beamish, B.E. Riddell, K.L. Lange, E. Farley Jr., S. Kang, T. Nagasawa,
V. Radchenko, O. Temnykh, and S. Urawa
Contributing Authors: T. Azumaya, R. Brodeur, R. Emmett, H. Imai, Y. Ishida,
M. Kaeriyama, S. Kim, L. Klyashtorin, M. Koval, G. Kristianson, C.S. Lee, L-L. Low,
I. Melnikov, J. Moss, P. Mundy, K. Myers, S. Naydenko, V. Nazarov, G. Ruggerone, J. Seeb,
J. Seki, K.B. Seong, G. Smith, V. Sviridov, B. Templin, M. Trudel, V. Volobuev and S. Young
Special Credits: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (principal support): North
Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Secretarial
Credits: Bering Sea Fishermen’s Association, North Pacific Research Board
Summary
Each of the Pacific salmon producing countries conducts
research and monitors its salmon fisheries to protect and utilize
a resource that provides food and economic opportunities.
Effective management requires an understanding of the
mechanisms that regulate the production of Pacific salmon
in fresh water and in the ocean. Each country can study
Pacific salmon within their own jurisdiction, but international
cooperation is needed to understand the processes that control
Pacific salmon on the high seas.
The North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission is a trusted
organization where researchers can share their data and
interpretations to determine how to forecast the effects of a
changing ocean ecosystem on Pacific salmon production. The
authors of this report agree that it is now possible to use new
technologies and a new spirit of international cooperation
to identify the fundamental processes that influence Pacific
salmon survival in the ocean. This Long-term Research and
Monitoring Plan represents a consensus of a large group of
researchers from all Pacific salmon producing countries that
the approaches identified in the plan will improve the ability
of each country to forecast how their salmon populations will
respond to the changing freshwater and marine ecosystems.
International cooperation is always a challenge, but the North
Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission has proven that it can
provide the framework for this cooperation.
In this report, researchers in each country identify their
own visions of future research needs in addition to reaching
agreement on key areas of research. It is known that there is
a large mortality of juvenile Pacific salmon in the early marine
period. In addition, the conditions in the winter can also
determine brood year strength. Comprehensive winter
ecosystem surveys are needed to determine the distribution
and condition of Pacific salmon from all countries to identify
the sources and magnitude of the winter mortalities. Linking
this information with biotic and abiotic factors will improve
forecasts of brood year strength as well as improve the
understanding of how the capacity of the ocean to produce
salmon will be affected by climate.
Each country also identified key areas of ocean research
and long-term monitoring requirements. Surveys of juvenile
salmon are needed to determine the factors affecting early
marine survival. Pink salmon were identified as a key species for
monitoring because they are the most abundant Pacific salmon
species and because their life history characteristics make them
an ideal ecological indicator of marine ecosystems. Consensus
on genetic baselines for sockeye, Chinook and chum salmon
and the development of genetic baselines for pink salmon
are necessary to monitor stock specific ocean distributions
and abundance. This information is needed to produce more
accurate estimates of the timing and abundance of adults
that are returning to coastal rivers. Research and monitoring
programs in the ocean will also identify the capacity of the
ocean to produce the various species of Pacific salmon. The
continued development of a North Pacific marking strategy is
necessary to study hatchery production and to monitor the
proportions of hatchery fish in the ocean and within total returns
to coastal communities. International, integrated studies need
to include specialists that are familiar with physical, chemical
and climatological processes as well as experienced modellers.
The integration of research and monitoring associated with the
management of all Pacific salmon is challenging, but it is now
possible as this plan indicates.
“It is always important to understand what is known
and know what needs to be understood”
1
Excerpt from:
NPAFC Science Plan 2006-2010
1. Broad Scientific Questions
Overarching hypotheses that emerged from the results of
scientific research under previous NPAFC science plans, as
well as from research by other organizations and independent
scientists, are that (1) anadromous stocks play an important
role in North Pacific marine ecosystems, and (2) there is a close
relation between climate and climate change and subsequent
changes in marine productivity and survival of anadromous
stocks in the ocean.The Science Sub-Committee (SSC) identified
two broad scientific questions relevant to the program goals
of NPAFC that would further an ecosystem-based approach
to conservation of North Pacific anadromous stocks, as well as
contribute substantial new scientific information to the marine
ecosystem research, fishery management, and conservation
activities planned by relevant organizations:
• What are the current status and trends in marine production
of anadromous stocks; and how are these trends related
to population structure (spatial and temporal) and diversity
of anadromous stocks in marine ecosystems of the North
Pacific?
• How will climate and climate change affect anadromous
stocks, ecologically related species, and their North Pacific
marine ecosystems?
Over the past decade, there have been significant variations
in the marine production of Asian and North American
anadromous stocks that appear to be linked to climate change.
There is a strong need for new international cooperative
research that provides better scientific information on the
status and trends in marine production of anadromous stocks,
identifies the roles of anadromous stocks in North Pacific marine
ecosystems, and examines the extent to which anadromous
stocks, since they return to coastal regions, can be used as
indicators of conditions in North Pacific marine ecosystems.
http://www.npafc.org/new/publications/Science%20Plan/SciPlan(2006-2010).pdf
2
Introduction
This is an international strategic plan to coordinate research
among countries that will improve the forecast of the impacts
of a changing climate on all aspects of the life history of Pacific
salmon. Although research is needed throughout the life
history of Pacific salmon, the focus of the strategic plan is to
improve forecasts of marine survival, produce more accurate
estimates of the timing and abundance of adults returning
to coastal rivers and determine the capacity of the subarctic
Pacific to produce Pacific salmon. The objective is to produce a
strategic research and monitoring plan that is the consensus of
an international team of scientists who are recognized experts
on the dynamics and population ecology of Pacific salmon.
The plan will be a “blueprint” for funding from government
and non-government organizations as well contribute to the
five-year research plan for the North Pacific Anadromous Fish
Commission (NPAFC).
An international effort to identify the mechanisms that
regulate Pacific salmon production will also help stabilize
fisheries. This strategic plan will build on the collaboration
and success of the initial five-year research plan of the NPAFC
Bering-Aleutian Salmon International Survey (BASIS), but will
include all marine areas such as the Sea of Okhotsk and the
Gulf of Alaska. By focusing on the response of Pacific salmon
populations to climate in the North Pacific, the plan will
integrate the physical environment with biological production,
monitor interactions between biological components of the
marine ecosystem as it varies in time and space and ultimately
examine the interactions between different species of Pacific
salmon and populations of each species during critical periods
of their life history.
MONITORING PACIFIC
SALMON PRODUCTION
Forecast of Return
LIFE HISTORY,
TIME AND SPACE
MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
HUMAN IMPACT
JUVENILE
Spring and Summer
Coastal
Climate change
and variation
Fisheries (Direct & Indirect)
IMMATURE
Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter
Offshore
ADULT
Summer and Fall
Coastal and fresh water
Physical & chemical
processes
Habitat changes
Changes in salmon
Monitoring programs
Plankton Production
Small pelagic fauna
Large pelagic fishes
Variations in
Salmon Production
Top predators
Figure1. A scheme of long-term research and monitoring for Pacific salmon in marine ecosystems.
3
4
Background
This initiative follows an agreement at the April 2007 Research Planning and
Coordinating Meeting (RPCM) of the NPAFC and is consistent with the NPAFC Science
Plan (page 4).
Within the NPAFC, member countries are naturally interested in Pacific salmon,
sustainable fisheries and the associated benefits that these provide for people
of each country. Each country also shares an increasing concern about the
potential effects of climate change on ecosystems of the northern North Pacific
and ultimately on the production of Pacific salmon. This leads to a common
scientific objective to describe a long-term research and monitoring program to
understand how climate and marine ecosystems interact to determine salmon
production in the North Pacific region. This will be a major challenge scientifically,
organizationally and financially. The three major steps needed to achieve this
objective include: 1) A synthesis of existing knowledge, 2) Defining the scope
for the issues and 3) Agreeing on the required processes including monitoring,
logistic coordination and data management and sharing.
The synthesis of existing knowledge will include;
1. A bibliography of publications related to the impacts of a changing climate
on Pacific salmon,
2. A synthesis of current research of all countries that includes studies of the
early ocean life history of Pacific salmon in coastal areas, and
3. An identification of the other initiatives related to North Pacific ecosystems
and climate impacts.
In developing a Long-term Research and Monitoring Plan, the basic question
becomes “What do we need to establish the linkage between monitoring and
modelling in order to assess the climate impacts and ecological mechanisms that
determine production of Pacific salmon?” Research and monitoring will involve a
need to unravel the complex linkages among climate and the physical, chemical
and biological components of these ecosystems. The goal is to be able to explain
and forecast the annual variation in Pacific salmon production (Figure 1). Figure 1
emphasizes the scope of the research and monitoring needed to consider a) the
spatial and temporal scales of effects and b) other potential impacts on Pacific
salmon production that may be confounded with changes associated with
climate. Adequate sampling designs and monitoring programs are required to
explain changes in salmon production (e.g. juvenile marking programs to assess
harvest and marine survival rates). It is important to focus on the central issue
of climate effects on components of the marine ecosystem but that may not be
sufficient to associate climate changes with changes in salmon production.
Photo by Auke Bay Labs
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The spatial and temporal scales of study require:
a. Geographic coverage and details considered within each area of interest. For example, what level of detail is needed in
coastal seas? What spatial scales are important in the open ocean?
b. Temporal variation includes daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual trends. Do we need toconsider short-term variation
or does long-term imply annual monitoring programs that are needed to understand the mechanisms causing
the changes?
c.
What do considerations of spatial and temporal variation require in our experimental or statistical sampling designs?
Are there new “tools” and information sources that we need to consider in acquiring future data (e.g., remote sensing)?
