A review of literature pertinent to Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute

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A review of literature pertinent to
Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute
Innovation Project
January 2006
Amanda Lavers, Ashley Moffat and Katie Nickerson
Table Of Contents
Introduction......................................................................................................................... 2
Atmospheric Pollution ........................................................................................................ 3
Fish.................................................................................................................................... 14
Forestry ............................................................................................................................. 30
Invertebrates...................................................................................................................... 46
Landscape Connectivity.................................................................................................... 60
Riparian Buffers................................................................................................................ 91
Water Quality.................................................................................................................. 129
Wildlife ........................................................................................................................... 182
Introduction
This bibliography is a compilation of research that has been undertaken in southwestern
Nova Scotia or is pertinent to the Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute (MTRI)’s
Innovation Project focusing on aquatic health and landscape connectivity. It includes
unpublished reports as well as peer-reviewed literature. The bibliography is organized as
seven chapters with themes atmospheric pollution, fish, forestry, landscape connectivity,
riparian buffers, water quality, and wildlife. Additional themes are also included in the
digital database in ProCite which is on the CD on the inside cover of this report. For each
reference in the bibliography, the author, year, title, and source are provided. Abstract,
geographic location of the study, and copy location of the report are provided when
available. For water quality references in the Mersey and Medway watersheds the
specific water body is listed.
2
Atmospheric Pollution
Allen, A. C. M. and B. L. Beattie. 1988. Acid precipitation during 1987 Kejimkujik,
N.S. Environment Canada Atmospheric Environment Service: Bedford. 11pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH545.A17 .B428 1988
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada has operated a
precipitation sampling station in Kejimkujik National Park since May, 1979. Daily
precipitation samples are collected and analysed for acidity (pH) and the concentration of
various chemical constituents, such as sulphates and nitrates. In addition, the pH of
precipitation has been determined on-site since 1983. This report gives a summary of the
data collected in 1987 and compares the results with the previous year.
Beattie, B. L. and D.M. Whelpdale. 1989. Meteorological Characteristics of Large
Acidic Deposition Events at Kejimkujik, Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 46: 45-59pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Beattie, B. L., J. E. O'Brien, and K. Keddy. 1990-1994. Acid precipitation during
1989-93 at Kejimkujik, N.S.. Atmospheric Environment Service: Bedford. 45pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 .B432 1992
Numerous annual editions with same call number and different authors
Grafton Field Office 574.8 BEA
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Reports on the average precipitation-weighted pH for the year at Kejimkujik
National Park and compares its acidity to other years. It also discusses the most acidic
event of the year, deposition of excess sulphates and nitrates, comparing the findings with
other years and averages.
Brun, G. L., O.M.C. Vaidya, and M.G. Leger. 2004. Atmospheric deposition of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Atlantic Canada: Geographic and temporal
distributions and trends 1980-2001. Kejimkujik. 38: 1941-1948pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
3
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental
contaminants. The semivolatile organic compounds may disperse into the atmosphere by
direct input from several sources such as the burning of fossil fuels, from motor vehicle
emissions, and forest fires. Once in the atmosphere, they may travel great distances
before being deposited to the earth'
s surface by the scavenging action of rain and snow.
Up to 14 PAHs were determined in wet precipitation samples collected monthly from
five sites in the four Canadian Atlantic Provinces during 1980-2001. The relatively more
volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, and pyrene) were predominant
in the samples. Significant (P < 0.05) spatial variations in the deposition of some PAHs
were observed among sites, but there were no consistent geographic patterns. Seasonal
patterns were discernible with peak deposition for Sigma(6&14) PAHs occurring during
the colder months of the year (December to March) and coinciding with higher energy
consumption for heating and transport. The monthly volume weighed mean concentration
for Sigma(6) PAHs has declined steadily since the mid-1980s at Kejimkujik National
Park in southwest Nova Scotia, with a calculated half-life of 6.4 +/- 10.3 years. The
maximum annual deposition flux of 20 mug m(-2) yr(-1) reached in 1985 for Sigma(6)
PAHs decreased approximately 1 order of magnitude by the year 2000. The decrease in
Sigma(6&14) PAHs for the region was found to be correlated (P < 0.05) with decreasing
sulfate ion concentrations in the precipitation. The implementation of air pollution
abatement programs in Canada, the United States, and elsewhere, switching to cleaner
sources of energy and improved technology during the past few decades is most likely
responsible for the observed decline.
