American Rev – Fr Alliance

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 1.4 MB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin

wikipedia, lookup

Rajendra K. Pachauri
Rajendra K. Pachauri

wikipedia, lookup

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis

wikipedia, lookup

John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

Lesson Plan: Causes & Effects of the French Alliance during the American Revolution Lesson Origin: Original
Georgia Performance Standard:
SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the
American Revolution.
b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles
of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette.
d. Explain the role of geography at the Battle of Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the
Treaty of Paris, 1783.
Essential Questions:
Why were the motives behind the French and American colonial alliance?
What events and reasoning’s finally encouraged the French to align with the colonials?
What were Benjamin Franklin’s goals as a diplomat in France?
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
How did the geography of Yorktown help the colonies win the Battle of Yorktown?
Who was Lord Cornwallis?
What did the Treaty of Paris accomplish?
Materials:
Painting of Franklin at the French Court- primary document
Painting of the Bust of Marquis de Lafayette- primary document
Profiles of Ben Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette
Body Biography Instructions
Battle of Saratoga Worksheet- from pbs.org
Treaty of Alliance- primary document
Map of Yorktown
Painting of Cornwallis’ surrender- primary document
Treaty of Paris- primary document
Instructions for class activities (90 minutes)
Introduction, warm up:
•
How would you perceive the attitudes of the French towards Franklin in this drawing?
http://docsteach.org/documents/518217/detail?mode=browse&menu=closed&era%5B%5D=re
volution-and-the-new-nation&sortBy=arc_id&page=4
•
How would you perceive the attitudes of the French of Marquis de Lafayette:
http://docsteach.org/documents/512941/detail?mode=browse&menu=closed&era%5B%5D=re
volution-and-the-new-nation&sortBy=arc_id&page=4
Fill out the attached portrait analysis worksheet.
Activities:
Activity 1: Read the following profiles on Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette and
complete the body biography with a partner.
Body Biography directions for teachers (student directions and bios are attached):
Teacher Instructions: Body Biography – Benjamin Franklin or Marquis de Lafayette •
After students have the biographies of Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette, assign partners and direct the students to choose one of these men to examine in detail. •
Students can either trace an outline of one member's of the pair’s body on butcher paper or use the body biography 8 ½ x 11 paper. •
Each pair chooses the best way to represent the following aspects of the historical figure symbolically: o The Heart: Where should it be placed to best represent what this historical figure loves most? What should it look like and what shape, color, pictures, or symbols should be included in it? o The Backbone: This should be represented in a way that visually conveys what motivates the historical figure the most. For example, Roger Sherman’s (of the Constitutional Conventions) backbone could be represented as two shaking hands – reflective of a compromise. o The Hands: What does the historical figure hold in his hands? Items that are associated with the character either literally or figuratively should be included. For Example, if the historical figure held to the foundations set forth by the Articles of Confederation, he could be holding the Articles in his hand. o The Feet: On what is the historical figure standing? This should a symbolic representation of the historical figure’s most fundamental beliefs about life. This could be represented by the state if they strongly believe in states rights. o
o
The Background: Students should draw some elements that suggest the historical figure’s environment, background, or predicament. Quotations: Near the historical figure’s head, students should place two or three direct quotations from the event/life of the historical figure that sum him up and add to an understanding of the historical figure. Activity 2: Read and discuss the Battle of Saratoga handout (attached) and analyze the Treaty
of Alliance and give 3 summarizers as the why the French would align themselves with the
American colonials.
Treaty of Alliance:
http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=008/llsl008.db&recNum=19l
Activity 3: Watch United Streaming Video and fill in and analyze the map (attached):
http://www.britishbattles.com/images/yorktown/map-l.jpg
Label the French, American and British troops.
What physical features would have aided the British? Aided the Americans and French? What
physical features would have a negative impact on the British? A Which physical features would
have a negative impact on the French and Americans?
Activity 4: Discuss inaccuracies with this drawing of Cornwallis’ surrender:
http://docsteach.org/documents/532883/detail?mode=browse&menu=closed&era%5B%5D=re
volution-and-the-new-nation&sortBy=arc_id&page=5