The effectiveness of integrated ecosystem studies (from
climate and hydrology to higher trophic levels) will be much
greater with the collection of information relating to nutrients,
primary productivity, conductivity and temperature at depth,
zooplankton (biomass and species composition), pelagic fish
(biomass and species composition) as well as indicators of fish
health including distribution, length and weight, fat content
and trophic relationships. Total abundance and biomass of
every ecosystem component (as well as Pacific salmon and
ecologically related species) must be estimated. Real knowledge
of the scale of biological processes and conclusions will be
important for the understanding of ecosystem processes.
Small scale and short-term studies are not sufficient because
ocean distribution ranges of Pacific salmon are very large.
Therefore, it is necessary to conduct large-scale research over
vast areas during ecosystem surveys as the oceanic habitat of
Pacific salmon is geographically heterogeneous. The best way
to improve scientific quality of research is the organization of
large-scale multi-national expeditions concurrently by several
vessels from different member-countries (for example, one ship
from each participating country). In the beginning, each vessel
should plan to cover its region of responsibility. This approach
will make it possible to obtain information on the entire marine
habitat of salmon (from Asia to North America) in a short time
6
period. To gain an experience of joint multi-national research
in the high-seas, it is best to start with one large expedition in
winter, which is a critical season for salmon survival.
In monitoring changes in salmon production, can we account
for other potential causes of change that may be confounded
with climate impacts? There are other well known human-driven
causes of change that we need to consider. Fishing has a direct
effect on abundance and an indirect impact on ecosystems.
Changes in hatchery production may cause density related
impacts. Any new habitat disruptions (freshwater and coastal)
can affect productivity. Changes in monitoring of Pacific salmon
catches and spawning escapements within jurisdictions can
be important because of the need for a consistent network of
escapement monitoring programs.
Monitoring of physical conditions of watersheds needs
to be made available in time and space scales appropriate
to understanding the effects of climate change on adult
run timing, spawning success and the activity of pathogens.
Monitoring of key watersheds needs to be available in a form
amenable to analysis by salmon researchers. Needs of salmon
research should be identified and incorporated into planning
for new monitoring technologies such as satellite deployments
and other watershed monitoring activities.
Photo by PBS
There is a need to maintain and improve basic monitoring
of escapement, catch and smolt migration. Some of these
long-term programs are disappearing for a variety of reasons.
Understanding the linkages between climate and Pacific
salmon production depends upon these basic data. In areas
where hatcheries are present, data on hatchery fish abundance
should be separated from wild fish abundance. Biological
information such as age composition of a population, body size,
fecundity and egg size should be included in the monitoring.
As strategic plans are developed to address our primary
objective, each of the boxes in Figure 1 could be considered in
our research and monitoring plans. The process of developing
the plan should also create an international team of scientists
that will continue to find ways to integrate research to make
optimal use of funds, vessel time and data. BASIS is an example
of such a team. Although NPAFC has discussed the need to
establish a fully shared data system, data management and
communication issues are frequently not fully considered in
the implementation of programs. In summary, it is important
to create a team, optimize the use of scientific resources and
make data available.
7
8
Canada
Canada supported research on the freshwater phase of Pacific salmon for
approximately one century. However, research of the ocean phase of Pacific salmon
did not begin until the 1950s. Currently, Canada has two major programs that study
the factors that affect the behaviour, survival and growth of wild and hatchery Pacific
salmon. Initially, this research was limited by sampling gear, but became more efficient
with the use of modified trawl nets in the mid-1990s. In the relatively short time that
trawl gear has been available, a number of important discoveries have been made.
However, like many discoveries, the new information indicated how much more there
is to learn before we are able to forecast the impacts of a changing climate.
Current research shows that it is necessary to maintain programs for a long
time to be able to detect climate related trends in the dynamics of Pacific salmon.
Since the early 1980s there has been a gradual decline in the marine survival of
coho and Chinook salmon that enter the Strait of Georgia. Associated with this
decline was a change in the behaviour of coho salmon in the mid-1990s that
resulted in virtually all juveniles leaving the Strait of Georgia late in the year and
not returning until it was close to the time that they entered their spawning rivers.
This behavioural change collapsed one of the major recreational and commercial
fisheries on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Surveys to study juvenile Pacific salmon
in the Strait of Georgia have been continuous since 1997 and show that there was
a declining trend in early marine survival from ocean entry until September. Over
the study period, the amount of mortality in the summer gradually increased,
indicating that the mechanism causing the mortality gradually increased. The
longer time series was needed to show that the abundance of juvenile coho
salmon in the Strait of Georgia in September provides a good estimate of the
number of adults that will return to spawn during the next year indicating that
the brood year strength was strongly related to the ocean conditions in the Strait
of Georgia in the first four months of ocean residence.
Photo by PBS
9
There are several recent examples of climate related effects
on the population dynamics of Pacific salmon that had major
impacts on the fisheries. An example is the large scale reduction
in survival and growth within populations of Pacific salmon that
occurred in 2005 and the winter of 2005/06. Neither the cause of
the climate impact nor the mechanisms that affected individual
fish has been determined. In the Strait of Georgia in 2005 there
was a major mortality of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon
shortly after they entered salt water. Juvenile Pacific salmon
in other areas from California to the Gulf of Alaska were also
affected, resulting in very poor returns of many populations.
Pink salmon populations ranging from the southern limits into
Alaska that entered the ocean in 2005 and returned in 2006
exhibited very poor marine survivals. It appears that ocean
production of prey for Pacific salmon was also poor during
the winter of 2005 through to the spring of 2006 as the size of
returning adults in 2006 was extremely small.
Canada has legislation and policies that require government
actions when populations of Pacific salmon reach critically
low levels. The linkage between these policies and climate
change is not explicit; however, the legislation does provide
protection for populations that are negatively impacted by
trends in climate. The government required protection is based
mainly on the assumption that the critically low abundances
resulted from actions that can be reversed or mitigated. The
probability that trends could not be reversed because of
reductions in productivity and marine survival is a relatively
new consideration in Canada’s management of Pacific salmon.
Consequently, the existing strategies have more of a focus
on conservation in relation to fishing and freshwater habitat
protection than on natural declines in productivity.
Canada needs a strategic program that is committed to
understanding the impacts of a changing climate on the
marine ecology of the six major species of Pacific salmon. The
concept of linking fisheries to oceanography has been around
for decades, but a linkage directly to climate is an approach
that needs to be considered because there are trends in Pacific
salmon production that correspond to trends in climate. There
is synchrony in these trends on regional scales, indicating basinscale relationships.
Canada has a major hatchery salmon enhancement program.
The original concept was based on a belief that there was
10
unused capacity for Pacific salmon that could be used if
more juveniles were added to the marine ecosystem. It was
estimated that the total production in the late 1970s could be
doubled by about 2000. Canada currently releases about 64
million chum, 44 million Chinook, 9 million coho, 2.5 million
sockeye and 1.5 million pink salmon into areas surrounding
Strait of Georgia, off the west coast of Vancouver Island and
the north/central coast. Hatcheries in Canada also produce
about 370,000 steelhead trout. Hindsight shows us that the
assumption of unused ocean carrying capacity was not valid.
In fact, since the start of the hatchery program, the Canadian
catch of Pacific salmon actually decreased by more than 50%.
The reasons for the decrease relate to management actions
as well as to ocean carrying capacity changes. Thus, Canada
needs to understand how hatcheries can be used in the future.
Some researchers believe that studies of the effects of climate
change on nearshore ecosystems will allow for better use of
the salmon enhancement program by optimizing the numbers
released and the time and size of releases. There is evidence
that hatchery and wild fish respond differently to changes in
the ecosystem. Thus, it is important to study wild populations
directly and not rely only on extrapolations from hatchery
populations. A focus on wild salmon is important; however, it
is the aggregate of information gathered on wild and hatchery
salmon that will eventually identify the mechanisms that link
productivity to climate.
Research on the factors affecting marine survival shows that a
faster rate of growth in the early marine period results in better
survival, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size
that is sufficiently large to avoid predators in the spring and
summer or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to
survive their first winter at sea. Thus, research efforts should be
focussed on the winter as well as the summer. Recent research
shows that while plankton productivity and temperatures tend
to be higher in the California Current System, juvenile Pacific
salmon are generally larger and fatter and have better growth
in the Alaska Coastal Current. The poorer growth and condition
of Pacific salmon in the northern California Current System may
be related to a calorie-deficient diet as well as to lower rates
of food consumption or higher metabolic rates. Thus, ocean
conditions could affect Pacific salmon production through
changes in prey community composition and quality.
Photo by PBS
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the
regional, interannual and interdecadal variability in Pacific
salmon production. In marine ecosystems, these hypotheses
often invoke changes occurring at multiple levels from climate
to ocean circulation, nutrient concentration, phytoplankton and
zooplankton biomass and composition, salmon bioenergetics,
and fish and predator community assemblages. However,
the intermediate steps linking salmon to climate are rarely
measured simultaneously. Thus, it will be necessary to conduct
integrated ecosystem research in which physical, chemical and
biological components are measured together. While ecosystem
modelling may help to identify critical processes regulating
salmon production, a strong emphasis should be placed on data
collection, as ecosystem models will require large quantities of
data to generate realistic scenarios and predictions.
11
Canada needs to be able to separate the effects of fishing
from the effects of climate on the dynamics of Pacific salmon.
Ocean studies to identify the major factors that cause
mortality and highlight the relative importance of predation,
disease and growth during the early marine period
are important. One hypothesis to be tested is that
the amount of lipid storage early in the summer is
related to marine survival through the ability to survive
the first ocean winter.
Very little is known about
the distribution of the major populations of Pacific salmon in
their first marine year off the coast of British Columbia. Without
this knowledge, it will be difficult to link climate models to
the population dynamics of Pacific salmon. Marine surveys
using genetic stock identification could map where the major
populations rear in British Columbia and adjacent waters and
for how long. The baseline required for DNA stock identification
is well developed for some species such as Chinook and
sockeye salmon, but less so for others such as pink and coho
salmon. Thus, the continual development of the DNA baseline
is essential.
