: ملخص ) - ( كرومر يف فرتة حكم املصري الوعي القومي منو 1907 1883

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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
and Self-Awareness under Cromer (1883-1907)
Houre Mama Wahiba,
University of Mascara.
E mail: [email protected]
Abstract
In 1882, Britain intervened militarily in Egypt. The British
intervention was intended to be temporary but it was soon revealed to
be permanent. From 1883 to 1907 Egypt was ruled by Lord Cromer
who served as Consul-General. Cromer’s policy provoked the
antagonism of the Egyptian intelligentsia and led to the rise of
national consciousness. Egyptian awareness manifested itself in the
form of religious and political movements aiming either at reform or
self-rule. This paper has a twofold target: while Cromer’s colonial
policy in Egypt is explored, the attitude of Egyptian nationalists
towards British policy is then examined.
:‫ملخص‬
)1097 -1883( ‫منو الوعي القومي املصري يف فرتة حكم كرومر‬
‫ كان املقصود من التدخل‬.‫ تدخلت بريطانيا عسكريا يف مصر‬2771 ‫يف عام‬
.‫الربيطاني أن يكون مؤقتا ولكن سرعان ما أصبحت إقامة الربيطانيني دائمة‬
‫ كان حيكم مصر اللورد كرومر الذي شغل منصب‬2098 -277. ‫من‬
‫ أثارت سياسة كرومر عداء املثقفني املصريني وأدت إىل منو‬.‫القنصل العام‬
‫جتلى الوعي القومي املصري يف شكل حركات دينية وسياسية‬.‫الوعي الوطين‬
‫ يهدف هذا البحث إىل تسليط الضوء‬.‫تهدف إىل اإلصالح أو احلكم الذاتي‬
‫ كما يهدف إىل حتليل موقف‬،‫على سياسة كرومر االستعمارية يف مصر‬
.‫الوطنيني املصريني جتاه السياسة الربيطانية آنذاك‬
The 1882 British military intervention in Egypt was a major turning
point in the political history of the country. ‘The rescue and retire
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
mission’ that the cabinet of Gladstone advocated to restore the
authority of Khedive Tawfiq (1879-92) following the debacle of the
Orabi Revolt (1881-1882) soon proved to be permanent; locking the
British on the spot for over half a century (1882-1956). Professor alSayyid Marsot argued that from 1882 to 1907, Britain made about one
hundred and twenty statements of its intent to evacuate Egypt; yet
procedures were undertaken that further consolidated Britain’s
position in the country (Al- Sayyid Marsot, 1968: xi). At the outset,
Britain had no intention to make its presence in Egypt permanent. It
had intervened following the request of Khedive Tawfiq who
anticipated the evacuation of the British army shortly. However, it
became evident that the issues that led to military intervention would
not be settled overnight. The British doubted the ability of the
Egyptians to run their own affairs. They were convinced that British
custody and mentorship would help to get Egypt on its feet. In this
context, W.M. Sloane pointed out that ‘… Neither the ignorant, venal
pasha class of Turks who had misgoverned the country, nor the
ignorant, rash, inexperienced natives of the Arabi class, nor the
existing ministers with their bureaucracy- no one in Egypt could either
restore or keep order’ (Sloane 1904: 462). Egypt soon became a
source of international contention, a fact that drove Lord Granville to
send a circular on January 03, 1883 to the European powers which had
interests in the region explaining the reasons behind the British
presence there. The circular stated that:
Although for the present a British force remains in Egypt for the
preservation of public tranquillity, HM Government are desirous of
withdrawing it as soon as the state of the country and the organization
of proper means for the maintenance of the khedive’s authority will
admit it. In the meanwhile, the position in which HM Government are
placed towards His Highness imposes upon them the duty of giving
advice with the object of securing that the order of things to be
established shall be of a satisfactory character, and possess the
elements of stability and progress (Quoted by Vatikiotis1980: 171).