Activity 5: Discuss The Treaty of Paris; on-level students will illustrate two of the six
components of the Treaty of Paris. Honors students will get their own transcript of The Treaty
of Paris to highlight the important components with a partner. They will then write The Treaty
of Paris in their own words- slide and directions are attached.
Closure:
Complete attached worksheet to fill out on the significance of Revolutionary Events and Battles.
Assessment:
Formative:
Significance of Revolutionary Events Timeline Worksheet
Summative: Unit Test
Technology use:
United Streaming video of Battle of Yorktown
Suggestions for differentiation/modification:
For on-level students, a worksheet with questions on The Battle of Saratoga
http://www.nps.gov/sara/forteachers/upload/Short_answer_questions_1.pdf
For on-level students, journal entries on the Battle of Saratoga and questions:
http://www.nps.gov/sara/forteachers/upload/journal_entries.pdf
Extensions (advanced students):
Honors and gifted students can examine the transcript of The Treaty of Paris
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=6&page=transcript
Depth of Knowledge level: 1_____ 2______3.________4._______
Through analysis of primary documents, the students are able to see causes of France joining the
American Revolution, understand geography and key players behind the scenes and on the
battle lines.
Modeling/Guided Practice/Independent Practice elements:
Independent practice: Battle and event worksheet as closure and homework.
Elements of Teaching American History Grant activities incorporated into
the lesson:
Sourcing: Moods and feelings on Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette
illustrations and the inaccurate illustration of the surrender of Cornwallis.
Contextualization: Map of Battle of Yorktown and placing military troops at correct
location.
Corroboration: Why do you think France joined alliances with the American colonies?
Close Reading: Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Paris.
SARATOGA, NEW YORK October 17, 1777 - A British army of nearly 7,000 surrendered today to a
combined force of American militia and Continental regulars. "The fortunes of war have made me your prisoner," said
British General John Burgoyne as he handed over his sword to his American counterpart, Horatio Gates. "I shall
always be ready to testify that it was through no fault of your excellency," Gates replied.
News of the momentous British defeat spread quickly through the
colonies and fueled speculation that the French government would
now seriously consider entering the conflict on the American side. For
months, rumors have suggested that Louis XVI needed solid proof of
the strength of the revolution before he would officially commit French
military aid to the cause. The British defeat at Saratoga could very
well buy that help.
The end for Burgoyne and his army came on the heels of a long and
arduous campaign that began with a stunning British victory at
Ticonderoga. Burgoyne, known in the press as "Gentleman Johnny" began his sojourn in Canada. In an attempt to
link forces with British General Howe traveling north from New York, Burgoyne sailed with his army down Lake
Champlain, headed for Albany. They paused only to capture the formidable American fort at Ticonderoga.
British expectations were dashed, however, in the American countryside. Burgoyne's cumbersome entourage, which
included 30 carts of Burgoyne's personal possessions, and several cases of champagne, was stymied by the dense
New York forests.
Burgoyne Surrenders
By the time Burgoyne reached Freeman's Farm near Saratoga, American patriots were less cowed by Burgoyne's
haughty pronouncements demanding their surrender, than they were of general fears of having an invading army in
the neighborhood.
In fact, the American militia had been fully alerted to Burgoyne's presence, and, as one observer put it, "were out in
droves." By the time the two battles of Saratoga were fought, American forces led by Gates and his able field general,
Benedict Arnold, outnumbered Burgoyne and his army by nearly 2 to 1.
Killed in the ensuing battle was Burgoyne's second-in-command, General Simon Fraser. A witness to Fraser's death
heard him cry, "Oh fatal ambition," as life seeped out of him. He may have been speaking of the whole misguided
campaign.
In Paris, it can be assumed that the American ambassador to Versailles, Benjamin Franklin, will act immediately on
word of this victory, and once again beg Louis for French aid. If that assistance is forthcoming, it is certain that the
war will continue and spread—by means of the ancient enmities between Britain and France—to the far reaches of
the globe. Teacher Instructions: Body Biography – Benjamin Franklin or Marquis de Lafayette •
After students have the biographies of Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette, assign partners and direct the students to choose one of these men to examine in detail. •
Students can either trace an outline of one member's of the pair’s body on butcher paper or use the body biography 8 ½ x 11 paper. •