Many juvenile Pacific salmon produced in Canada rear
in the Gulf of Alaska. Canada needs to participate in
international survey programs that identify the distributions
of juvenile salmon of Canadian origin. Distributions need to be
determined, particularly in the winter.
Thermal marking is an effective and efficient method of
identifying hatchery fish. Canada could expand its program
Photo by PBS
12
of thermal marking and establish an efficient method of
detecting thermal marks. Genomic research and acoustic
tagging provide new technologies that will help understand
the ocean ecology of Pacific salmon. These technologies are
expensive and thus are currently confined to small sample sizes.
Non governmental agencies wishing to help understand how
a changing climate will affect Pacific salmon may want to help
with the application of these new technologies. It is beneficial
to continue studies relating to age determination and stomach
content analysis, as the continuation of these time series will
help understand the linkages between biology and climate. A
method of ageing older and larger Chinook salmon needs to
be established. Preliminary research indicates that a method
using fin-ray sections may provide reliable ages.
Canadians relate the health of Pacific salmon to the health of
the environment in general. Thus, communication to the public
of the results of marine research on Pacific salmon is a function
that needs to be taken seriously by all researchers. Pacific salmon
are an icon for the west coast of British Columbia. They are
economically, socially and culturally important for commercial,
recreational, and native fisheries. There is an obligation to
protect Pacific salmon, particularly in the light of climate change.
Most biologists now recognize that long-term research and
monitoring programs are needed to ensure that Pacific salmon
will inhabit the waters of British Columbia for many generations
to come. The current approach to Pacific salmon management
in Canada and in other countries does not include scenarios of
future climate impacts. If reliable forecasts are not available, the
Photo by PBS
management of our fisheries and hatchery programs will have
to react to inevitable surprises and hope that the responses
are correct. Management must involve more than short-term
responses to the almost instantaneous issues that arise when
Pacific salmon return to their natal rivers. Management needs
to be based on a reasonable appreciation of how a particular
species or population responds to the changing environment
throughout its life history. Science and managers need to
accept that past assumptions of constant natural mortality and
constant impacts of climate are not correct.
Canadian researchers support the concept of an integrated,
multi-disciplinary study of all aspects of the life history of Pacific
salmon. It is necessary to move away from short-term, local
research and establish a long-term, integrated, international
research plan. The history of carrying out small projects
provided some information but our hindsight shows us that the
understanding that we need for future management requires a
different approach that links the dynamics of ecosystems with
the population ecology of Pacific salmon. Our past approach
to research and monitoring also indicates that we need to be
more careful about oversimplifying the mechanisms that affect
the productivity of Pacific salmon. Shortcuts to understanding
would be nice, but this approach is risky.
In British Columbia, the Fraser River which produces the largest
percentage of our Pacific salmon, is now about 2°C warmer
during the summer than it was in the 1940s. In fact, in recent
years,some returning populations are experiencing temperatures
that are 5°C warmer than in the 1940s. The juvenile Pacific
salmon that leave the Fraser River enter the Strait of Georgia
and it is about 2°C warmer during this early marine period that
it was in the 1960s. In British Columbia, it is also important to
recognize that there is a transition zone on land and in the ocean
in about the middle of the province. At this transition area, there
is a decadal-scale oscillation in the flow patterns of large rivers
and in the ocean ecosystem which is separated by currents and
winds. Many of the Pacific salmon produced in British Columbia
rear in the Gulf of Alaska, yet there is no understanding of the
factors in the Gulf of Alaska that affect their survival. Thus, it is
particularly important to carry out research on Pacific salmon in
the Gulf of Alaska in the winter.
genomics analyzes thousands of gene transcripts at one time
that identify what genes are turned on and off. This cellular
approach identifies if an individual fish is responding to stresses
such as disease. Other technologies such as environmental
metabolomics, or metabolic profiling, are not in use but could
be developed by a team of scientists. Metabolic profiling
identifies the end products of the gene expression. DNA stock
identification is well developed at the Pacific Biological Station
allowing the monitoring of the distribution of Pacific salmon
at the population level. Combining DNA stock identification
with telemetry, genomics and metabolomics offers exciting
new ways to understand the linkages between climate and
physiological processes of Pacific salmon.
Canadian research requirements are both short- and longterm as probably are the research needs of the other Pacific
salmon producing countries. Short-term requirements are
for abundance and for in-season models that characterize the
behaviour of key stock units, with respect to the run timing.
Longer-term requirements are to determine what populations
are best able to adapt to the expected changes in climate.
Can salmon adapt to changes and if so, how fast can some
species and some populations of these species adapt? Is the
response of very poor survival that we observed in 2005 going
to become more frequent? Can we parameterize a mechanistic
model or models that link components of the life history of
the various species to climate? We need to revisit the issue of
key populations and key rivers. Previous studies showed that
small numbers of populations generally did not represent the
response of other populations, yet there is a need for reliable
indicator stocks.
Canada recognizes that it is now time to move away from
piecemeal studies and focus on international research efforts.
An international research plan requires regular meetings of
invited participants. Such an international council of Pacific
salmon researchers can be associated with NPAFC, but the
participants on the council need to be scientists that are generally
recognized for their contributions to the understanding of the
population ecology of Pacific salmon. We strongly support
the concept of an International Year of the Salmon and we will
continue to look for ways of making this concept a reality.
New research methods are being used in British Columbia
that could be introduced to other researchers. Our use of
13
Japan
Japan maintains an average catch of about 200,000 t of chum salmon that represents 65% of all chum salmon caught and 25% of all
species of Pacific salmon in the total catch by all countries. Pink salmon catch is the second largest catch in Japan, ranging from 9,00021,000 t. There are small, wild populations of masu salmon, and even smaller populations of coho, Chinook and sockeye salmon that
produce minor amounts of catch, but are commercially and culturally important to regional communities. Virtually all of the chum
salmon produced in Japan come from 285 hatcheries that release about 2 billion fry each year.
14
In general, the returns of chum salmon to Japan are stable
or have increased in recent years. Because chum salmon are
produced in hatcheries, all returning fish are caught. Thus, it is
possible to monitor the returning fish for size, scales, fecundity,
egg size, stock identification and other biological parameters.
Japan has a long history of conducting high seas research on
Pacific salmon, dating back to 1952. Unfortunately, budget and
staff restrictions now mean that it will be difficult for Japanese
scientists to continue this level of research and monitoring.
Recent research is dominated by studies of chum salmon in
Japanese coastal zones and extends into the Bering Sea and the
North Pacific. There is a focus on migration routes and feeding
ecology. It was Japanese research that first showed that chum
salmon of Japanese origin spent their second and subsequent
marine winters in the Gulf of Alaska. Future research will focus
on understanding the reasons for changes in the body size of
returning adult chum salmon. It is hypothesised that changes
in size may result more from prey abundances and the resulting
effects of population density, and less from competition with
other species such as pink salmon. Hypotheses that separate
the effects of predators, competitors and prey availability
on size at maturity need to be formulated and tested. Thus,
the possible change in the carrying capacity of the ocean to
produce chum salmon is an important research issue.
Photo by Hokkaido Gov.
Photo by S. Urawa
It is proposed that as climate changes, Pacific salmon habitat
in the ocean will increase in the winter, but decrease in the
summer. Bioenergetic modelling is one way to understand how
these habitat changes will affect the future abundance and size
at maturity of returning adult chum salmon. Monitoring total
lipid content will also contribute to an understanding of how
climate changes affect body size. Understanding how and when
lipid is stored may be a key to understanding how chum and
other species of salmon are affected by their first ocean winter.
It would be useful to refine the rapid method of analyzing
Photo by N. Davis
lipid content for juvenile and adult Pacific salmon. The use of
standardized methods by all countries to measure lipids while
at sea and the establishment of a common database through
NPAFC would accelerate the understanding of energy budgets
and improve forecasting by assessing the condition of the fish
during their marine residence.
Considerable effort has been spent studying the early
marine period of chum salmon in the Okhotsk Sea with the
priority of determining how the physical environment and
the density of juvenile chum salmon in the rearing areas
affect survival. Japanese researchers are interested in the
sympatric interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in
an ecosystem and how long-term climate change will affect
their productivity. Similar research by other researchers on the
biological interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in
other areas such as on pink salmon in Prince William Sound or
15
on chum salmon in southeast Alaska would contribute to an
improved understanding. The degree to which the utilization
of the ecosystem may differ between hatchery and wild salmon
is important to measure and to understand. For example could
hatchery rearing practices determine the degree of niche
overlap through the manipulation of size at age and time of
salt water entry?
Both chum and pink salmon may have key populations that
can be used in forecasting. It may be possible to establish a suite
of populations throughout the distribution of these species that
indicate general responses to basin- and regional-scale climate
changes, as well as to climatic events such as El Niño and La
Niña. The intensity of the Aleutian Low also affects the capacity
of the subarctic Pacific to produce salmon. Regional responses
are important, but there are long-term trends in production that
are related to the degree of winter storm intensity in the North
Pacific. Unfortunately, there is not an understanding of how
to model the Aleutian Low and how a changing climate may
affect the Aleutian Low. In fact, there are studies that predict
both an increase and a decrease in the intensity of the Aleutian
Low. Recent studies indicate that the Aleutian Low may become
stronger, that is, there will be increased winter storm intensity. It
is believed that growth and survival of Hokkaido chum salmon
is highly affected by sea surface temperature and that the
warming climate is currently beneficial for chum salmon in the
Okhotsk Sea. However, it is also predicted by some researchers
that in the future, global warming will decrease the carrying
capacity in the North Pacific Ocean, and that Hokkaido chum
salmon could be extinct by 2100.
16
Genetic studies remain a key area of research for Japanese
scientists. It is timely that all countries focus on a standardized
approach to identify populations of the five main species of
Pacific salmon. Standardized baselines need to be maintained
and results made available quickly. Routine genetic sampling
at sea is a commitment that all countries need to support so
that the rearing areas used by populations of Pacific salmon
from all countries can be identified. Access to data by all
researchers will speed up the collective ability to understand
how the ocean ecosystem regulates the production of Pacific
salmon, how salmon are distributed in marine areas, and how
they respond to climate and habitat changes.