Yet one may note that the main reason behind the prolonged British
occupation of Egypt was the protection of the vital trade route to
India. Up to the nineteenth century, Britain was committed to
maintaining the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. However,
once in Egypt, it had to change its policy from defending the
dominions of the Ottoman Empire to using Egypt as a vital base for
the safety of British interests in the Indian sub-continent. Thus, the
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
stage was set for a permanent occupation of Egypt. From 1882 to
1914, Britain exercised an indirect rule through its nominees who
served as Consul Generals. This indirect rule justified the British
presence in Egypt and was useful for conducting the country’s affairs.
In a letter dispatched on April 07th, 1885, Gladstone notified Baring to
remain in the shadows and rule indirectly through representatives
(Berque 1972: 149). The khedive and his cabinet presented a phony
picture of self rule when the real power was never in question.
On September 11th, 1883, Sir Evelyn Baring, later Lord Cromer,
arrived at Cairo to assume duties as Consul-General after years of
service in India. Baring stressed that financial solvency and political
stability required a permanent occupation of the country. He claimed
that ‘there was only one practicable method by which the Egyptian
administration could be reformed that was to place the government
more or less under British guidance’ (Baring 2010: 265). He was
quietly if not openly convinced that the Egyptians could not run their
affairs, stating that ‘no one but a dreamy theorist could imagine that
the natural order of things could be reversed, and that liberty could
first be accorded to the poor ignorant representatives of the Egyptian
people, and that the latter would then be able to evolve order out of
chaos’ (Baring 2010: 266). Baring implemented “the Granville
Doctrine” which made it clear that any Egyptian minister who
opposed the Lord’s instructions would be removed from office. (Al
Sayyid Marsot 2007: 89). Hence, Egypt became Britain’s “veiled
protectorate” with the khedive as the Lord’s marionette. The natives
had their share of foreign subjugation; they were brought unwillingly
under military coercion. The nationalist movement was curbed, its
leader, Ahmed Orabi Pasha was sent into exile in Ceylon, and other
activists were jailed.
Foreign occupation was a source of embarrassment and moral
harassment to the Egyptian elite. Subsequently, religious and political
currents emerged that aimed at either reform or self-rule. Hence, the
rise of Egyptian national consciousness and self-awareness under Lord
Cromer (1883-1907) shall be examined. The main characters of the
period that influenced the course of Anglo-Egyptian relations and led
to Cromer’s removal from power shall be identified.
Nationalism is that profound bond to one’s motherland. As an
ideology, it rose in Western Europe following the French Revolution
and came to be associated with the notions of liberty and democracy
in opposition to despotism and autocracy. In the East, nationalism was
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
embraced as an antidote against European imperialism and
colonization. It became a strong incentive for the colonized in quest of
national sovereignty. In Egypt, nationalism found its way following
the Napoleonic Expedition of 1798 – 1801. Though Napoleon’s
invasion of Egypt was purely colonial, it revealed the weakness of the
East in front of the advanced occidental world. More importantly, the
campaign was like a thunderclap that hit the Egyptian minds and woke
them from their long lethargy. A group of Egyptian intellectuals came
to see in the West a model to be followed in their pursuit of
modernism and development. Among the pioneers of 19th century
Egyptian intellectual movement or what came to be known as ‘Nahda’
was Rifàa Tahtawi (1801-1873). His five year stay in France enabled
him to get acquainted with French revolutionary ideas; he returned
home and introduced for the first time the slogan’ Egypt for the
Egyptians’ (Kutelia 2011: 87).
In the 1880’s, Egyptian society witnessed the emergence of two
influential classes: the rising middle class in cities and the large
property owners in rural regions. The former class was of a
tremendous importance, for it was on that class that Egypt would rely
in its struggle for independence. The emergence of the middle class
coincided with the birth of a young educated generation that went to
cities to acquire knowledge and earn a living; there, the exposure to
western thought helped shape the character of that generation. Without
that influential educated generation, Egyptian nationalism would have
never come into existence (Bearce 1949: 4). On the other hand, the
early seeds of the intellectual movement that led to the emergence of
Egyptian nationalism rose first in El Azhar. It coincided with the
arrival of Jamal din El Afghani at El Azhar in 1871 with his PanIslamist ideas. Pan-Islamism was a religious current that appeared in
Egypt in the 1880’s. The reformatory current was a reaction to the 19th
century European assault on the Islamic Ummah.
