Unit 5 - Houston ISD

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Unit 5 – Analytical Trigonometry – Classwork
A) Verifying Trig Identities: Definitions to know:
Equality: a statement that is always true. example: 2 = 2, 3 + 4 = 7, 62 = 36 , 2(3 + 5) = 6 + 10 .
Equation: a statement that is conditionally true, depending on the value of a variable. example: 2x + 3 = 11,
( x "1)
2
= 25, x 3 " 2x 2 + 5x "12 = 0 , 2sin " = 1.
!
Identity: a statement that is always true no matter the value of the variable.
example: 2x + 3x = 5x ,
!
2
!
1
1
2
4( x " 3) = 4x "12 , ( x "1) = x 2 " 2x + 1,
"
= 2 . In the last example, it could be argued that this is
x "1 x + 1 x "1
!
!
not an identity, because it is not true for all values of the variable (x cannot be 1 or -1). However, when such
!
statements are written, we assume the domain is taken into consideration although we don’t always write it. So
a better definition
of an identity is: a statement that is always true for all values of the variable within its
!
!
domain.
The 8 Fundamental Trigonometric Identities:
Trig Identities proofs (assuming " in standard position)
Reciprocal Identities
csc " =
1
sin "
sec " =
1
cos"
cot " =
1
tan "
cos "
cot" =
sin "
Pythagorean Identities
2
2
sin " + cos " = 1
2
1
1 r
= x = = sec "
cos" r x
1
1 x
= y = = cot "
tan " x y
Quotient Identities
sin "
tan " =
cos"
1
1 r
= y = = csc "
!
sin " r y
2
1+ tan " = sec "
sin "
=
cos"
y
r
x
r
=
y
= tan "
x
cos"
=
sin "
x
r
y
r
=
x
= cot "
y
x2 + y2 = r2
x2 + y2 = r2
x2 + y2 = r2
x2 y2 r2
+
=
r2 r2 r2
x2 y2 r2
+
=
x2 x2 x2
x2 y2 r2
+
=
y2 y2 y2
1+ cot 2 " = csc 2 "
cos2 " + sin 2 " = 1 | 1+ tan 2 " = sec2 " | cot 2 " + 1 = csc2 "
Corollaries: a statement that is true because another statement is true:
Examples (you write the others):
Reciprocal identities: sin " csc " = 1
!
sin" =
1
csc "
Quotient identities: tan " cos" = sin "
Pythagorean!identities: sin 2 " = 1# cos2 "
cos2" = 1# sin 2 "
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
!
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In this section, you will be given a number of trigonometric identities. Remember – they are true. Your job will
be proving that they are true. Your tools will be your knowledge of algebra, the 8 trig identities, and your
ingenuity.
Example 1) sin " (csc " # sin " ) = cos2 "
Example 2)
!
Guidelines for verifying trigonometric identities:
sec 2 x
= sec x csc x
tan x
!
1) Your job is to prove one side of an identity is equal to the other so you will only work on one side of the
identity, so…
2) Always work on the most complicated side and try to transform it to the simpler side. More complicated
can mean the side that is “longer” or has more complicated expressions. Additions (or subtractions) are
generally more complicated than multiplications.
3) If an expression can be multiplied out, do so.
4) If an expression can be factored, do so.
5) If you have a polynomial over a single term, you can “split it” into several fractions.
6) If you have an expression, that involves adding fractions, do so finding a lowest common denominator.
7) When in doubt, convert everything to sines and cosines.
8) Don’t be afraid to create complex fractions. Once you do that, many problems are a step away from
solution.
9) Always try something! You don’t have to see the solution before you actually do the problem.
Sometimes when you try something, the solution just evolves.
(
)
3) sin x csc x + sin x sec2 x = sec2 x
4) 2cos2 x + sin 2 x = cos2 x + 1
!
!
2
5) 2cos2 x "1 = 1" 2sin 2 x
!
2
6) (sin x + cos x ) + (sin x " cos x ) = 2
!
7)
cot x
= cos x
csc x
8) tan x + cot x = sec x csc x
!
!
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9) sec x " cos x = sin x tan x
10) sin x + cos x cot x = csc x
!
!
sec2 x "1
12)
= sin 2 x
2
sec x
cot x + 1 1+ tan x
11)
=
cot x "1 1" tan x
!
!
13)
1
1
+
= 2sec2 x
1" sin x 1+ sin x
14)
!
csc x + cot x
= cot x csc x
tan x + sin x
!