Cameron, R. 2003. Lichen Indicators of ecosystem health in Nova Scotia’s Protected
Areas . 7pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Air pollution and climate change are threats to maintaining ecological health of
protected areas. Protected Area managers require a meaningful way to measure impacts
of these threats. Lichens provide a relevant, sensitive and measurable indicator for longterm monitoring. Hundreds of studies have linked lichen communities to air quality, and
several long-term lichen monitoring programs in Europe and the US are using lichens to
assess climate change. Other studies have shown strong correlations of lichen abundance
to ecosystem biodiversity and productivity. Analyses of existing lichen survey data
suggest sensitivity of Nova Scotia lichens to air quality. The Protected Areas Branch
(PAB) of the Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour will establish a
province wide network of lichen monitoring plots within protected areas involving
partners from industry, government and academia. Objectives of the project are to
provide long-term monitoring in forests of: 1. air quality impacts on ecosystems; 2.
climatechange impacts on ecosystems; 3. elements of forest ecosystem productivity; and
4. elements ofbiodiversity in forest ecosystems.
4
Clair, T. A. 2001. Will reduced summer UV-B levels affect zooplankton populations of
temperate humic and clearwater lakes? 462: 75-89pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 91.8.P5 .C53 2001
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Beaverskin Lake and Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: We collected zooplankton samples from enclosures located in two acidified
lakes (pH <5) in Nova Scotia from June to August, 1996. In each lake, three enclosures
were open to ambient light, while three were covered by Mylar sheets which removed
UVB and UVC wavelengths. Weekly sampling was done at all sites in July and near the
end of August. Individuals were identified and the total community weighed. Analysis
of results using both t-test and canonical analysis revealed small differences in
populations between open and UVB-covered clearwater sites in early July, but not later.
There was no response of midsummer zooplankton communities in the humic lake which
had a 95% extinction depth of 3 cm. In the clearwater lake, the effect of radiation
exclusion was relatively weak compared to most other published studies, but nevertheless
statistically significant.
Daughney, C. J., S.D. Siciliano, A.N. Rencz, D. Lean, and D. Fortin. 2002. Hg(II)
adsorption by bacteria: A surface complexation model and its application to shallow
acidic lakes and wetlands in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Kejimkujik. 36: 1546-1553pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The fate and environmental threat posed by mercury in aquatic systems is
controlled, in part, by the transport of Hg-(II) from oxic to anoxic zones in lakes and its
subsequent transformation to organic mercury. The transport of Hg-(II) in aquatic
systems can be affected by its partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases.
In this study, batch experiments were performed to quantify Hg(II) adsorption to Bacillus
subtilis as bacteria-to-metal ratio, pH, chloride concentration, growth phase, and reaction
time were independently varied. The laboratory data were well described by a surface
complexation model (SCM) considering the adsorption of neutral Hg(II) hydroxide and
chloride complexes by specific functional groups on the bacterial surface. To evaluate its
applicability to complex aquatic systems, the SCM was used to predict the distributions
of Hg(II) in 36 shallow acidic lakes and wetlands in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova
Scotia, Canada. The lab-derived SCM provided a statistically accurate (r(2) = 0.615, P <
0.01) fit to the field data when it was expanded to consider Hg(II) complexation by
dissolved organic matter. Inclusion of Hg(II)-mineral adsorption reactions did not
improve the fit of the model. The quality of fit provided by the expanded SCM suggested
that the major assumptions implicit in applying a lab-derived model to the field were
5
justifiable. Our study has demonstrated that SCMs are powerful tools for dynamic
prediction of the sorption of environmental contaminants to biocolloids at the regional
scale.
Hamilton, J. P., G.S. Whitelaw, and A. Fenech. 2001. Mean annual temperature and
total annual precipitation trends at Canadian biosphere reserves. Kejimkujik. 67: 239275pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: This article examines instrumental climate records from a variety of stations
associated with the following Biosphere Reserves across Canada: (i) Waterton Lakes, (ii)
Riding Mountain, (iii) Niagara Escarpment, (iv) Long Point, and (v) Kejimkujik
(Candidate Biosphere Reserve). Annual series are generated from daily temperature and
precipitation values. In addition, homogeneous data are used from other stations and
regional records to supplement the records from the local biosphere stations. Long term
trends are identified over the period of the instrumental record. In general, data from the
interval 1900 to 1998 show cooler temperatures in the 1920'
s, warming from the early
1940'
s into the early 1950'
s, cooling into the 1970'
s, and subsequent warming. At many
stations, 1998 is the warmest in the instrumental record. Comparisons with the regional
data sets show good agreements between the temperature series. The 20th century
warming is approximately 1.0 degreesC in the Riding Mountain area and 0.6 degreesC in
the Long Point, Niagara Escarpment, and Waterton Lakes areas. There has been slight
cooling in the Kejimkujik area over the past half century. Precipitation data show
increasing trends in the Kejimkujik, Long Point, Niagara Escarpment, and Waterton
Lakes areas with no long term trend in the Riding Mountain area. This work is part of the
Canadian Biosphere Reserves Association (CBRA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI),
designed to present climate change information to Biosphere Reserve communities to
allow local organizations to understand climate change and adapt to potential impacts.