Japanese Researchers agree that there is an immediate need
to study Pacific salmon in the winter. However, there are very
few vessels that are capable of conducting research in the open
ocean in the winter. There are also a limited number of biologists
that can do this kind of work in the winter. In fact, there is some
evidence that the recruitment of salmon biologists may be
declining, particularly biologists willing to spend extended
periods at sea. The funding reductions in Japan are a concern
to researchers in all countries and thus, it may be even more
urgent that international teams of researchers coordinate their
efforts to maximize the amount of information obtained from
the resources available.
Carrying capacities for Japanese chum salmon differ in time
and space from the juvenile state to returning adults. Key
ecosystems are the coastal waters off Japan in the spring, the
Okhotsk Sea in summer, the western North Pacific in winter, the
Bering Sea in summer and the Gulf of Alaska in winter. Japanese future research consists of four components such as (1) Juvenile
Salmon Studies, (2) Bering Sea Salmon Ecology Studies, (3) Monitoring of Salmon and Environment in the North Pacific Ocean, and
(4) Monitoring of Major Salmon Stocks. Details are described in the Japanese Research Plan on salmon stocks (NPAFC 2008).
In general, the following are priorities for research and monitoring:
• Determine the seasonal distribution of chum salmon after they leave coastal areas;
• Understand the role of Pacific salmon in the surface waters of the subarctic Pacific;
• Explore factors affecting the growth and survival of chum salmon in the first ocean year, particularly in the Okhotsk Sea;
• Determine the effects of climate and ocean on the primary production and prey resources in the coastal areas of Japan and
the Okhotsk Sea;
• Examine linkages between basin- and regional-scale climate and ocean indices and early marine growth of chum salmon;
• Explore synchrony in the productivity of Japanese chum salmon and other hatchery and wild chum salmon populations;
• Determine adaptive strategies of chum salmon in the winter;
• Cooperative monitoring and reporting of standard biological and population parameters of chum salmon; including prey,
size and age at maturity, fecundity, egg size, wintering and lipid levels;
• Cooperative sampling of chum salmon throughout their ocean distribution;
• Support for an International Year of the Salmon that would have as a major goal, the mapping of populations of all five
species (or six if steelhead trout are included) in the winter and in the summer.
Photo by N. Davis
Photo by N. Davis
17
18
Korea
Chum salmon is the species of Pacific salmon that is of most importance to Korean
researchers. Chum salmon hatcheries were established in the northern Korean
Peninsula in 1913 and in South Korea in 1967. Despite the hatchery production,
the catch of chum salmon declined from 553 t in 1997 to less than 200 t at present.
Hatcheries release fry into an area of the ocean that is at the southern range of chum
salmon distribution,an area where Pacific salmon production is known to be negatively
impacted by climate change. It is recognized by Korean scientists that natural shifts
in the climate and ocean ecology affect the production of chum salmon.
Thus, future changes that warm the surface waters would be expected to
reduce the production of chum salmon. It is also understood that the production
of chum salmon in the subarctic Pacific is increasing and that some populations of
a particular species of Pacific salmon adapt to these climate changes better than
other populations. The marine survival of chum salmon from Korean hatcheries is
less than 2% which is lower than the average of almost 3% obtained from hatchery
and wild chum salmon in more northern latitudes. If the factors that affect early
marine survival were better understood, it may be possible to sustain or even
improve Korean chum salmon production in the immediate future. In the coastal
areas around Korea, juvenile chum salmon growth was greater in the early 1990s
than in the 1980s, but growth in the open ocean was greater in the 1980s than in
the 1990s, suggesting that changes in climate are affecting different stages of the
life history of Korean chum salmon. This highlights the need for continuous data
collection in coastal and open ocean environments and for a focus on the effects
of climate change on the distribution and abundance of Korean chum salmon. It
would be helpful to Korean scientists if all countries would publish escapement
estimates and the methods for determining these escapements for hatchery and
wild populations.
Long-term monitoring of basin- and regional-scale climate and ocean indices
will improve the understanding of the relationship between the size and timing of
releases of hatchery fish and the numbers that return. An improved understanding
of the causes of early marine mortality would also provide information that is
needed to optimize hatchery production. It is important to Korean researchers to
Photo by Auke Bay Labs
19
know the spatial and temporal distribution of chum salmon in
the open ocean to help understand the sources and timing of
mortality. Thermal marking of the otoliths of hatchery fish and
shared international databases for otolith marks and DNA stock
identification will help determine the ocean distribution of
chum salmon of Korean origin. The cause of the large mortality
of chum salmon in the ocean is perhaps the least understood
and least studied aspect of their life history. As the sources
of mortality become better understood, the processes that
regulate chum salmon production will be clearer, resulting in
models that more accurately forecast the timing and abundance
of returning adults. Managing chum salmon in the absence of
this information may be too speculative in the future. Chum
salmon are also produced in North Korea and information
about the state of their populations will be useful to scientists
from South Korea and the international community in general.
efforts. Thus, any effort to coordinate long-term research and
monitoring of Pacific salmon should have an international
team of modellers that use existing information and identify
new information needed to improve forecasts.
The factors that regulate the timing and accuracy of the
coastal migration of adults are also poorly known. Timing
of return in 2003 was about 15 days earlier than it was 20
years ago and it appears that larger salmon return earlier. An
ability to capture and identify maturing chum salmon in the
open ocean, combined with the promising contributions
from genomics, may begin to unravel the mysteries of how
and why salmon decide to return to spawn. Eventually, the
improved understanding of the marine phase of Pacific salmon
in general, and chum salmon in particular, needs to find its
way into forecasting models. It makes sense that international
teams of modellers will make faster progress than individual
• Continue the data collection in coastal areas and in the
open ocean;
• Improve the understanding of the effects of global warming
on distribution, abundance and run timing;
• Develop an ability to forecast climate-induced variation in
marine survival;
Photo by NFRDI
20
An issue that has not been discussed in Pacific salmon research
is the genetic manipulation of fish produced in hatcheries.
Pacific and Atlantic salmon have been genetically altered to
improve growth, indicating that the genetic manipulation of
salmon is possible. It is probable that as our understanding of
marine mortality improves, there may be interest in artificially
improving the survival of Pacific salmon, particularly at the
southern limit of their range.
In general, the following are the priorities for
research and monitoring:
• Explain and measure carrying capacity;
• Continue life history studies;
• Identify and protect the habitat critical for wild salmon
production.
Photo by NFRDI
Russia
Pacific salmon catches are at historic high levels in Russia. It is recognized that even these reports of high catches may underestimate
the real catches by about 25% because of the massive poaching issue. Despite the poaching problem, spawning escapements are also
at historic high abundances. The current abundance (production) of the Russian salmon stocks is a result of the high carrying capacity
of their ocean habitat and the favourable conditions for reproduction in rivers.
According to the opinion of some experts, trends in
abundance are related to large-scale atmospheric processes
that can be indexed by the Aleutian Low (ALPI) or the Pacific
Decadal Oscillation (PDO). According to other researchers,
ALPI and PDO (as well as other climatic indices) don’t reflect
adequately the observed patterns of oceanographic and
biological processes. These atmospheric processes occur in
cycles and the current cycle which is favourable for Russian
Pacific salmon production is expected to end soon, perhaps
within the next five years. However, the mechanisms of how
climate related changes in the ocean influence marine species
are still not sufficiently understood. There has been a general
increase in abundance of Russian populations, but speciesspecific differences in abundance dynamics are also noted.
Despite the influence of global factors, closely located Pacific
salmon populations exhibit different trends in abundance and
biological parameters indicating that regional influences are
also important.
are in the Sakhalin Island region. By 2010, the Sakhalin Island
region expects to add 10 more hatcheries. If these hatcheries
are successful, there is a plan to build 19 more that collectively
will produce 1.8 billion juvenile pink and chum salmon each
year. The expansion and success of the Pacific salmon hatchery
program makes it necessary to determine an appropriate ratio
of natural and artificial reproduction. This determination will
require a major effort to thermally mark otoliths of hatchery fish.
There is concern that fisheries need to be maintained through
a balance of wild and hatchery populations which may be
affected differentially by climatic influences. Associated with the
marking of hatchery fish is the need for reliable DNA baselines
for the major spawning populations. DNA currently is not used
to estimate abundances of individual populations in different
regions off the coast of Russia. Thus, an important component
of the next science plan in Russia is to estimate abundances of
individual populations, and determine the appropriate ratio of
hatchery and wild populations in the ocean.
Pink salmon are the most important species in the Russian
salmon fishery, accounting for 75% of the catch. Chum and
sockeye salmon account for 16% and 6%, respectively. Coho,
Chinook and masu salmon catches are not significant. In fact,
there has been a continuous decline in the catches of coho
and Chinook salmon. The dominance of wild and hatchery
pink salmon has a strong influence on future research and
monitoring plans which are generally large-scale as it has been
shown that small and short-term studies in local areas can give
a distorted picture of the population ecology of Pacific salmon.
Historically there have been as many scientists studying
Pacific salmon in Russia as in all other countries combined.
However, the number of researchers has declined in recent
years. In Russia, a major research effort is still given to the study
of salmon during marine life. Every year, four or five integrated
salmon surveys (expeditions) are carried out in the Sea of
Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, and in the northwest Pacific (oceanic
waters off Kamchatka and Kuril Islands, western Subarctic Gyre).
Recently, several surveys were conducted in the Chukchi Sea.
These surveys will be continued in the future because of the
high salmon abundance in the northern areas of the Russian
Far Eastern seas.
High salmon catches can result, in part, from increased
release of Pacific salmon from hatcheries. However, hatchery
production accounts for only 25-30,000 t of the total catch.