B) Sum and difference Formulas
Determine whether the sine function is distributive: that is sin ( A + B) = sin A + sin B . Let’s try it with different
values of A and B. Check out whether sin (30° + 60°) = sin 30° + sin 60°. ___________________________
There are geometric proofs to determine the sum!and difference formulas for trig functions:
!
sin ( A + B) = sin Acos B + cos Asin B
cos( A + B) = cos Acos B " sin Asin B
sin ( A " B) = sin Acos B " cos Asin B
cos( A " B) = cos Acos B + sin Asin B
Example 1) Find the exact value of sin 75°
Example 2) Find the exact value of cos75°
!
!
Example 3) Find the exact value of tan 75° in two ways.
5. Analytical Trigonometry
!
tan A + tan B
1" tan Atan B
tan A " tan B
tan( A " B) =
1+ tan Atan B
tan( A + B) =
-3-
Example 4) Find the exact value of tan15°
!
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Example 5) Given sin A =
a. sin( A + B)
4
5
and cos B = , both A and B in quadrant I, find
5
13
b. cos( A + B)
c. tan( A + B)
d. quadrant of ( A + B)
1
" 7
Example 6) Given cos A = , A in quadrant IV and cos B =
, B in quadrant II, find
3
4
a. sin ( A " B)
b. cos( A " B)
c. tan( A " B)
d. quadrant of ( A " B)
Example 7) Verify that sin ( x + 90°) = cos x
Example 8) Verify that tan( x + 180°) = tan x
!
!
C) Double Angle formulas
Recall that sin ( A + B) = sin Acos B + cos Asin B . If A = B, we get sin ( A + A) = sin Acos A + cos Asin A
So sin 2 A = 2sin Acos A . This works for the other trig functions as well getting the double angle formulas.
sin 2 A = 2sin Acos A
!
!
cos2 A = cos2 A " sin 2 A or 2cos2 A "1 or 1" 2sin 2 A
2 tan A
tan 2 A =
1" tan 2 A
!
Example 1) Using trig functions of 30° , find the values of:
60°
a) sin !
b) cos60°
c) tan 60°
!
!
!
4
Example 2) Given sin A = , A in quadrant I find
5
a. sin 2 A
b. cos2 A
c. tan 2 A
!
d. quadrant of 2A
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
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Example 3) Given tan A =
a. sin 2 A
"2
, A in quadrant II find
3
b. cos2 A
c. tan 2 A
d. quadrant of 2A
!
Example 4) Express sin 4x in terms of the angle x.
!
Example 5) Verify the following identities:
a)
sin x 1
= sec x
sin 2x 2
2
b) (sin x " cos x ) = 1" sin 2x
!
!D) Half-angle formulas: These formulas are more
obscure and are not used that much. Still, you should know
that they exist and be able to use them.
A
1" cos A
A
1+ cos A
A 1" cos A
sin A
=±
cos = ±
tan =
or
2
2
2
2
2
sin A
1+ cos A
A
A
A
The signs of sin and cos depend on the quadrant in which
lies.
2
2
2
sin
Example 1) Find the exact values of the following using half-angle formulas.
!
a) sin15°
!
b. cos15°
!
c) tan15°
!
4
Example 2) Given sin A = " , A in quadrant III find
5
A
A
A
a. sin
b. cos
c. tan
2
2
2
d. quadrant of
A
2
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
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E) Solving trigonometric equations
Just as we solved equations for a value of x that satisfied the equation, we do the same for trig equations – in
this case finding the value of an angle that satisfies the equation.
Example 1) sin x = 1.
We can do this by inspection – we know from our knowledge of graphing and
# "&
quadrant angles that the angle that satisfies this equation is 90° %or ( . However, there are other angles that
$ 2'
satisfy
this
equation
like
_________________________.
So
we
usually solve the equation on a certain
!
domain. Usually we will solve it on 0 " x < 360° or 0 " x < 2# . We can also verify our solutions by
graphing the equation.
!
Example 3) sin 2 x = sin x
Example 2) 2sin x + 1 = 0 !
!
!
Example 5) 2sin 2 x = 1
Example 4) sin x = cos x
!
!
Example 6) 2sin 2 x " 5sin x + 2 = 0
Example 7) 2cos2 x " cos x = 1
!
!
Example 8) sin x "1 = cos x
Example 9) sin 2x = 0
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
!
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Unit 5 – Analytical Trigonometry – Homework
1. Verify the following identities: There are additional problems in your book.
2
a) csc 2 x (1" cos 2 x ) = 1
2
b) (sin x + cos x ) " (sin x " cos x ) = 4 sin x cos x
!