Each pair chooses the best way to represent the following aspects of the historical figure symbolically: o The Heart: Where should it be placed to best represent what this historical figure loves most? What should it look like and what shape, color, pictures, or symbols should be included in it? o The Backbone: This should be represented in a way that visually conveys what motivates the historical figure the most. For example, Roger Sherman’s (of the Constitutional Conventions) backbone could be represented as two shaking hands – reflective of a compromise. o The Hands: What does the historical figure hold in his hands? Items that are associated with the character either literally or figuratively should be included. For Example, if the historical figure held to the foundations set forth by the Articles of Confederation, he could be holding the Articles in his hand. o The Feet: On what is the historical figure standing? This should a symbolic representation of the historical figure’s most fundamental beliefs about life. This could be represented by the state if they strongly believe in states rights. o The Background: Students should draw some elements that suggest the historical figure’s environment, background, or predicament. o Quotations: Near the historical figure’s head, students should place two or three direct quotations from the event/life of the historical figure that sum him up and add to an understanding of the historical figure. Body Biography – Benjamin Franklin or Marquis de Lafayette •
With your partner, choose one of these men to examine in detail. •
You can either trace an outline of one member's of the pair’s body on butcher paper or use the body biography 8 ½ x 11 paper. •
With your partner, choose the best way to represent the following aspects of the historical figure symbolically: o The Heart: Where should it be placed to best represent what this historical figure loves most? What should it look like and what shape, color, pictures, or symbols should be included in it? o The Backbone: This should be represented in a way that visually conveys what motivates the historical figure the most. For example, Roger Sherman’s (of the Constitutional Conventions) backbone could be represented as two shaking hands – reflective of a compromise. o The Hands: What does the historical figure hold in his hands? Items that are associated with the character either literally or figuratively should be included. For Example, if the historical figure held to the foundations set forth by the Articles of Confederation, he could be holding the Articles in his hand. o The Feet: On what is the historical figure standing? This should a symbolic representation of the historical figure’s most fundamental beliefs about life. This could be represented by the state if they strongly believe in states’ rights. o The Background: Draw some elements that suggest the historical figure’s environment, background, or predicament. o Quotations: Near the historical figure’s head, place two or three direct quotations from the event/life of the historical figure that sum him up and add to an understanding of the historical figure. Benjamin Franklin the Diplomat
In government, he made contributions in developing unity and democracy in our
colonies, and he also served for many years as official colonial agent in London for
Pennsylvania. He pointed out for a long time to the British Government that taxation
without representation was a principle upon which America stood firmly.
When Franklin went to France in the early part of the Revolution as the official diplomat
and ambassador of the thirteen colonies, he came as a man of maturity, brilliance,
ability, and as a world statesman. Upon his arrival in Paris, there was no other
statesman or philosopher who could equal him in his ability and accomplishments. His
presence in Paris annoyed the British minister and staff. Franklin enjoyed the situation.
The years he remained in Paris were unusually fruitful ones for America and helping to
work out the future destiny of the United States of America.
The colonies indeed needed help of every description--men, money, equipment, ships,
and all things to fight a successful war. The long years of enmity between France and
Britain opened the way for the leadership of Franklin. And he was not only the man to
exploit it, but also the reason for the acceptance of thirteen states as a recognized nation
in the world of nations.
Once the war was over and there were those in power who thought they could use
Franklin, the American alliance and the United States to their own advantage. The
French politicians were opposed to a separate peace treaty for the United States, but
they proposed to have a treaty in which American independence and sovereignty would
be tied directly to the French treaty. And then they could hold the United States under
their own direction.
Franklin knew French politicians too well, and he resolved such conditions should not
result. Franklin was courageous, bold and had a definite sense of vision plans in
diplomacy. Consequently, he met the leaders of the British commission and secured a
separate treaty with them. He secured just what he wanted for his country; namely, the
absolute independence of the United States, recognition of it as a distinctive
government, and at the same time the exact boundaries of the United States were
generally established.
Marquis de Lafayette
King Louis XVI (1754–1793) refused to allow Lafayette to go to America, but Lafayette