Currently, Russia has 41 Pacific salmon hatcheries that produce
0.6 billion juvenile Pacific salmon. Most (85%) of these hatcheries
Pacific salmon research generally operates under five year
strategic research plans. The next five year plan for Pacific
salmon research is currently being finalized. These plans are
detailed descriptions of annual activities including vessel
21
The North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission is
an international governmental organization where
researchers can share their data and interpretations
to determine how to forecast the effects of a changing
ocean ecosystem on Pacific salmon production.
plans and specific programs such as genetic stock identification, thermal marking of otoliths, disease, predator and diet studies.
Standardized procedures used in the studies are published separately in a manual approved by the Federal Fisheries Agency of
the Russian Federation called “Methodical re commendations on the implementation of fisheries resources marine surveys of
Pacific salmon 2004”. A second publication was produced in 2005 called “Planning, organization and maintenance of the studies
of the north western part of the Pacific Ocean”. The current five year strategic research and monitoring plan (2006-2010) identifies
the following as priorities:
The fresh water juvenile stage and resident period
of adults in fresh water including:
• the identification of spawning areas and ranking of
watersheds in order of their contribution to the abundance
of Pacific salmon;
• Determining the forage base limitations for juvenile Pacific
salmon;
• an assessment of the status of populations and spawning
areas in each region;
• Determining the rate of predation on juvenile Pacific
salmon;
• the development of protocols for real-time monitoring
of commercial fisheries, in accordance with the principles of
multispecies fisheries;
• Examining the differences in survival and adaptation
mechanisms of hatchery and wild juvenile Pacific salmon;
• Collecting better information on the abundance of
predators and the selective mortality of juvenile Pacific
salmon;
• the production of a genetic baseline database for major
spawning populations;
• the mass marking of the otoliths of Pacific salmon produced
in hatcheries;
24
The estuarine stage of juvenile Pacific salmon
including:
• Determining if hatchery populations make better use of
the forage base than wild populations of Pacific salmon;
• Studies to determine the optimal production level of
hatchery and wild Pacific salmon.
• Improving the information on the phenology of the forage
base available to various populations of juvenile Pacific
salmon migrating into nearshore areas, particularly for
habitats that support large hatchery populations.
Photo by TINRO Center
Photo by TINRO Center
The marine and oceanic stages of Pacific salmon
including:
• Improving the quality and reliability of real-time forecasts
during the fishing season and improve the medium-term
forecasts of returning abundances;
• The assessment of the temporal dynamics and carrying
capacity of the epipelagic environment of the North Pacific
Ocean;
• Improving the knowledge of the structure, productivity
and dynamics of plankton and nekton communities;
• The continuation of biochemical studies of forage species; • Improving the methods for estimating the abundance and
biomass of Pacific salmon;
• The extension of trophic surveys through international
cooperation;
• Studies of anadromous and catadromous migration patterns
thatincludean assessment of the impactsof limiting factors on
the distribution of Pacific salmon during foraging;
• An emphasis on understanding mortality i.e.) predation,
disease,migration ability,parasites,rather than the traditional
emphasis on survival;
• Research on diurnal and seasonal vertical distribution with
an emphasis on the variability and impacts of the forage
base;
• Monitoring of seasonal changes in physiological condition
of Pacific salmon.
The rapid publication of the results of all studies
and international cooperation in future studies.
Future research and monitoring will focus on improved
forecasting that will lead to better management. There is a long
history of marine and freshwater research on Pacific salmon
in Russia, but despite the research, some feel that there has
not been significant progress in forecast accuracy. However,
researchers are confident that the accuracy of forecasts can be
improved if more of the factors that regulate abundance can
be integrated and relationships with single influences such
as sea surface temperatures are deemphasized. It is always
important to understand what is known and know what needs
to be understood. At present not enough is known to be
confident that any particular management approach will be
effective. There is a clear recognition of what needs to be done.
Valuable time series need to be maintained. Understanding
the population ecology of Pacific salmon in fresh water, the
estuarine-coastal areas and the open ocean phases are all
equally important. Juvenile trawl surveys are an essential part
of the long-term approach to improving forecasting. Without
annual surveys, it is difficult or even impossible to expect
progress in forecasting return rates.
The difficulty associated with forecasting is the
understanding that fish abundance dynamics, as a natural
impact on survival, occur at a variety of stages. Fishing effects
and hatchery production also complicate the relationship.
Russian research has not identified a depletion of forage species
as a result of large-scale artificial and natural reproduction.
However, the suite of factors that affect the carrying capacity
of the ocean for the various species of salmon are still poorly
understood. A serious issue is the continuous use of unproven
assumptions, particularly in modeling. Common assumptions
which may or may not be stated can be critical, yet there is no
proof that they apply to the extent used. Local factors in the
ocean are also important. The recognition of basin-scale trends
in carrying capacity does not exclude the important dynamics
that occur at regional scales. Every regional population of
every species has its own peculiarities. Progress is possible,
but research must be planned, with a specific set of research
monitoring tasks. The necessary approaches require more staff
and efficient cooperation, including international cooperation.
New resources are absolutely necessary.
The strategy in Russia for the next five years maintains
the proven monitoring programs and places emphasis on
poorly understood and controversial issues of Pacific salmon
population biology and ecology. There is a focus on several
major ocean rearing areas; far-eastern marginal seas and the
western Subarctic Gyre (oceanic waters off Kamchatka and
Kuril Islands). Traditional freshwater research and monitoring
remain important and are strongly supported. The current
marine research plan recognizes that Pacific salmon are not
a schooling type of fish once they leave the nearshore area.
Thus, their behaviour differs from many other commercially
important species. Research over the past 15-20 years
25
produced a detailed understanding of feeding behaviour
and prey abundances, resulting in the understanding that the
current food supply for Pacific salmon is good or satisfactory.
Past research also indicated that direct measurements of
prey abundance are necessary to evaluate carrying capacity
and may have been significantly underestimated in the past.
Indirect indicators such as changes in growth rate are not
considered to be reliable indicators of prey related interactions
among species. Therefore, an emphasis on the actual causes
of mortality in the ocean is needed. More extensive laboratory
and field measurements to support bioenergetic modeling are
necessary to understand the relationships among growth, prey
availability and mortality. It is remarkable how little is known
about the causes of marine mortality, considering how few
individual Pacific salmon survive in the ocean. In particular,
there is an urgent need to improve the understanding of
disease impacts. Epizootic diseases may be a significant source
of mortality. The documentation of the sources of mortality is
also an appropriate area for international cooperation.
The factors affecting the return of pink salmon to their
spawning rivers is a priority as researchers are still struggling to
understand how to define a population and if there is validity
to the “fluctuating stock hypothesis”. This hypothesis was
developed to explain the surprise return of unexpected large
abundances of pink salmon to some areas, at the same time
that very poor returns occurred in other areas. Related to this
issue is the possibility of navigational problems by returning
adults.
Photo by TINRO Center
26
Russian researchers have a reputation for rapid publication
of research results and spirited communication among
colleagues. There is interest in international cooperation to
produce a monograph that interprets the information resulting
from the BASIS program. In particular, the monograph would
contain an assessment of the place and role of Pacific salmon
in the marine ecosystem. It is expected that such a publication
would help to quantify the parameters that regulate the marine
carrying capacity for Pacific salmon.
Monitoring has always been an essential component of the
Russian studies of Pacific salmon. Priorities for monitoring
programs that can assist future research can be summarized
into four categories:
1.Diversification and improvement of field research
methodology and standardization.
2.Building time series of trawl surveys at standard locations
for both juvenile and adult Pacific salmon.
3.Building up hierarchical Pacific salmon data infrastructure
to improve retrospective analysis and plan future surveys.
4.Expansion of surveys into poorly investigated areas such as
the central North Pacific Ocean and adjacent waters.
An international monitoring effort and an associated
database are strongly supported by Russian researchers.
Russian researchers also support the International Year of
the Salmon which provide a platform for the creation of
collaborative research and data sharing.
Photo by TINRO Center
United States
Alaska
Five species of Pacific salmon are produced in Alaska, accounting
for approximately 20% of the total catch by all countries. Pink
salmon are the most abundant (58% of total catch), followed
by sockeye (27%) and chum salmon (10%). Coho and Chinook
salmon are produced in some Alaskan streams, but in smaller
numbers. Recent changes in climate have been beneficial for
salmon production in Alaska, particularly following the 1977
regime shift and catches are at historic high levels. It is believed
by some researchers that climatic impacts act mainly on regional
scales, but larger ocean basin-scale impacts are also recognized.
The long-term production of Pacific salmon originating in Alaska
is expected to continue, with the exception of some populations
from western Alaska.
The increase in abundance of Alaskan Pacific salmon has
been attributed to a change in management policies,elimination
of the high-seas driftnet fishery, hatchery production, increased
fishing effort, increased sea surface temperature in the North
Pacific Ocean, increased zooplankton productivity, and climate
change that favours the production of pink, chum and sockeye
salmon and inhibits the production of coho and Chinook
salmon. The recent ‘warm regime’ dynamics in the eastern
Bering Sea have resulted in increased growth and survival
of juvenile salmon in the first few months in the marine
environment which has translated to more robust juveniles
that are better able to survive the winter in the Gulf of Alaska.
Trends in production of western Alaskan salmon are difficult
to generalize. However, in contrast to the general success of
Pacific salmon in Alaska, western Alaska stocks are declining.
Since the late 1990s, western Alaska has experienced very low
Chinook and chum salmon returns. Chum salmon returns to the
Yukon River have been particularly poor in recent years. Rapid
increases in northern populations of pink salmon in Norton
Sound appear to have exacerbated declines in chum salmon
that preceded the increase in pink salmon populations.
Sharp increases in average air temperature in the Yukon
River watersheds since 1950 may have had mixed effects on
abundances of Chinook and chum salmon. Increased average
temperatures can enable pathogens such as Ichthyophonus to
become more infectious and decrease or increase spawning
success. However, the impact of short term temperature
decreases due to weather during spawning may enable
individual year classes to escape the negative effects of climate
effects.
