Phonics and Word Study - Elliott SOAR Meetings

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Phonemic Awareness
& Phonics
ATE / RFTEN 2006
Oglala Lakota College
Phonemic Awareness
What it is…
Most Effective when…
• Understanding that spoken
words are made up of
individual sounds (phonemes)
• Presented early on
• The skill of hearing and
producing separate sounds in
words
• The ability to focus on and
manipulate phonemes in
spoken words
• Explicit instruction is used to
focus on one or two phonemic
awareness skills
• Small group instruction is
utilized
• Letters accompany phonemic
awareness instruction
• Connections are made to
reading and writing
Phonological Awareness
Continuum
Phoneme Blending,
Segmenting, and
Manipulation
Onset-Rime Blending
and Segmenting
Syllable Blending
and Segmentation
Sentence
Segmentation
Rhyme /
Alliteration
Activity: Phonological Awareness
The Alphabetic Principle
Alphabetic Principle
Composed of two parts:
• The ability to associate sounds
with letters and use these
sounds to form words
• Alphabetic Understanding
• Is the key to learning to read
in many languages, including
English and Lakota
• Phonological Recording
(Decoding)
• Letter Recognition
• Letter-Sound Relationships
• Regular word reading
• Irregular word reading
• Advanced word analysis (study)
“Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle early in their
reading careers reap long-term benefits.” (Stanovich, 1986)
Letter-Sound Relationships
What it is and Why…
Effective Instruction…
• Refers to the common sounds
of letters and letter
combinations in written words
• Explicit and systematic
• Predicts later reading success
• Presents initial instruction of
the common sounds
associated with individual
letters
• Progresses to blending sounds
together to read words
Activity: First 11 Letter-Sound Correspondences
i, t, p, n, s, a d, l, f, h, g
Sequence for Introducing
Letter-Sound Correspondences
• i, t, p, n, s, a, l, d, f, h, g, o, k, c, m, r, b,
e, y, j, u, w, v, x, z, qu
• Introduce a few letters at a time
• Separate similar shapes and sounds
• Connect to reading and writing words
Adapted from: Neuhaus Education Center (1992)
Phonics Instruction
Phonics Instruction
Most Effective when…
•
•
Children receive early and
systematic instruction
•
Teachers provide explicit
directions for learning new lettersound relationships and phonic
elements
•
Used in a variety of grouping
patterns
•
Children have opportunities to
apply their new skills in reading
and writing
•
•
Teaches children the relationship
between the individual sounds of
spoken language and the letters
of written language
Progresses from letter-sounds
relationships to using spelling
patterns and understanding
meaningful units in words
Teaches students to examine
words and apply phonics elements
and structural analysis to read
and spell words
Guidelines for Teaching
Decoding
Select words that:
Sequence instruction:
• Consist of previously taught
letter-sound correspondences
• Blend individual sounds without
stopping between them
• Progress from VC and CVC
words to longer words
• Initially contain “stop” sounds in
the final position
• Are frequently used and
represent familiar vocabulary
• Following sounding out of a word
with its “fast” pronunciation
• Move from orally sounding out
words to silently “sounding out”
words
Word Reading Strategies
• Identifying and blending
together all of the lettersound correspondences
in words
• Recognizing high
frequency and irregular
words
• Using common spelling
and syllable patterns
• Using structural clues
such as compound
words, base words,
affixes and inflections
• Using knowledge of
syntax (word order) and
semantics (context) to
support pronunciation
and confirm word
meaning
Taught concurrently with new letter-sound correspondences.