Hannah, L. 2004. Protected Areas Management in a Changing Climate In Making
Ecosystem Based Managament Work: Connecting managers and researchers.
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of
Protected Areas May 11-16 2003. Editors: N. Munro, P. Dearden, T. Herman, K.
Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson. Science and Management of Protected Areas Association:
Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: A century and a half ago, the advent of the telegraph revolutionized weather
forecasting. It allowed same-day compilation of temperature, precipitation and
barometric pressure readings into integrated weather maps (1). In the last century, the
advent of the electronic computer further revolutionized forecasting by facilitating
massive computations based on equations describing the physical behavior of the
atmosphere. Those same forecasting computations have allowed construction of models
6
of future climate change due to human greenhouse gas emissions. In all of these cases,
advances in technology allowed visualization of patterns in a common visual format-- a
map. Today, we are on the verge of a similar revolution in describing biological response
to climate change. Mapping biodiversity dynamics in a changing climate is a rapidly
emerging field, thanks to advances in bioinformatics, spatial analysis, phylogenetics and
other fields. Models of species'range shifts based on climatic factors have evolved from
supercomputers to the desktop(2). Regional climate models at scales useful for ecological
analysis are now also available through desktop applications (for instance, the Hadley
Centre regional climate model, PRECIS). Advances in bioinformatics allow specimens
scattered in museums across multiple continents to provide data for a conservation plan
in the region in which they were collected (3). Online databases allow the exchange of
taxonomic, genetic and other information over the internet, often in a matter of seconds
(4). Coupled with increasing availability of social, demographic, land use and economic
data in digital format, this increase in availability of biological information makes it
possible to plan and compare tradeoffs in multiple biological and social variables across a
landscape (5). Protected areas managers and planners now have or soon will have the
tools to visualize and spatially plan for the impacts of climate change on many of the
species that they manage. The remainder of this paper explores means of integrating this
information into protected area management and planning.
Jeffries, D. S., D.C.L. Lam, M.D. Moran, and I. Wong. 1999. The effect of SO2
emission controls on critical load exceedances for lakes in southeastern Canada.
Kejimkujik. 39: 165-171pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: The UN ECE definition of critical load (CL) involving protection of aquatic
ecosystem structure and function was adopted by using pH 6.0 as a damage threshold.
Critical loads were determined for 4 lake clusters in SE Canada. An Integrated
Assessment Model (IAM) was used to estimate steady-state lake pH distributions for
each cluster for steps of wet sulphate (SO42-) deposition in the range 6 to 30 kg.ha(1).yr(-1) The CLs were interpolated from the damage vs deposition relationships and are,
if anything, over-estimated for a number of reasons. Critical load values were <6, 6.9, 8.0
and 13.2 kg wet SO42-.ha(-1).yr(-1) for the Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia), Montmorency
(Quebec), Algoma (Ontario), and Sudbury (Ontario) clusters, respectively. Wet SO42deposition presently exceeds the CLs for all Canadian clusters by similar to 7 to 12
kg.ha(-1).yr(-1). Moreover, it is also expected to exceed them by similar to 6 to 10 kg wet
SO42-.ha(-1).yr(-1) even after all SO2 emission controls required by the Canada/US Air
Quality Agreement are finally implemented. Further control of both Canadian and US
SO2 emissions to achieve lower SO42- deposition will be needed to reduce the
magnitude of the CL exceedances. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf
of the IAWQ. All rights reserved.
7
McIntyre, S. H. and H.C. Duthie. 1993. Morphological Variation in Populations of the
Diatom Asterionella-Ralfsii W Smith from Nova-Scotia, Canada. Kejimkujik. 269: 6773pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Preliminary investigations of the diatom genus Asterionella ralfsii W. Smith
from Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia indicate that its morphology differs from
other reported forms. Mean cell length increased between the spring and the fall. Bimodal
distribution of length classes occurred in several lakes and was not related to measured
environmental variables. The need for further work on this species in this and other
geographical areas is considered.