Before landing in Egypt, El-Afghani had wandered in the Muslim
world and had noticed the decadence of the Ummah by contrast to the
occidental world. In India he was struck by the weakness of an ancient
civilization in the face of a tiny English presence. In Turkey, he had
acquired the reputation of a free-thinker and thereby was expelled
(Delanoue 1977: 137). Through his lectures at El Azhar, the Iranian
Shiite who claimed to be Sunni preached that “Islam must reform
itself and must unite in order to drive off western aggression” (Bearce
1949: 5). His reformatory ideas found fervent supporters among the
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
Azharistes and the masses alike. In his preaching about ‘rationalreform of Islam’, el Afghani advocated conformity of Muslims to the
principles of the Islamic institution of el-Sharia as being the only way
for salvation (Vatikiotis 1980: 189). More notable was his call for
Muslims’ unity and global solidarity against the European yoke.
Despite the fact that liberal ideas were not in his propaganda, the
Iranian reformist, favoured a constitutional government for Egypt as a
means of restricting the autocratic rule of the governor (Delanoue
1977:137). El Afghani and his disciples reasoned that despotism was
against the spirit of Islam; for them Islam was a “Republic where
every Moslem had the right of free speech in its assemblies, and
where the authority of the ruler rested on his conformity to the law
and on popular approval” (Bearce 1949: 6). Due to his religious
activism, el Afghani had to leave Egypt in 1879. He had succeeded so
far in creating within Egypt “an active intelligentsia” that would
challenge the authority of the khedive and the encroachment of the
British in the country.
Among El-Afghani’s followers and distinguished disciples was
Shaykh Mohammed Abduh. Born in 1849 of a modest peasant family
in the Delta region, Abduh acquired his basic education in a quranic
madrasa in Tenta. From there, he made his way to Cairo where he
carried on his theological studies at el-Azhar University (1866-1877).
As a disciple of el-Afghani, Abduh had the chance to get acquainted
with his mentor and to be influenced by his pan-Islamic ideology.
Bearce observed that press was one avenue for the young Azhariste in
his political career. He became an ardent contributor to El Ahram
newspaper which came into existence in 1876 (Bearce 1949: 6).
Another avenue for advocacy was opened to Shaykh Abduh as he
acquired a teaching post at El Azhar; an opportunity that he seized to
advocate reform of the institution’s curricula.
The Azharite reformist did not enjoy his post for a long time; accused
of collaborating with el-Afghani, he was relieved of his teaching
duties at Dar-al Ulum, Azhar University, in 1879. In the spring of that
year and in a desperate move to get popular support in the face of
financial troubles; Khedive Ismail called for an assembly of notables,
the first elected assembly that Egypt had ever known (Bearce 1949:
6). About the Assembly, Arthur Goldschmidt said: “Khedive Ismail
inadvertently helped to create Egyptian nationalism by convoking the
first representative assembly’’ (Goldschmidt 1988: 30).
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
Donald Malcolm Reid observed that Egyptian press played a
significant role in national politics. Private press flourished during the
reign of Khedive Ismail. In 1876 the Syrian Taqla brothers founded El
Ahram journal. Other journals came into existence as the satirical
journal Abu Naddara Zaraqa of Yaqub Sanu, Misr and al-Tijara of
Ishaq and Naqqash and al-Watan of Abd-al-Sayyid (Reid 1998:
pp222-223). The journals were to be banned in 1897 due to their
expressed opposition to the regime. Another prominent figure in
Egyptian journalism was Abd Allah al-Nadim, the orator of the Orabi
revolution. Through his paper al-Tankit wa al Tabkit, al-Nadim
criticized the government in a satirical way. He was later exiled to
Istanbul.
The financial problem that Egypt witnessed during the reign of
Khedive Ismail led eventually to the treasury’s bankruptcy. To
guarantee the safety of their interests, France and Britain interfered by
establishing a dual control over Egypt’s finances. Two ControllersGeneral were appointed in the Egyptian Cabinet with the British
Romaine as Minister of Finance and the French Baron Malaret as
Minister of Public Works. Since the khedive refused to agree to such a
loss of authority, he was forced to abdicate in favour of his son Tawfiq
(Al-Sayyid Marsot 2007: 82-83).