sailed anyway, after buying a ship with his own money. In June 1777 he landed in North
Carolina. The Continental Congress had given him a commission as a major general, but
his actual duties were as assistant to General George Washington (1732–1799). He
assisted in battles against the British in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and eventually
was sent back to France in an attempt to obtain greater French support for the
Americans.
Upon returning to his homeland in 1779, Lafayette was arrested for having disobeyed
the king, but all was soon forgiven. Although not all his proposals for aid to the
Americans were approved, Lafayette returned to America in 1780 in command of
French forces that were sent to help. In 1781 he was given command of the defense of
Virginia with the rank of major general. He drew English commander Charles
Cornwallis (1738–1805) into a trap at Yorktown, Virginia; Cornwallis was blockaded by
the American forces and by French troops under Admiral de Grasse. Cornwallis's
surrender was the high point of Lafayette's military career.
When Lafayette returned to the French army in 1782, he was considered a hero. He
became a leader in the movement against the French monarchy (absolute rule by a
single person). In 1789 he took a seat in the Estates General, the French legislature. The
adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (loosely based on the
Declaration of Independence) was his idea, and he was given the command of the
Parisian National Guard, a force of citizen-soldiers created to defend the new
constitutional monarchy.
Name: ______________________________ Portrait Analysis Worksheet Observation A. Study the portrait for two minutes. Form an overall impression of the portrait and then examine individual items. If necessary, divide the portrait into quadrants and study each section to see what new details become visible. B. Use the chart below to list people, objects, details, and activities in the portrait. People Objects Details Activities Inference A. Based on what you have observed alone, list three things you might infer from this portrait. B. What questions does this portrait raise in your mind? C. Where could you find answers to them? Significant Events & Battles of the Revolutionary War 1. Create a timeline of the 7 significant events of the Revolutionary War discussed. 2. For each, write a 3 sentence description identifying the significance and answer the following question. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 1777 1783 1. Battle at Saratoga: _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Treaty of Alliance: _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Benjamin Franklin as a diplomat:: _____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Marquis de LaFayette: ______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Battle of Yorktown: ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Lord Cornwallis:____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ 7. A. Treaty of Paris:___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ B. In your opinion, do you think The Treaty of Paris will be an effective document? _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________ The Revolutionary War y
Comes to an End
Battle of Yorktown and The Treaty of ,
Paris, 1783
Battle of Yorktown Video
Battle of Yorktown Video
• History
History.com Yorktown video
com Yorktown video – use to complete use to complete
the map assignment
MAP ANSWERS
The Treaty of Paris, 1783
The Treaty of Paris, 1783
1 What
1.
What countries were a part of the Treaty of countries were a part of the Treaty of
Paris, 1783?
2 What men represented the United States?
2.
What men represented the United States?
3. What were the feelings of the delegates in attendance? Fr, Br, U.S.?
d
?F B US?
4. Why do you think the British refused to sit for this portrait?
Treaty of Paris, 1783 Assignment
Treaty of Paris, 1783 Assignment
• On‐level:
On level: Illustrate 2 of the 6 components of Illustrate 2 of the 6 components of
the Treaty of Paris, 1783 – use next slide
• Honors: With a partner, study the primary Honors: With a partner study the primary
document of the Treaty of Paris, specifically the 10 different Articles and highlight the
the 10 different Articles and highlight the most significant components of each Article. In your notes write the Treaty of Paris in your
In your notes, write the Treaty of Paris in your own words.
The Treaty of Paris 1783
1. Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States of America.
2. The Northern border between the U.S. and British Canada was set from New England to the Mississippi River, primarily along the Great g
pp
,p
y
g
Lakes.
3. The Mississippi River was established as the boundary between the new U.S. and Spanish territory to the west. Navigation on the river p
y
g
was to be forever open to American and British citizens.
4. Florida was returned from the British to Spain. The border between the U.S. and Florida was set.
the U.S. and Florida was set.
5. Great Britain would withdraw its remaining troops from the United States.
6 Recommended to the states that the rights and property of
6. Recommended to the states that the rights and property of American Loyalists be restored and no future action be taken against them.

Similar documents

×

Report this document