Moroz, A. L. 1997. Seasonal population dynamics of selected acidophilic phytoplankton
species in Beaverskin Lake (Kejimkujik National Park) and their response to ambient UV
radiation in a mesocosm environment. Mount Allison University: Sackville, N.B.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 91.8.P5 .M67 1997
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Nriagu, J. O. and H.K.T. Wong. 1989. Dynamics of Particulate Trace-Metals in the
Lakes of Kejimkujik-National-Park, Nova-Scotia, Canada. Kejimkujik. 87-8: 315328pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Page, K. D. and J.B. Murphy. 2003. The geological sources of Hg contamination in
Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada: a GIS approach. Kejimkujik. 43: 882891pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that mercury (Hg) levels in many fish from remote
lakes exceed, the recommended guidelines for human consumption. Most of these studies
conclude that the source of contamination lies in the atmosphere. Kejimkujik National
Park (KNP), Nova Scotia, Canada, is considered to be a pristine ecosystem in which fish
and loon Hg levels are anomalously high. Studies in the park have shown that
atmospheric Hg concentrations may not be high enough to account for the Hg levels in
the biota, indicating that the park may be an unusual system in terms of Hg distribution
and migration. In an attempt to summarise and synthesise the numerous Hg data sets
which have been produced in the park over the last 5-10 years, a geographic information
systems (GIS) approach was used to create. a common database using the watersheds in
8
the park as the common parameter. By using a GIS database, new relationships and
correlations are established and the spatial distribution of Hg levels is more readily
evaluated and quantified. The results indicate that geological sources of Hg, arising from
biotite-rich granite rocks, may play a larger role in the contamination of the park than
previously thought.
Sirois, A. and J. W. Bottenheim. 1995. Use of backward trajectories to interpret the 5year record of PAN and O3 ambient air concentrations at Kejimkujik National Park,
Nova Scotia. Kejimkujik. 100: 2867–2882pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Air parcel trajectory data are used in two ways to elucidate the temporal trend
analysis of 5 years of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and O3 observations at a rural site in
eastern Canada. In the first method, ‘‘probability of residence’’ contours are constructed
to determine the most probable origin of air parcels containing the highest and lowest
10% of PAN and O3 mixing ratios. High PAN is found to emanate always from areas of
high anthropogenic activity, except when the transport path is to a large extent over the
ocean, especially in the summer. High O3 originates from the same regions except in the
winter when because of low photochemical activity, O3 is actually titrated and air from
less populated areas is richer in O3. The trajectories indicate that transport at higher
altitude leads to higher mixing ratios; this is especially the case for O3 in winter and
spring. The complementary method of clustering the trajectories has allowed qualitative
derivation of seasonal cycles for background and polluted air masses of different origin.
Background air from the north shows a distinct PAN maximum in March; it is discussed
that this could be either due to enhanced photochemistry or to the import of polluted air
from the Arctic. Polluted air masses show the same March peak, but a second peak in late
summer/early fall. Oceanic air from the south has a January maximum in PAN but
otherwise is consistently low in PAN. O3 also has a spring maximum, but in polluted air
it is broader stretching into the summer. It is postulated that this is due to additional O3
formation in the summer, while in the winter, actual O3 loss is indicated for polluted air.
By inference it is deduced that the second PAN peak in polluted air is also due to
additional formation in comparison with background air, while in the summer, extra PAN
loss mechanisms operate that are less important for O3. Indications for both dry
deposition and thermal decomposition have been found. © American Geophysical Union
1995.
Sirois, A. and P.W. Summers. 1989. An Estimation of Atmospheric Deposition Input
of Sulphur and Nitrogen-Oxides to the Kejimkujik Watershed - 1979-1987. Kejimkujik.
46: 29-43pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
9
Sirois, A. and W. Fricke. 1992. Regionally Representative Daily Air Concentrations of
Acid-Related Substances in Canada - 1983-1987. Kejimkujik. 26: 593-607pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Since 1979, the Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) of Canada has
measured ambient air concentrations of particulate SO42-, NO3- and NH4+, and gaseous
SO2 and HNO3 at several regionally representative sites across Canada. Between January
1983 and December 1987, nine sites were in operation. The present paper presents an
analysis of the observed concentrations. The highest air concentrations of SO42-, NO3and NH4+, SO2 and HNO3 were observed at Longwoods in southern Ontario, with
medians of daily values equal to 6.7, 1.8, 1.6, 3.7 and 1.1-mu-g m-3, respectively. The
lowest median daily concentrations were observed at Bay d'
Espoir, Newfoundland, for
SO2 and NH4+, and at Cree Lake, Saskatchewan, for SO42-, NO3- and NH4+. The
concentrations were equal to 0.20, 0.09, 0.72, 0.03 and 0.06-mu-g m-3, respectively. A
strong and statistically significant annual cycle existed for the SO2 daily concentrations
at all sites. They were highest in winter and lowest in summer. A weaker and more
complex annual cycle was also present in the SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and HNO3 daily air
concentrations. They were not statistically significant for some ion and site combinations.