In 1881 Khedive Tawfiq called for Abduh to serve as editor of the
Official Journal. Through it, the Shaykh, together with such prominent
nationalist figures as Saad Zaghlul, expressed support for
constitutional reform. It is interesting to note that the nationalists at
the time still recognized the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultan and the
authority of Khedive Tawfik. Vatikiotis clarified that “enlightened
Egyptian leaders such as Shaykh Muhammad Abduh …felt that
continued loyalty to the Sultan-Caliph presented a safeguard against
European imperialism; when the masses were instinctively proOttoman because they knew no other bond that of religion’ (Vatikiotis
1980: 190).
Professor Affaf Lutfi al-Sayyid observed that the European meddling
in Egypt’s domestic issues stimulated the growth of a nationalist
current representing the three influential segments of the Egyptian
society: traders and property-owners, Ulama and notables, and
Egyptian army officers. Each class had its own target; the landowners
called for a constitution that would protect their interests, the Ulama
saw in the constitution a means to get rid of the autocratic rule of
Khedive Tawfiq, and the Egyptian Army officers had as an objective
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
the elimination of the Turco-Circassian military caste that dominated
the high-ranked position. (al-Sayyid 2007: 85-86). One may note that
the situation of the Egyptian army was further exacerbated by the
introduction of a measure that reduced the number of the army from
45,000 to 18,000 (Weigall 1915: 126).
On February 07, 1882, a constitution for Egypt was introduced with
Mahmoud Sami el Baroudi as Prime Minister, Ahmed Orabi as
Minister of War and Mostapha Fahmy as Minister of Foreign Affairs
and Justice. “The constitution granted broad freedom to Egyptians,
guaranteed yearly sessions of the Chamber of Deputies, and protected
members of Chamber from arrest and from any interference in the free
exercise of their opinions” (Bearce 1949: 8). The new constitution
with its pledges of political reform ushered in chaos and disorder. The
exploited peasants rebelled against their masters and Tawfiq had no
choice but to abandon the reform process. The khedive’s tentative
drive incited the wrath of the nationalist intelligentsia culminating in
the Orabi Revolt (1881-1882). The revolt was sustained and supported
by both Shaykh Mohammed Abduh and Saad Zaghlul who excited
nationalist spirit through public propaganda.
Unfortunately, the Orabi revolt, the first manifestation of Egyptian
nationalism, failed due to its disorganization and violence, leading to
the ultimate British occupation of Egypt (Tomiche 1977: 94). Under
the alibi of safeguarding their interests and restoring law and order,
British troops intervened militarily in Egypt and succeeded to crush
the rebellion at the Battle of Tel el Kabir (September 1882). Despite
the abortion of the Orabi uprising, arrest of Zaghlul and exile of
Abduh, the spirit of nationalism would not die.
In 1883, Lord Dufferin saw the necessity of setting up two
representative bodies; the Legislative Council and the General
Assembly. The Legislative Council consisted of “twelve men
appointed by the Egyptian ministry and fourteen elected indirectly”
(Bearce 1949: 12). On the other hand, the General Assembly, that was
purely consultative, included 46 elected members out of 80 (Bearce
1949: 12).
In 1884 Shaykh Abduh went to Paris where he met his spiritual master
el Afghani. Together the master and the disciple founded a society and
a review, both holding the name of “The Indissoluble Bond” (al-Urwa
al Wuthqa). The review found fervent readers in different Islamic
countries; yet it was soon censored after the publication of 18 issues
(from March 13th to October 16th, 1884) (Delanoue 1977: 38). Abduh
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
then went to Beirut where he earned a living as a school master. In
1889, he returned home to occupy the post of judge in the national
courts. Ten years later, the Shaykh became the Mufti of Egypt, a post
he held until 1905.