Southeast Alaska is one of Alaska’s most productive salmon
producing areas, with over 2000 rivers contributing 47% of pink
salmon, 61% of coho salmon, and 72% of Alaska’s chum salmon.
Hatchery production has nearly doubled the abundance of
chum salmon, resulting in record harvests averaging 12.3 million
fish (77% hatchery origin) in recent years. Over 60 reports on
the marine ecology of Pacific salmon from southeast Alaska
have been produced, focussing on juvenile migrations, the
physical environment, competition and predation. However,
many questions remain unanswered, and implementation of a
long-term research and monitoring program using new stock
identification techniques such as genetics, thermal marking of
otoliths, coded-wire tags and data storage tags is needed. This
would result in a better understanding of migration patterns
and timing, marine growth, carrying capacity, predation, and
hatchery and wild interactions; as well as the impact of climate
change on these variables.
Hatcheries in Alaska produce about 800 million pink, 600
million chum, 60 million sockeye, 25 million coho and 10 million
Chinook salmon every year. The central Alaska region produces
mainly pink and sockeye salmon while southeast Alaska
produces mostly chum salmon. Prince William Sound alone
produces more than 600 million hatchery and about 190 million
wild pink salmon fry each year. Total pink salmon returns in this
area have averaged 31 million fish (25.3 million hatchery and
5.7 million wild) from 1990 to 2000. Hatchery fish are reared in
net pens during the spring and released into optimal feeding
conditions in the ocean when zooplankton abundances peak.
27
Photo by Auke Bay Labs
It is believed that juvenile Pacific salmon consume only 1-3%
of the available food resources in Prince William Sound, raising
questions about the validity of concerns regarding the carrying
capacity of nearshore ecosystems. The interaction of artificially
produced Pacific salmon with wild populations is poorly
understood and there is difficulty in separating the effects of
environmental and management influences on the success
of these populations. Long-term research and monitoring of
hatchery and wild populations, including larger temporal scales,
28
would greatly benefit the management of these populations.
There is concern over density dependent impacts and the
carrying capacity of the Pacific Ocean, following such a drastic
increase in Alaskan Pacific salmon abundance. Prior to the mid
1990s, many populations of pink, chum and sockeye salmon
experienced increases in age at maturity and decreases in size
at maturity. It was believed that these changes were a carrying
capacity issue in the North Pacific and that the ocean was
unable to sustain the high numbers of fish being produced by
Alaskan hatcheries. However, after the mid-1990s, adult sizes
began to increase again, suggesting that carrying capacity is
not constant, but varies with changing environmental and
biological factors. As was the case for trends in abundance
of western Alaska salmon, trends in size at age are difficult to
generalize. For example, size at age in most Bristol Bay sockeye
salmon stocks declined during the 1990s.
It has been suggested by some scientists that growth and
survival of sockeye salmon in their second year in the ocean
is impacted by high abundances of Asian pink salmon when
populations of these two species interact in the high seas.
This potential for interaction has highlighted the need for
a multispecies, international investigation of interactions
between wild and hatchery salmon. Trawl monitoring studies
need to continue to understand salmon-prey interactions
and the carrying capacity for Pacific salmon. The Auke Bay
Laboratory’s Marine Ecosystem Stock Assessment program,
BASIS group, focuses on juvenile salmon research along
the eastern Bering Sea Shelf. The objectives of this program
are to 1) understand juvenile migrations from rivers to the
eastern Bering Sea 2) describe the physical environment of the
eastern and northeastern Bering Sea shelf waters and 3) collect
biological information on other ecologically important species.
As the early marine period is a time of high mortality when
up to 75% of juvenile salmon mortality may occur, growth of
juvenile Pacific salmon may be a key indicator of ecosystem
change. The ocean conditions in the coastal environment may
be a key link between climate change and salmon abundance.
Understanding these physical and biological parameters will
provide insight into the relationship between salmon and
their habitat and identify mechanisms linking production to
climate change, but will require continued long-term research
and monitoring. The ability to reliably forecast salmon returns
would be a great accomplishment for fisheries managers. To do
this, it is necessary to understand the impacts of climate change
on Pacific salmon, specifically the distribution, abundance, and
migration patterns with respect to environmental conditions.
Future research needs include:
• The development of new technologies and international baselines for salmon stock identification;
• shipboard research and monitoring programs that provide a platform for process studies, as well as data on interannual
variation in ocean growth, distribution and run timing of key populations;
• the development and dissemination of international databases useful for research on ocean production of Pacific salmon;
• the identification of specific mechanisms that affect marine survival of Pacific salmon;
• the continued sampling of zooplankton;
• the measurement of prey abundance such as larval fishes and euphausiids;
• the measurement of abundance and identification of feeding habits of predators;
• the measurement of growth rates in the ocean;
• the identification and mapping of critical ocean feeding habitats and migration routes;
• the assessment of the effects of interactions among populations including both Asian and North American and hatchery
and wild;
• methods of accounting for hatchery releases need to be carefully examined as numbers released by species may not
be geographically comparable due to differences in rearing and feeding practices and in basic methods of enumeration
of releases.
29
30
Washington, Oregon and California
Coho and Chinook salmon dominate the research and monitoring efforts of
researchers in Washington, Oregon and California. Steelhead trout are also of interest,
but receive considerably less attention. Marine studies of factors affecting the early
marine survival of juvenile Pacific salmon began in the 1980s and have continued to
the present, with a focus on coho and Chinook salmon that are produced in the wild
and in hatcheries.
Hatchery production of coho and Chinook salmon is a major contributor to
the number of juveniles entering the ocean. Trawl surveys for juvenile Pacific
salmon in Puget Sound captured coded-wire tagged fish which were used to
approximate the percentages of hatchery and wild individuals. Approximately
50% and 85% of coho and Chinook salmon were from hatcheries, respectively. In
Puget Sound, hatcheries annually release about 10 million coho and 30 million
Chinook salmon. They also produce about 40 million chum, 10 million sockeye
and 0.8 million pink salmon fry, in addition to 2 million steelhead trout. In other
areas of Washington (outside of Puget Sound), hatcheries release about 10 million
Chinook and 6 million coho salmon. They also release about 1.5 million chum and
100,000 sockeye salmon fry and 2 million steelhead trout. Approximately 100
million Chinook and 20 million coho salmon are released into the Columbia River,
along with 1.5 million sockeye and 175,000 chum salmon fry. Approximately 15
million steelhead trout are also released into the Columbia River. Off the coast of
Oregon, hatcheries release about 1.2 million coho and 10 million Chinook salmon
in addition to about 150,000 steelhead trout.
In California, 20 million Chinook salmon, minimal numbers of coho salmon
and 1.5 million steelhead trout are released from hatcheries. Information from
the population ecology of these hatchery fish is used to study the dynamics of
wild Pacific salmon in the ocean as wild populations are more difficult to study.
Researchers agree that they need to be careful about the standard assumption
that the dynamics of hatchery fish closely represent the dynamics of wild fish.
Future research needs to separate information on hatchery and wild salmon and
ensure that there is more information about the dynamics of wild populations.
Photo by Auke Bay Labs
31
The relative abundance, species composition and timing
of zooplankton production are monitored in relation to the
stomach contents of juvenile Pacific salmon.Predators, including
birds and marine mammals, are studied but the sources of
marine mortality of coho and Chinook salmon are still poorly
understood. It is recognized that marine survival is related to
ocean growth, particularly in the early marine period. Prior to
the 1970s, years of good early marine growth could be linked
to the production of jack coho salmon (male salmon that spend
less than one year in the ocean), creating an index of marine
survival. However,the relationship became unreliable,indicating
that a suite of factors affect marine mortality and that it is risky
to rely on single factor relationships when forecasting returns.
It is a priority to integrate ecological information with climate
and ocean information to improve forecasting. A limitation is
the shortage of acceptable research vessels and funds. A new
program is underway to improve the ability of identifying
populations using genetic analysis. As this genetic baseline
develops, it will be possible to map the critical feeding areas
off the coasts of California, Oregon and Washington as well as
areas farther north. Because it is particularly important to find
out where immature fish rear in the winter, the development
of the genetic baseline is critical. To do this, international
cooperation (with Canada) and interstate cooperation (with
Alaska) is essential. Genetic stock identification is important,
but the maintenance of a scale database, in association with
routine digitizing of scales is still important. Rescuing scales
that were collected in the past is valuable. It is essential that
the seasonal distribution of juvenile and immature coho and
Chinook salmon is determined. As regional climate models
32
become more reliable, the use of these models to manage
Pacific salmon depends on the knowledge of where salmon are
in the ocean.
There is missing information on winter ecology that is needed
to understand the ocean phase of the life history of Pacific
salmon from Washington, Oregon and California. It is difficult
and expensive to study Pacific salmon in the ocean in the
winter, thus it is important to cooperate with other countries
when conducting such research. In addition, it is necessary to
link freshwater research on Pacific salmon so that it is closely
associated with ocean research. As in other countries, teams of
scientists need to focus on understanding the factors affecting
the dynamics of Pacific salmon throughout their entire life
cycle. It is essential that past and future data including ocean
and climate data are available to all researchers, perhaps in an
international data base managed by the NPAFC or another
agency.
Acoustic tags are a useful way of studying the behaviour and
mortality of hatchery and wild fish. Acoustic and archival tags
are expensive, requiring that their use be well planned and the
results widely distributed. Perhaps the most immediate use
of acoustic tags would be to study the sources of early marine
mortality of steelhead trout. The use of these tags could help
determine if predation is the major source of early mortality
of juvenile steelhead trout and if this predation mortality is
related to ocean structure. The impacts of ocean acidification
are missing from current strategic research plans. A lesson Bill
Ricker learned was to expect the unexpected and the effects of
ocean acidification should not turn out to be a surprise.