Gaseous SO2 generally exceeded particulate SO42- on a molar basis except during the
summer months at all sites with the exception of Bay d'
Espoir, where the latter dominated
during all the year. On average, gaseous HNO3 dominated particulate NO3- except for
the autumn to spring months at Longwoods, Kejimkujik and Bay d'
Espoir. SO42-/NH4+
molar ratios varied between 0.3 and 3. The lowest values were observed at Longwoods
and Sutton, and the highest at Cree Lake and Bay d'
Espoir. In molar units, NH4+
concentrations were between 1 and 100 times larger than the NO3- concentrations. The
NO3-/NH4+ molar ratios were highest at Longwoods and lowest at Cree Lake. Total
SO42- (SO2 + SO42-) concentrations were, in molar units, between 2 and 20 times larger
than the total NO3- (HNO3 + NO3-) concentrations.
Watt W. D., C. D. Scott , P. J. Zamora , and W. J. White . Acid Toxicity Levels in
Nova Scotian Rivers Have Not Declined in Synchrony with the Decline in Sulfate Levels.
118: 203-229pp.
Geographic location: Medway
Abstract: The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) resource of eastern Canada is impacted by
acid rain in the Southern Upland (Atlantic Coast) area of Nova Scotia. Salmon runs in
this area have become extinct in 14 rivers, are severely impacted in 20 rivers, and lightly
impacted in 15 rivers. Water chemistry and fish communities in nine Southern Upland
salmon rivers were studied from 1982 to 1996 as part of the effort to monitor the effects
of the emission control programs in Canada and the United States. There has been no
statistically significant change in total ion content of Southern Upland river water, but
there was a significant decline in sulfate levels that was balanced by an increase in
10
organic anions, and declines in calcium and magnesium that were balanced by increases
in sodium and potassium. A geochemical scenario is proposed to account for these
chemical changes. River water pH levels showed no overall linear trend, but at borderline
toxicity sites the year-to-year variations in pH were correlated with changes in juvenile
salmon population densities. Ten fish species were collected, but none showed any
significant overall time trend in population density. Fish species diversity was positively
correlated with pH.
Webber, A. P and B. L. Beattie. 1986. Acid rain and snow at Kejimkujik, N.S. during
1985. Environment Canada Atmospheric Services Division: Bedford. 17pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QC985.5 .M4 M34 1986
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada has operated a
precipitation sampling station in Kejimkujik National Park since May, 1979. Daily
precipitation samples are collected and analysed for acidity (pH) and the concentration of
various chemical constituants, such as sulphates and nitrates. In addition, the pH of
precipitation has been determined on-site since 1983. This report gives a summary of the
data collected and compares the results with the previous year.
Welch, D. 1998. Air issues and ecosystem protection, a Canadian national parks
perspective. Kejimkujik. 49: 251-262pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Several case histories illustrate national park air issues and responses in
Canada. These examples include: acidification studies and establishment of a
multiparticipant monitoring programme at Kejimkujik; studies of smoke at campgrounds
in Jasper, La Mauricie and Forillon, its effect on health, and the management of visitors
and firewood supply to mitigate these risks; and estimates of emissions from throughtraffic in Yoho. From these cases and from reviews of the secondary literature, we can
identify air issues that affect the maintenance of ecological integrity in national parks.
These issues are: forest fires and smoke management, defining goals for ecosystem
restoration; representation of natural regional conditions; visitor health and amenity;
acidification; pesticides; eutrophication from airborne nitrates; permafrost melting; and
UV-B. In June 1995, an International Air Issues Workshop brought together
representatives from Canadian and U.S., national parks and other selected agencies. They
ranked the air issues affecting national parks, producing quite an eclectic list. From the
most to least serious issue, they are: acidification, toxics, visibility impairment, W-B,
smoke management, oil and gas development, fugitive dust, global warming, overflights,
light pollution, noise and odour. Note that atmospheric change is only one among a group
of stresses affecting national parks. Of 28 stresses recognized as significant for national
parks in 1992, acid precipitation ranked 8th and climate change 23rd, Petrochemicals,
11
17th, pesticides, 18th and heavy metals, 21st, may be partly airborne. The 1995 workshop
made several recommendations applicable to Parks Canada, from which those related to
research and monitoring needs have been extracted. The air monitoring needed most by
national parks is of suspended particulate and visibility. This is in response to human
health and amenity concerns and international treaty obligations. The long-term
protection of natural sites in national parks provides opportunities for other agencies to
monitor ambient air quality and ecosystem responses, for example through the
installation of under-canopy monitoring towers. The air research most needed in national
parks is the modelling of natural landscapes and vegetation complexes in response to
climate change, This follows from the primary purpose of each national park, to maintain
the ecological integrity of an area selected to represent a natural region. The principal air
research opportunities for other agencies in national parks are probably intensive
instrumentation and sampling over several years to examine the air-vegetation-soil
transfers of nutrients, pollutants and radiation.