As a religious reformist, Abduh sought to change the old institution of
el Azhar by reforming its administrative hierarchy and educational
system. He aimed at a theological reformation deemed essential to
“clean Islam of its long-established interpretations” (Vatikiotis 1980:
195). Islam in Abduh’s view was compatible with science; therefore a
rational adjustment between the Islamic system, el-Sharia, and
modernism would renovate the Islamic religion from deep-rooted
practices and beliefs (Vatikiotis 1980: 195). The Shaykh’s reformist
spirit and critical mind owed him the antagonism of the narrowminded and conservatives of el Azhar. In his national militancy
against Cromer, Abduh adopted a moderate way of protest. This
temperate way of protest alienated him from the circle of extremist
and fanatic nationalists (el Macedi 1974: 225).
A new dawn of Egyptian nationalism followed the death of Khedive
Tawfiq and the accession of his son Abbes Hilmi II to power. Born in
1874, the young ruler had the chance to acquire western education at
the Theresianum in Vienna. He returned home with ardent stories of
nationalist currents in Hungary, Bohemia and Italy (Berque 1972:
164). Abbes Hilmi II deeply resented Cromer’s tutelage, being
convinced of his ability to govern without the mentorship of the Lord.
On his part, Cromer was not ready to see his authority being
challenged by a young inexperienced ruler (al Sayyid-Marsot 2007:
91). In January 1893, in a show of strength, Khedive Abbes relieved
Mostapha Fahmi of his function as prime minister and attempted to
nominate Houcine Fakhri Pasha instead. Infuriated, Cromer
repudiated the khedive’s choice and reinstalled Fahmy Mostapha
pasha. The khedive was threatened by removal from power if he
showed any sign of defiance (al-Sayyid Marsot 2007: 92).
Intimidated by Cromer, the khedive then backed and supported
secretly a mounting nationalist movement. During his reign, a new
generation of nationalists emerged. The nationalist movement
included leaders such as Mostapha Kamil, who through his newspaper
(al-Liwa) and Shaykh Ali Yusuf, with his anti-British newspaper (alMuayyad), made common cause with the khedive. Berque considered
al-Muayyad as: “the only organ of nationalist, pro-Islamic tendency to
appear in the country at that time” (Berque 1972: 202).
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
Driven by a spirit of nationalism, Mostapha kamil, a young Egyptian
lawyer, consecrated his entire career to the Egyptian cause. Sharing
the same conviction of Khedive Abbes, Kamil came to the conclusion
that the British could be brought forcibly to leave Egypt, especially if
the khedive secured the support of other European nations (al-Sayyid
2007: 92). Through his review, ‘al-Liwa’, the young lawyer aroused
nationalist spirits eager for change. In France, the nation of justice and
liberty, Mostapha Kamil launched a campaign against the British
presence in Egypt. The campaign, however, proved to be fruitless. It
did not achieve its main targets; a sympathetic public opinion and
removal of the autocratic Cromer from power. At home, the Egyptian
activist worked to raise self awareness and national consciousness
through his speeches and by founding a private school for “future
patriots” (Bearce 1949:14).
On his part, Cromer managed to depict Egypt as a blend of ethnic
groups with distinct beliefs and practices inapt for self-rule. During
his tenure, education was intentionally neglected to leave people
illiterate hence easily manipulated. Western school charges deprived
the poor of acquiring ample education that would qualify graduates for
earning a decent living. The acquisition of elementary education in “
kuttabs” did not enable brilliant students to get higher education (elMacedi 1974:226). Cromer was strongly convinced that western
education would lead to the emergence of an educated elite that would
ultimately challenge British authority. In a letter to Gorst, one of his
colleagues, the Lord wrote: “ Whatever we do, education must
produce its natural results, and one of these natural results, both in
India and Egypt, will be the wish to get rid of the foreigner” (Tignor
1966: 320).
Cromer underestimated the nationalist movement, for he believed it
was mere talk by young men. Mostapha Kamil, on the other hand,
struggled to prove that Egypt was a nation-state worthy of a sovereign
government that is run by Egyptians for the best interest of Egyptians
(al-Sayyid Marsot 2007: 92). Kamil’s campaign won the allegiance of
the intelligentsia and since then it adopted non-violent protest as a
means for resisting abusive measures (al-Sayyid-Marsot 2007: 93).