!
(
)
c) sin x csc x + sin x sec2 x = sec2 x
d) cot 2 x + 5 = csc2 x + 4
!
!
e) cos4 x " cos2 x = sin 4 x " sin 2 x
!
f) sin x tan x + cos x = sec x
!
g) sin x " csc x =
"cos2 x
sin x
!
h)
1
1
"
= cos x " sec x
sec x cos x
!
(sin x " cos x )
j)
i) sin x + cos x cot x = csc x
!
cos x
2
= sec x " 2sin x
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
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k)
1
1
+
= 2csc 2 x
1+ cos x 1" cos x
!
l)
cos x
cos x
"
= 2tan x
1" sin x 1+ sin x
!
m)
1
1
+
=1
sin x + 1 csc x + 1
n) sin 4 x " cos 4 x = 2sin 2 x "1
!
!
o) ( tan x + sin x )(1" cos x ) = sin 2 x tan x
!
p)
tan x
sec x + 1
=
sec x "1
tan x
r)
sec x
= sin x
tan x + cot x
t)
cos x
1+ sin x
=
1" sin x
cos x
!
2
q) cos x (1+ tan x ) = sec x + 2sin x
!
!
s) cos4 x " sin 4 x = 2cos2 x "1
!
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
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2. Find the exact values of the following expressions. Make appropriate pictures.
a. sin105°,cos105°, tan105°
!
b. sin 255°,cos255°, tan 255°
!
3
8
and cos B = , both A and B in quadrant I, find
5
17
a. sin( A + B)
b. cos( A + B)
c. tan( A + B)
d. quadrant of ( A + B)
"2
1
, A in quadrant III and cos B = ,B in quadrant I, find
5
4
a. sin( A + B)
b. cos( A + B)
c. tan( A + B)
d. quadrant of ( A + B)
3. Given sin A =
4. Given cos A =
2
5. Given tan A = 5, A in quadrant III and sin B = ,B in quadrant II, find
3
a. sin( A " B)
b. cos( A " B)
c. tan( A " B)
5. Analytical Trigonometry
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d. quadrant of ( A " B)
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6. Verify the following identities:
a) cos(270° " x ) = "sin x
b) sin ( x " 30°) =
!
1
2
(
3 sin x " cos x
)
!
$
#'
c) sin ( x " # ) " cos& x + ) = 0
2(
%
d) tan( x + 60°) =
3 tan x + 3
3 " 3tan x
!
!
e) sin ( A + B) sin ( A " B) = sin 2 A " sin 2 B
!
f) cos( A + B) + cos( A " B) = 2cos Acos B
!
7. Using trig functions of 60° , find the values of
a) sin120°
b) cos120°
c) tan120°
!
!
!
8. Given sin A =
a. sin2A
9. Given cos A =
a. sin2A
!
7
, A in quadrant II find
25
b. cos2A
c. tan2A
d. quadrant of 2A
1
, A in quadrant I find
10
b. cos2A
c. tan2A
d. quadrant of 2A
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10. Given tan A = 2, A in quadrant III find
a. sin2A
b. cos2A
c. tan2A
d. quadrant of 2A
11. Verify the following identities:
a. cos4 x " sin 4 x = cos2x
b. csc2x =
!
sec x csc x
2
!
c. sin 3x = 3sin x " 4sin 3 x
d. cos3x = 4cos3 x " 3cos x
!
!
12. Find the exact values of the following using half-angle formulas.
a) sin 22.5°
b. cos22.5°
!
c) tan 22.5°
!
13. Given sin A =
a. sin
A
2
8
, A in quadrant II find
17
A
b. cos
2
1
14. Given cos A = , A in quadrant IV find
3
A
A
a. sin
b. cos
2
2
5. Analytical Trigonometry
!
c. tan
A
2
d. quadrant of
A
2
c. tan
A
2
d. quadrant of
A
2
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15. Solve the following equations on [0,360°)
b) cos2 x " cos x = 0
a) 2cos x = 1
!
!
!
d) 2cos2 x = 1
c) 4 sin 2 x = 3
!
!
e) 2cos2 x = cos x
!
f) tan 2 x = 1
!
f) 2cos2 x + 7cos x + 3 = 0
!
h) sin 3 x = sin x
!
i) cos2 x = 3sin 2 x
!
j) cos x = 1" sin x
!
l) cos2x = cos x
k) sin 2x = cos x
!
!
5. Analytical Trigonometry
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