In general, long-term research needs of all Pacific salmon research in the United States is to:
• identify specific mechanisms that cause marine mortality
(starvation, predation, disease);
• continue monitoring prey abundance;
• identify predators and their distribution and determine the
impact of predation on Pacific salmon;
• measure key prey abundance, production and energetic
levels on temporal and spatial scales relevant to salmon
populations;
• measure ocean growth rates and bioenergetic demands of
juvenile and adult Pacific salmon;
• develop and disseminate International databases useful for
research on ocean production of salmon;
• continue juvenile trawl surveys and the corresponding data
series;
• evaluate the relative importance of coastal habitats (within
200 mile zones) compared to high seas habitats (beyond
200 mile zones) in the determination of ocean productivity
in growth and survival;
• monitor lipid levels throughout the year;
• map the seasonal feeding areas, migration routes and the
timing of movements with focus on the winter ecology of
juvenile Pacific salmon;
• begin to study the impacts of diseases and parasites;
• develop archival and acoustic tags that can be applied to
fish 10-15 cm in length and can sample multiple
environmental parameters concurrently;
• begin to study the impacts of ocean acidification;
• fund complete life cycle studies;
• link ocean research to well-established freshwater research
programs to study variation in productivity of the whole life
history of salmon populations;
• conduct studies of both hatchery and wild fish;
• determine relative effects of ocean fishing vs. climate on
adult salmon returns;
• communicate results to colleagues, clients and patrons;
• conduct international cooperative research including
data sharing, standardized surveys and coordinated
research programs;
• continue shipboard research and monitoring programs that
provide a platform for process studies, as well as collection
of long-term data on interannual variation in ocean growth,
distribution, and run timing of key populations (e.g. BASIS,
Wakatake maru survey in central North Pacific and Bering
Sea);
• reinstate long-term surveys that have been terminated
(e.g. Oshoro maru and Auke Bay Lab’s Marine Ecosystem
Stock Assessment program, BASIS group surveys in the Gulf
of Alaska);
• expand US-Asia collaborations in DNA baselines of sockeye,
chum and Chinook salmon;
• expand Pacific Rim single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
baselines;
• develop new DNA and other technologies and international
baselines for salmon stock identification;
• improve integration of stock composition and ecological
data;
• continue scale and CWT programs.
33
The United States is developing an ecosystem approach to management to provide a comprehensive framework for living
marine resource decision making. The ecological approach will consider a wide range of relevant ecological, environmental,
and human factors bearing on societal choices regarding resource use. A key step in ecosystem approach to management is to
develop integrated ecosystem assessments that provide a synthesis and quantitative analysis of information on relevant physical,
chemical, ecological and human processes in relation to specified ecosystem management objectives. Integrated ecosystem
assessments start by identifying human and natural factors affecting the ecosystem, selecting key ecosystem status indicators,
link ecosystem status to climate and human factors, evaluate ecological and economical impacts of management options, and
adaptively manage to reduce risk.
Six climate change issues involving ecological resources that are important for integrated ecosystem
assessments include:
1) determining climate signals,(long term change versus natural variation) impacting ecosystems:
2) the impact of ocean warming on distribution and productivity of living marine resources;
3) the impacts of loss of sea ice on living marine resources;
4) ocean acidification impacts on marine biota;
5) freshwater supply and resource management; and
6) sea level rise.
The United States plans to work with international, regional and local partners to develop temporal and spatial scales for
integrated ecosystem assessments and to determine the ecosystem indicators for monitoring climate and human induced
impacts to these ecosystems. The BASIS project within the NPAFC is one example of a coordinated ecosystem assessment for
living marine resources within the Bering Sea.
34
Conclusion
It is accepted that Pacific salmon are impacted by changes in
climate occurring on both regional- and basin-scales, and in
long-term trends and individual events. The purpose of this
Long-term Research and Monitoring Plan is to ensure that
the stewardship of Pacific salmon is well equipped with the
knowledge needed to manage Pacific salmon. The NPAFC
Science Sub-Committee should determine what would be
required to implement the contents of this report, including
planning of simultaneous trawl surveys in the winter. The
timing, location, cost and expected outcomes of these surveys
need to be determined. A proposal for an International Year of
the Salmon should be prepared to emphasize the importance
of this work.
Acknowledgement
This report benefitted from the support of Karen Gillis, Rich
Lincoln, Vladimir Fedorenko, Wakako Morris, Clarence Pautzke,
Vyacheslav Shuntov, Michael Webster and John White.
Special Appreciation
goes to the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Bering
Sea Fishermen’s Association, and the North Pacific Research
Board for granting the funds to make this project possible.
35
Appendix
First LRMP meeting in Sokcho, Korea on April 7-9, 2008
Participants of 1st LRMP meeting (List of participants is Table 1)
Visiting Dr. Shuntov in TINRO Center, Vladivostok, Russia
Second LRMP meeting in Nanaimo, Canada from September 29
to October 2, 2008
Participants of 2nd LRMP meeting (List of participants is Table 2)
Participants of 2nd LRMP meeting
Final LRMP in Shogama, Japan on June 18-20, 2009
Participants of final LRMP meeting (List of participants is Table 3)
Appendix 1
List of Participants
Table 1 – Participants of LRMP meeting on April 7-9, 2008 in Sokcho, Korea.
CANADA
Richard Beamish
Pacific Biological Station
Gerry Kristianson
Sport Fishing Institute
Krista Lange
Pacific Biological Station
Brian Riddell
Pacific Biological Station
Marc Trudel
Pacific Biological Station
JAPAN
Tomonori Azumaya
Fisheries Research Agency
Hiroto Imai
Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
Yukimasa Ishida
Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute
Masahide Kaeriyama
Hokkaido University
Jiro Seki
National Salmon Resources Center
KOREA
Sukyung Kang
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
Suam Kim
Pukyong National University
Chae Sung Lee
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
Ki Baik Seong
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
RUSSIA
Maxim Koval
Kamchatka Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (KamchatNIRO)
Leonid Klyashtorin
Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (VNIRO)
Igor Melnikov
Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center
Svetlana Naydenko
Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center
Victor Nazarov
Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center
Vladimir Radchenko
Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (SakhNIRO)
Vladimir Volobuev
Magadan Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (MagadanNIRO)
UNITED STATES
Robert Emmett
National Marine Fisheries Service, Hatfield Marine Science Center
Edward Farley, Jr.
National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory, Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute
Loh-Lee Low
National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center
Jamal Moss
National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory, Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute
Phil Mundy
National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory, Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute
Katherine Myers
School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington
Greg Ruggerone
National Resources Consultants, Inc.
Jim Seeb
School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington
Gary Smith
Gary Smith Company
Bill Templin
Alaska Department of Fish and Game
Sewall Young
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
OBSERVERS
Richard Lincoln
Wild Salmon Center
Michael Webster
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
SECRETARIAT
Wakako Morris
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
Shigehiko Urawa
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
37
Table 2 – Participants of the LRMP meeting on September 29 to October 2, 2008 in Nanaimo, Canada.
CANADA
Richard Beamish
Pacific Biological Station
Krista Lange
Pacific Biological Station
Brian Riddell
Pacific Biological Station
JAPAN
Yukimasa Ishida
Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute
Masahide Kaeriyama
Hokkaido University
Toru Nagasawa
Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
KOREA
Sukyung Kang
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
Suam Kim
Pukyong National University
Ki Baik Seong
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
RUSSIA
Vladimir Radchenko
Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (SakhNIRO)
Vladimir Sviridov
Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center (TINRO)
Olga Temnykh
Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center (TINRO)
UNITED STATES
Richard Brodeur
National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport
Phil Mundy
National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory, Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute
Katherine Myers
School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington
OBSERVERS
Richard Lincoln
State of the Salmon
Michael Webster
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
SECRETARIAT
Vladimir Fedorenko
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
Wakako Morris
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
Shigehiko Urawa
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
Table 3 – Participants of the LRMP meeting on June 18-20, 2009 in Hon-Shiogama, Japan.
CANADA
Richard Beamish
Pacific Biological Station
Krista Lange
Pacific Biological Station
JAPAN
Yukimasa Ishida
Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute
Toru Nagasawa
Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute
KOREA
Sukyung Kang
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
RUSSIA
Olga Temnykh
Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Center (TINRO)
UNITED STATES
Edward Farley, Jr.