Further turmoil that added fuel to the fire of Egyptian nationalism was
the Dinshaway incident of 1906. The incident was sparked by British
officers shooting at pigeon in a small village in the Delta region. The
officers mistakenly killed an old woman which provoked the peasants’
fury. In response, the peasants attacked the officers so they opened
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Houre Mama Wahiba
fire causing injuries before running away. Two officers managed to
escape, one of them died in the process. The British reacted promptly
to the incident; fifty-two villagers were arrested and tried in a special
martial court, four were condemned to death, and others were
publically flogged and imprisoned (al-Sayyid Marsot 2007: 94).
The Dinshaway incident had significant repercussions both in Egypt
and England. It consolidated the nationalist movement and gave it a
drive for independence. It brought the seeds of self-awareness to the
rural areas and obliged the British to remove autocratic Cromer from
power (el Macedi 1974:221). In his article, “the British Occupation”,
M.W. Daly considered the incident “an important milestone in AngloEgyptian relations”. According to Daly “what started as a minor affray
ended as a two-headed icon of Egyptian nationalist mythology and
British imperialism” (Daly 1998: 243).
To sum up, between 1883 and 1907, Egypt was ruled by the British
Consul Lord Cromer. The Khedive and his Cabinet continued to
govern the country nominally providing the façade of autonomy yet
the least desire of rebellion was harshly crushed. During the Lord’s
tenure, the state affairs were conducted in a manner that served British
interests a fact that provoked the anger of the Egyptian intelligentsia
and paved the way for the growth of national awareness. The early
seeds of Egyptian nationalism resulted in the emergence of religious
and political currents with the target of getting rid of the colonizers.
Thus Egyptians’ ardent resistance to Cromer’s policy was fruitful
resulting in the removal of the Lord from power in 1907 and obliging
the British to change their policy towards Egyptian public opinion.
References:
Articles in Books:
Daly. M.W. (1998): ‘The British Occupation, 1882-1922” Edited by Daly,
M.W in The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 2, Modern Egypt,
from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University
Press. U.K. pp 239-251.
Delanoue. G (1977): « Les Musulmans », L’Egypte d’Aujourd’hui
Permanence et Changement, 1805-1976, Centre National de La
Recherche Scientifique, Paris. pp 27- 43.
Delanoue. G (1977): « Le Nationalisme Egyptien », L’Egypte d’Aujourd’hui
Permanence et Changement, 1805-1976, Centre National de La
Recherche Scientifique, Paris. pp 129-153.
Reid, Donald Malcolm (1998): ‘the Urabi Revolution and British Conquest’
Edited by Daly, M.W in the Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 2,
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The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century.
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L’Egypte d’Aujourd’hui Permanence et Changement, 1805-1976, Centre
National de La Recherche Scientifique, Paris. pp.85-103.
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Goldschmidt.JR, Arthur. (1988): Modern Egypt the Formation of a NationState. West View Press. U.S.A.
Golsdchmith. Jr, Arthur, and Davidson, Lawrence. (2006): A Concise History
of the Middle East. Western View Press. U.S.A.
Don, Peretz. (1983): The Middle East Today. Praeger Publishers. U.S.A.
Gelvin. James L (2005): The Modern Middle East. Oxford University Press.
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.) 2020 -2028(‫) تاريخ مصر احلديث و املعاصر‬2008( ‫عمر عبد العزيز عمر‬
.‫مصر‬.‫دار املعرفة اجلامعية‬
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4912 ‫ ديسمرب‬90 ‫العدد رقم‬
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‫جملة املواقف للبحوث والدراسات يف اجملتمع والتاريخ‬
The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
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4912 ‫ ديسمرب‬90 ‫العدد رقم‬
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‫جملة املواقف للبحوث والدراسات يف اجملتمع والتاريخ‬
The Rise of Egyptian National Consciousness
Houre Mama Wahiba
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murder
(in
toy
form):
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‫جملة املواقف للبحوث والدراسات يف اجملتمع والتاريخ‬

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