Spelling Patterns
• Letter sequences of vowel and consonant
letters that are learned and produced as a
unit
• Also known as phonograms or rimes
• Words containing the same rime for word
families (/all/: fall, ball, tall, call, mall)
Syllable Patterns
• Closed: ends in at least
one consonant; the vowel
is short
• Open: ends in one
vowel; the vowel is long
• Vowel-Consonant-e:
ends in one vowel, a
consonant and a final e;
the final e is silent and
the vowel is long
“CLOVER”
• R-Controlled: has an r
after the vowel; the
vowel makes an
unexpected sound
• Vowel Teams: has two
adjacent vowels; each
vowel combination must
be learned individually
• Final Stable Syllable:
has a final consonant –le
combination or a nonphonetic, but reliable unit
such as -tion
Handout: Teaching the Six Syllable Types
Structural Analysis
• Compound words
• Inflectional endings: -s, -es, -ing, -ed
• Base words and common affixes
• Prefixes: re-, un-, con-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, dis• Suffixes: -ness, -full, -ion
Multisyllabic Word Identification
Using Structural Analysis
Using Syllable Patterns
• H – highlight the prefix
and/or suffix parts
• I – identify the sounds in
the base word
• N – name the base word
• T – tie the parts together
• S – say the word
• S - see the syllable patters
• P – place a line between
the syllables
• L – look at each syllable
• I – identify the syllable
sounds
• T – try to say the word
(adapted from Archer, Gleason &
Vaughn, 2000)
(adapted from Durkin, 1993)
Apply the HINTS Strategy to
decode these words:
unknowingly
rebounding
rainy
mislead
brightest
preheated
untimely
deeper
distrustful
reclaim
Apply the HINTS Strategy to
decode these words:
unknowingly
rebounding
rainy
mislead
brightest
preheated
untimely
deeper
distrustful
reclaim
Apply the SPLIT Strategy to
decode these pseudowords:
zimtle
mikner
thipur
pritho
exop
repote
erpetle
sebshir
roogir
sarpyn
Apply the SPLIT Strategy to
decode these pseudowords:
zim / tle
C
L
mik / ner
C
R
thi / pur
O
R
pri / tho
O
O
ex / op
C
C
re / pote
O
v-e
er / pe / tle
R
O
L
seb / shir
C
R
roo / gir
V
R
sar / pyn
R
C
Multisyllabic chunking
When skilled readers encounter multisyllabic,
unfamiliar words, they divide or chunk them
into manageable units
•
•
•
•
Word families of phonograms: -ade, -ick, -ill
Inflectional endings: -s, -es, -ing, -ed
Prefixes and Suffixes: fore-, dis-, -ity, -ency
Known words:
• to read (woman)
• to remember spelling (conscience)
Syntax and Context
• Used to:
• Support word identification
• Confirm word meaning
• Questions students might ask themselves:
• “Does that sound right here?”
• “Does that make sense?”
Supporting New Words
• Provide multiple opportunities for
practicing new words:
•
•
•
•
•
Word Walls
Making and Sorting Words
Word and Sentence Dictation
Broad Reading
Writing for a Purpose
A Primary Goal of Reading
Instruction
• To prepare student to read stories and
informational texts fluently so that they
are able to understand what they read
“You can’t read to learn until you first learn
to read.” – Rod Paige, US Secretary of Education
Implementing Word Study
Instruction Tomorrow
• Work as a group to consider how you
might implement word study instruction
using a selected story or text
Handout: Instructional Planning Chart
Assessing Alphabetic Principle
• DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)
• A standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic
principle - including letter-sound correspondence and of the
ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their
most common sounds.
• Given in Winter (optional) and Spring of Kindergarten, and Fall,
Winter, and Spring of First Grade.
• http://dibels.uoregon.edu/measures/nwf.php
Assessing Alphabetic Principle
Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
• A nationally normed measure of word reading
accuracy and fluency
• Provides an efficient means of monitoring the growth
of two kinds of word reading skills
• the ability to accurately recognize familiar words
as whole units or “sight words”
• the ability to “sound out” words quickly
• Ages: 6-0 to 24-11
• http://www.proedinc.com
Assessing Phonics Skills
• The Quick Phonics Screener (QPS)
• An ongoing progress monitoring tool to monitor
word study knowledge, identify needs and
inform your instruction
• For use in grades K-6
• Author Contact:
http://www.jhasbrouck.com/index.html
Materials and Resources
• Word Study for Students with Learning Disabilities and English
Language Learners
http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_word_study.asp
• Examining Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading
Programs http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_phonics.asp
• Word Analysis: Principles for Instruction and Progress Monitoring
http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/materials/primary_word_analysis.asp
• Curriculum Maps: Sequencing Alphabetic Principle Skills
http://reading.uoregon.edu/au/au_sequence.php
• Guidelines for Examining Phonics & Word Recognition Programs
http://www.tea.state.tx.us/reading/practices/practices.html
Credits
• Online Teacher Reading Academies, University of Texas,
Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts
• Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, University of Oregon,
Institute for the Development of Educational
Achievement
• Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction,
Vaughn & Linan-Thompson
• Increasing Student Spelling Achievement: Not Just on
Tests, But In Daily Writing Across the Curriculum,
Rebecca Sitton
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