Yanni, S., K. Keys, T.A. Clair, and P.A. Arp. 2000. Fog and acidification impacts on
ion budgets of basins in Nova Scotia, Canada. Kejimkujik. 36: 619-631pp.
Geographic location: SNBR
Abstract: We examined hydrogeochemical records for a dozen watersheds in and near
Kejimkujik National Park in southwestern Nova Scotia by relating stream ion
concentrations and fluxes to atmospheric deposition, stream type (lake inlet versus outlet;
brown versus clear water), and watershed type (catchment area, topography, soils, and
dominant forest cover type). We found that fog and dry deposition make important
contributions to S, N, Cl, H, Ca, Mg, K, and Na inputs into these watersheds. Seasalt
chloride deposition from rain, snow, fog, and dry deposition equal total stream outputs on
a region-wide basis. Chloride outputs, however, differ among watersheds by a factor of
about two, likely due to local differences in air now and vegetational fog interception. We
found that most of the incoming N is absorbed by the vegetation, as stream water NO3and NH4+ are very low. Our results also show that the vegetation and the soils absorb
about half of the incoming SO4-2. In comparison with other North American watersheds
with similar forest vegetation, Ca outputs are low, while Mg and K outputs are similar to
other regions. Soil exchangeable Ca and soil cation exchange capacity are also very low.
We found that first-order forest streams with no upstream lakes have a distinct seasonal
pattern that neither corresponds with the seasonal pattern of atmospheric deposition, nor
with the seasonal pattern of downstream lake outlets.
Yu, J. Z., R.J. Griffin, D.R. Cocker, R.C. Flagan, J.H. Seinfeld, and P. Blanchard.
1999. Observation of gaseous and particulate products of monoterpene oxidation in forest
atmospheres. Kejimkujik. 26: 1145-1148pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
12
Abstract: Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons, such as monoterpenes, is
estimated to be a significant source of global aerosol. Whereas laboratory studies have
established that photochemical oxidation of monoterpenes leads to aerosol formation,
there are limited field studies detecting such oxidation products in ambient aerosols.
Drawing on prior results of monoterpene product analysis under controlled smog
chamber conditions, we have identified organic aerosol components attributable to
monoterpene oxidation in two forest atmospheres, Kejimkujik National Park, Nova
Scotia, Canada, and Big Bear, San Bernardino National Forest, California, U.S.A. The
major identified aerosol products derived from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene oxidation
include pinic acid, pinonic acid, norpinonic acid and its isomers, hydroxy
pinonaldehydes, and pinonaldehyde, concentrations of which in the aerosol phase are in
the sub ng m(-3) range. Identification of oxidation products in atmospheric aerosol
samples serves as direct evidence for aerosol formation from monoterpenes under
ambient conditions.)
13
Fish
Baird, R. 2002. Mill Falls Brook Trout Study. Kejimkujik National Park 24pp.
Copy location: KEJ
Geographic location: Mersey
Water body: Mersey River Mill Falls
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to acquire as much data as possible from the
sizeable number of brook trout that migrate over Mill Falls each year in the month of
June and pass through again in late September and October once the water flow returns to
acceptable levels. The study was conducted on that portion of the Mersey River known as
Mill Falls and encompassed the waters from the foot bridge above the falls down to the
cable crossing below the falls.
Baird, R. 2003. Eel Weir Creel Census. Kejimkujik National Park 6pp.
Copy location: KEJ
Geographic location: Mersey
Water body: Mersey River Eel Weir
Abstract: The purpose of this census was to catch a minimum sample of 100 brook trout
in order to continue delivering some statistics which could determine the present status of
brook trout populations on the Mersey River in Kejimkujik National Park. The study was
conducted on the portion of the Mersey River known as the Eel Weir and encompassed
the waters from the lower end of George Lake down to the foot of the first still water
below where the run known as the Dump is located.
Belanger, G. and M. A. Rodriguez. 2002. Local movement as a measure of habitat
quality in stream salmonids. 64: 155-164pp.