National Marine Fisheries Service, Auke Bay Laboratory, Ted Stevens Marine Research Institute
SECRETARIAT
Shigehiko Urawa
38
North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission
Appendix II
Current ocean research and monitoring on the high seas (NI indicates that no information was available)
Country
CANADA
JAPAN
KOREA
RUSSIA
Research and Monitoring Items
Studies
Time
Continue collection of biological information on Pacific salmon
Biological fish data
All year
Describe ambient oceanographic conditions
Ocean conditions
All year
Quantify the biomass of zooplankton and describe the zooplankton species community
composition
Zooplankton
All year
Examination of trends in diet of all five species of Pacific salmon
Diet
Summer and fall
Examine growth and condition of juvenile Pacific salmon in relation to climate indices
Growth
Summer and fall
Determine causes for early marine mortality of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon
Early marine
mortality
Spring, summer
and fall
Stock identification using DNA analysis and acoustic tag studies
Stock
identification
Spring, summer
and fall
Determine the seasonal distribution of chum salmon after they leave the coastal areas
Distribution
All year
Understand the role of Pacific salmon in the surface waters of the subarctic Pacific
Ecosystem
NI
Explore factors affecting the growth and survival of chum salmon in the first ocean year,
particularly in the Okhotsk Sea
Growth and
survival
NI
Determine the climate and ocean effects on the primary production and prey resources in the
coastal areas of Japan and the Okhotsk Sea
Prey resources
NI
Examine the linkages between basin- and regional-scale climate and ocean indices and early
marine growth of chum salmon
Growth and
survival
NI
Explore synchrony in the productivity of Japanese chum salmon and other hatchery and wild
chum salmon stocks
Productivity
NI
Determine adaptive strategies of chum salmon in the winter
Winter
NI
Cooperative monitoring and reporting of standard biological and population parameters of
chum salmon; including prey, size and age at maturity, fecundity, egg size, wintering and lipid
levels
Monitoring
NI
Cooperative sampling of chum salmon throughout their ocean distribution
Ocean
NI
The concept of an International Year of the Salmon would have as a major goal, the mapping of
stocks of all five species (or six if steelhead trout are included) in the winter and in the summer
NI
NI
Improved ability to protect habitat and wild salmon
Habitat
NI
Continue the data collection in coastal and open ocean surveys
NI
NI
Improve the understanding of the effects of global warming on distribution and abundance
Distribution and
abundance
NI
Develop an ability to forecast climate-induced variation in marine survival
Survival
NI
Explain and measure carrying capacity
Carrying capacity
NI
Continue life history studies
Life history
NI
Accurate escapement estimates including production of a database of average size, genetics,
scale and morphological data of returning adults
Escapement
estimates
All year
An inventory of the potential of freshwater habitats that produce Pacific salmon
Freshwater
habitats
All year
(continued page 40)
39
Appendix II
Country
RUSSIA
USA
Research and Monitoring Items
Studies
Time
Mass marking of otoliths of hatchery fish
Otolith marking
All year
Determination of the optimal ratio of hatchery and wild fish
Hatchery/ wild
interactions
All year
Improvement of the information on the “phenology” of the forage base that is available to the
various stocks that continuously migrate into the nearshore areas. This is particularly important
for areas where massive releases occur from hatcheries
Forage base
All year
An assessment of carrying capacity in the North Pacific during all stages of the life cycle
Carrying capacity
All year
Search for new ways to assess the mortality rates (rather than survival) of Pacific salmon,
particularly from the effects of injuries, diseases and parasites. Organization of these data into a
centralized regional database
Mortality
All year
Continue the trawl studies in the ocean with an emphasis of autumn studies in the Okhotsk and
Bering Seas, early summer studies in the northwest Pacific and western Bering Sea and summer
studies in the northwest Pacific, western Bering Sea, Okhotsk Sea and adjacent waters
Trawl studies
All year
Improvements to in-season forecasts of optimal catch
In-season forecasts
All year
Improve the understanding of ocean effects on distribution
Distribution
All year
Identify why there are wave-like patterns in coastal migrations? What controls the specific
onshore migration times?
Coastal migrations
Spring/summer/
fall
Improve the understanding of the scale and role of vertical migrations in the feeding habitats and
forage base
Vertical migrations
All year
Compare growth rates in the winter and any physiological changes with other seasons
Growth rates
All year
Rapid publication of the results of all studies and international cooperation in future studies
Publication
All year
The development of new technologies and international baselines for salmon stock identification
Stock identification NI
Shipboard research and monitoring programs that provide a platform for the process studies, as
well as data on interannual variation in ocean growth, distribution, and run timing of key stocks
Ocean growth
and distribution
NI
The development and dissemination of international databases useful for research on ocean
production of salmon
NI
NI
The identification of specific mechanisms that affect salmon marine survival
NI
NI
The continued sampling of zooplankton
NI
NI
The measurement of prey abundance such as larval fishes and euphausiids
NI
NI
The measurement of abundance and identification of feeding habits of predators
NI
NI
The measurement of growth rates in the ocean
NI
NI
The identification and mapping of critical ocean feeding habitats and migration routes
NI
NI
The assessment of the effects of interactions among stocks (Asian and North American, hatchery
and wild)
NI
NI
Identify specific mechanisms that cause marine mortality
NI
NI
Continue monitoring prey abundances
NI
NI
Identify predators and determine the impacts of predation
NI
NI
Measure ocean growth rates
NI
NI
Monitor lipid levels throughout the year
NI
NI
Map the seasonal feeding areas, with focus on the winter ecology of juvenile Salmonids
NI
NI
(continued page 41)
40
Appendix II
Country
USA
Research and Monitoring Items
Studies
Time
Begin to study the impacts of diseases and parasites
NI
NI
Develop archival and acoustic tags that can be applied to fish 10-15 cm in length
NI
NI
Begin to study the impacts of ocean acidification
NI
NI
Fund whole life cycle studies
NI
NI
Conduct studies of both hatchery and wild fish
NI
NI
Communicate results to colleagues, clients and patrons
NI
NI
International cooperative research including data sharing, standardized surveys and coordinated
research programs
NI
NI
Continue the juvenile trawl surveys and the corresponding data series
NI
NI
Expansion of US-Asia collaborations in DNA baselines of sockeye, chum and Chinook salmon
NI
NI
Expansion of Pacific Rim SNP baselines
NI
NI
Improve integration of stock composition and ecological data
NI
NI
Continue scale and CWT programs
NI
NI
41
42
RUSSIA
KOREA
JAPAN
Country
Trudel, Welch, Morris
Trudel, Welch, Morris
Ono, Takahashi
Ono, Takahashi
Abe, Takahashi
Nagata,
Takahashi
Yoshimo,
Takahashi, Kaga
Hasegawa
Shimizu
Westcoast
Vancouver
Island
Southeast
Alaska
Western
Hokkaido
Eastern
Hokkaido
Kushiro,
Hokkaido
Nemuro Strait,
Hokkaido
Abashiri,
Hokkaido
Iwate
Prefecture,
East Honshu
Iwate
Prefecture,
East Honshu
(including
deepwater
part of the
Bering sea)
Eastern
Kamchatka
Shuntov,
Glebov, Erokhin,
Karpenko
Kang, Seong
Beamish,
Sweeting
Vancouver
Island, Strait
of Georgia
Korean Coast
Researchers
Region
Pink, chum,
sockeye,Chinook
and coho salmon
Chum salmon
Chum salmon
Chum salmon
Chum and pink
salmon
Chum and pink
salmon
Chum salmon
Chum salmon
Chum salmon
Sockeye, chum
and coho salmon
Sockeye, chum
and coho salmon
Coho, Chinook,
sockeye, pink and
chum salmon
Species
Surface trawl
June-August 19911993, 1995 and
2002-2004, 20062008
X
X
April and May;
2005-2008; Boat
seine
September-October
1978,1982, 1986-1
989, 1991-2008
X
X
X
X
X
X
March-July; 19952008; Surface trawl
March-July; 19962008; Surface trawl
March-July; 19982008; Surface trawl
March-July; 19962008; Surface trawl
March-July; 19982008; Surface trawl
March-July; 19962008; Surface trawl
X
X
July, October and
February; 19982008; Surface trawl
March-July; 19982008; Surface trawl
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Physical Nutrients Chlorophyll Zooplankton Diet
July, October and
February; 19982008; Surface trawl
July and September;
1997-2008; Surface
and midwater trawl
Time and Gear
Appendix III
Current ocean research on Pacific salmon in coastal areas (an X indicates research is conducted)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(continued page 43)
X
X
Growth Migration Predators
43
USA
RUSSIA
Country
Erokhin,
Karpenko
Shubin,
Radchenko
Western
Kamchatka
Eastern
Sakhalin
Orsi
Helle, Farley,
Moss
Northern
Gulf of Alaska
Casillas, Brodeur
Oregon,
Washington
Southeast
Alaska
Brodeur,
Emmett
California,
Oregon
Emmett
McFarlane,
Harding
California
Oregon,
Washington
Chinook salmon
Shuntov, Lapko,
Radchenko,
Loboda
Southern
part of
Okhotsk sea
Pink and chum
salmon
Pink and chum
salmon
Coho and
Chinook salmon
Coho and
Chinook salmon
Chinook and
coho salmon
Pink, chum,
sockeye,chinook,
coho and masu
salmon
Blagod’erov,
Ilyinskiy
Pink, chum, masu
salmon
Pink, chum and
masu salmon
Pink, chum,
sockeye,
Chinook, coho
salmon
Species
(including
sea shelf and
deepwater
part)
Primorye
Researchers
Region
Appendix III
X
May, June, September;
1998-2008; Surface
trawl
July and August; 19952002; Surface trawl
May-August; 19992008; Surface trawl
X
X
X
X
June and August;
2000, 2002; Surface
trawl
April- August; 19982008; Surface trawl
X
X
X
X
X
Physical
March-October; 19952005; Surface trawl
Surface trawl
June-August 19911997
1998-2008
October-November
1991,1993-1995,
Surface trawl
April-May 1991,
June-July 1985,
November 2003
Surface trawl
June-August; 19982008;
Surface trawl
September-October
1981, 1982, 1984, 1986,
1987, 1989, 1990,
1991, 1995, 1997, 1999,
2001-2003, 2005
Time and Gear
X
X
X
Nutrients
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Chlorophyll Zooplankton Diet
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Appendix II (continued page 44)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Growth Migration Predators
44
USA
X
X
1998-2001; Gill net
August-October; 20002008; Surface trawl
August and
September; 2003 and
2007; Surface trawl
Pink, chum and
sockeye salmon
Sockeye, chum,
pink and coho
salmon
Pink and chum
salmon
Haldorson,
Boldt
Farley, Moss,
Eisner, Murphy
Murphy, Eisner,
Farley, Moss
Bering Sea
Chukchi Sea
X
X
Northern Gulf
of Alaska
July and August; 2001
and 2004; Surface
trawl
Pink, chum and
coho salmon
Haldorson,
Boldt,
Beauchamp,
Myers
X
Physical
Northern Gulf
of Alaska
Time and Gear
June-August; 19941999; Seine, Acoustic
Pink salmon
Species
Willette, Cooney
Researchers
Prince William
Sound
Country Region
Appendix III
X
X
X
Nutrients
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Chlorophyll Zooplankton Diet
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Growth Migration Predators
NORTH PACIFIC ANADROMOUS FISH COMMISSION
A LONG-TERM RESEARCH AND MONITORING PLAN (LRMP) FOR PACIFIC SALMON
(ONCORHYNCHUS SPP.) IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
For More Information: NPAFC Secretariat Suite 502,889 West Pender Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6C 3B2 Canada
T: 1-604-775-5550 F: 1-604-775-5577 E: [email protected],
www.npafc.org
printed in Canada
ISBN: 978-0-9813830-0-2
October 2009

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