6-2 The Arab Empire and Its Successors

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Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace

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6-2 The Arab Empire and Its
Successors
Creation of an Arab Empire
• Caliph: successor to Muhammad
• Muhammad had no sons, problem choosing
successor
• They first named Abu Bakr (his father-in-law)
• Expand religion and territory
• Conquered Italy, Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Persia
• After Abu Bakr dies, again they have a problem
choosing caliph (the next 2 are assissinated)
• Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, becomes caliph, and
he is killed after 5 years.
• Islam was tolerant of Christianity and Judaism at
first
The Umayyad Dynasty
• Capital in Syria
• More conquering
• Add Spain, but then are stopped from gaining
France (Gaul) at the battle of Tours.
• Before stopping, they had conquered part of
the old Roman Empire
A split in Islam
• Internal problems, some are hostile to the
caliph (non-Arabs felt like outsiders)
• A revolt starts, led by Hussein (Ali’s son), but
he is killed
• Islam splits: followers of Hussein are Shia and
everyone else is Sunni (majority)
• The split has caused problems b/w the groups
The Abbasid Dynasty
• Capital moved to Baghdad, Iraq
• Arabs prospering
• Eventually corruption divides empire
The Seljuk Turks
• Become Muslim
• 2nd half of 11th century, go after Byzantine
Empire (East Rome)
• Byzantine asks the Pope for help
• Starts a series of crusades (wars between
Christians and Muslims)
Movie Notes on Crusades
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