Brunt, R. 1986-1987. In situ brook trout egg and fry survival rate study interim report,
1987-88. Kejimkujik National Park: Kejimkujik National Park. 71pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL 638.S2 .B78 1989
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
14
Water body: Grafton, and Peskowesk Brooks
Abstract: Fertilized eggs from endemic brook (speckled) trout were maintained in-situ
incubation (upwelling) boxes from early November (1987) to early May (1988) at two
test sites; Grafton Brook and Peskowesk Brook. The Grafton Brook water source
monthly average pH ranged from a high of 5.90 to a low of 5.16. At Peskowesk Brook,
the monthly mean pH ranged from a high of 5.12 to a low of 4.72. Fry survival
comparisons could not be effectively carried out because of high mortality from unknown
causes in Grafton Brook incubation boxes during the swim-up stage. Egg condition,
operational procedures, pathogen presence and environmental (water quality) factors
contributed to egg and sac fry/fingerling mortality.
Brunt, R. 1986-1987. In-situ brook trout egg and fry survival rate pilot study report,
1986-87. Kejimkujik National Park: Kejimkujik National Park. 29pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL 638.S2 .B8 1986-87
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton, and Peskowesk Brooks
Abstract: Fertilized eggs from endemic brook trout were maintained in-situ incubation
boxes from early November (1986) to early May (1987) on a trial basis. The Grafton
Brook water source monthly average pH ranged from a high of 5.67 to a low of 5.23.
Seventy-six percent of Peskowesk brook fish survived to the eyed stage; fifty percent
successfully hatched out as sac fry; four percent of the trout developed to the fry stage in
the incubation box and were released in their home stream. There was 100% mortality of
the Grafton Brook trout eggs in box #2 after only 4 days. Egg condition, operational
procedures and environmental (water quality) factors contributed to egg mortality.
Brunt, R. 1990. Gamefish tagging program, 1989 report Kejimkujik National Park.
Kejimkujik National Park: Maitland Bridge. 17pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number SH 156.8 .B78 1989
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The gamefish tagging program was conducted by the Resource Conservation
section and a small, dedicated group of volunteers during a period from March to
November, 1989. Since 1984, this initiative has investigated seasonal migrations and
growth rates of park sportfish including Brook Trout and Brown Trout. Data and
information was compiled as collected for all fish tagged and on the tagged trout
recaptured throughout the 1989 season. During 1989, there was a substantial increase in
both the number of fish tagged and recaptures reported as compared to former years.
15
This report presents and discusses the results of the 1989 gamefish tagging program,
including the trout tagged and identification tags returned. It also makes program
recommendations for 1990.
Brunt,R., B. DeLong, H. McCormack, G. N. Corbett, N. Wentzell, and Bacon, J.
1982-1993. Creel census, electrofishing, and gamefish tagging programs. Parks Canada:
Maitland Bridge. 23-pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number SH 156.8 .B78 1986
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Reports of these programs concisely present and interpret annual findings and
information, maintaining continuity for the creel census, electrofishing, and gamefish
tagging programs.
Brylinsky, M. 2000. An evaluation of changes in the yellow perch (Perca flavescens)
population of Grafton Lake, Kejimkujik National Park after dam removal. Acadia
University, Centre for Estuarine Research: Wolfville.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 541.5.L3 .B89 2000
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake
Abstract: During the period between July 1993 and September 1996, the Centre for
Wildlife and Conservation Biology of Acadia University, in partnership with a number of
other agencies, carried out studies to determine the physical, chemical, and biological
changes occurring in Grafton Lake as a result of removal of the dam. As part of this
study, a number of surveys were conducted to assess the changes occurring in the
dominant fish populations of the lake. A survey of the yellow perch population was
carried out in 2000 and the results of all surveys subjected to a comparative analysis. The
results indicate that a significant change occurred in the yellow perch population since
removal of the dam. These changes include an increase in age of the dominant age class,
an increase in mean fork length and weight of the population, an increase in the rate of
growth and decrease in survival rates.
Castonguay, M. and G. J. FitzGerald. 1982. Life history and movement of
anadromous brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, in the St-Jean, Gaspe, Quebec. 60: 30843091pp.
Copy location: 1
16
Geographic location: Canada
CEF Consultants Ltd. 1992. Recreational Fisheries Development Plan for the Lower
Mersey River. CEF: Halifax. 126pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Mersey
Abstract: This report describes the environment of the lower Mersey River, existing and
proposed developments and activities affecting the river and estuary, local people'
s
desires for use of the river, and relevant regulatory and funding agencies. It draws on this
information to devise a development strategy for recreational fishing that will maximize
benefits and minimize potential conflicts. It also considers how effective various
potential projects might be in ensuring such a plan'
s objectives are met. This document is
not intended to be a final plan, but provides a basis for public discussion and a framework
for adoption to a final plan.
Chiasson, A. 1994. Effect of Riparian Zone Management on Fish Community Structure.
Progress Report to the Fundy Model Forest. 7pp.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Clay, D. and S. Butland. 1998. Population and movement of brook trout lake
populations in a small forest stream. 160-162pp.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Corbett, G. N. 1987. Permanent aquatic sample plots, Kejimkujik National Park. Parks
Canada: Halifax. 13pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL 638.S2 .C67 1987
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
17
Corbett, G. N., J. Bacon, and H. Mccormack. 1984. Fish tagging project, fish
management program : Kejimkujik National Park. Parks Canada: Halifax. 37pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number SH 156.8 .C67 1984
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: It has been estimated that 20 percent of the angling pressure in Kejimkujik
National Park is concentrated on the Mersey River between Kejimkujik Lake and the
park boundary below Loon Lake. The actual angling pressure in that area could be much
higher because census have concentrated on an area just below Georges Lake. Between
April 16th and 27th a pilot project was initiated on the Mersey River between Loon Lake
and Kejimkujik Lake. This report discusses the operation of the project and outlines
some recommendations to be considered if the project is continued. Data compiled on
species captured is contained in a separate report.
Corbett, G. N. and R. Baird. 2000. Evaluating no-kill brook trout sportfishing in KNP.
Parks Canada: Halifax. 31pp.
Copy location: KNPNHS
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Peskowesk Lake, Mountain Lake, Cobrielle Lake
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to carry out a comprehensive study of the effects of
implementation of a brook trout, no-kill catch and release sportfishing policy and a
selected lakes angling closure policy in the southwestern portion of KNP by developing a
study design, implementing a sampling strategy and analyzing resultant data.
Curry, R. A., D.A. Scruton, and K.D. Clarke. 2002. The thermal regimes of brook
trout incubation habitats and evidence of changes during forestry operations. 32: 12001207pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The thermal regimes in streambed substrates used by brook trout, Salvelinus
fontinalis Mitchell, for incubation of embryos were examined in reference and treatment
(0- and 20-m riparian buffer strips) streams in a clear-cut harvested, northern temperate
forest of western Newfoundland. In these streams, incubation habitats (redds) were
primarily composed of downwelling surface waters with variable but minor mixing of
upwelling groundwater. The resulting incubation temperatures were cold (<1&DEG;C)
and surface water temperatures were accurate predictors of redd temperatures. Both
18
treatment streams displayed evidence of warming in the fall and spring of the 2 years
beginning the year of initial harvesting. The increase was most pronounced in the stream
without a riparian buffer strip. Clear-cut harvesting with and without a riparian buffer
strip altered the thermal regime of surface water and the hyporheic zone in this northern
temperate forest where, in addition to salmonid incubation, many biological processes
take place. The potential for impacts on stream ecosystems is estimated to be high for the
managed forests of this region. Future studies should strive to enhance our understanding
of the hydrological connections between forests and streams on this landscape to
determine the full effects of timber harvesting on the hydrology and biology of a
watershed and its streams.
Curry, R. A., D. Courtemanche, and J. VandeSande. 1998. Brook Trout Migration in
the Kennebecasis River. 1998 Summary Report for the New Brunswick Wildlife Trust
Fund. New Brunswick Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Fisheries Report
#98-4.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Curry, R. A., D. Sparks, and J. Van De Sande. 2002. Spatial and Temporal Movement
of a Riverine Brook Trout Population. 131: 551-560pp.
Copy location: 1
D'Entremont, A. 1998. Mercury concentrations in brook trout and white perch from
Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia. Parks Canada, Atlantic Region: Halifax. 24pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD196.M38 .D4 1998-82
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: In recent years, mercury concentrations in larger freshwater sportfish collected
from lakes in the Canadian Maritime Provinces have been reported to exceed the Health
Canada safe consumption guideline, resulting in the issuance of provincial consumption
advisories to the public. This study examined fillet mercury levels in brook trout and
white perch collected from water bodies at Kejimkujik National Park. These species are
important components of a local recreational fishery.
Drysdale, C., N. M. Burgess, A. D’entremont, J. Carter, and G. Brun . 2005.
Mercury in brook trout, white perch, and yellow perch in Kejimkujik National Park.
Society of Environ Toxicol Chem 26pp.
19
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Parks Canada’s involvement in Hg research in Kejimkujik focused on 2 studies.
To assess risk to human health from game fish consumption, it was necessary to
determine concentrations of Hg in game fish species including brook trout, (Salvelinus
fontinalis) and white perch (Morone americana) in KNPNHS. To understand the
relationship between water chemistry in various park lakes, and Hg content in fish and
loons, yellow perch were also selected as a study species. Yellow perch form a major
component of the loon diet (Barr 1996) and are plentiful in the mainly acidic and brownwater lakes in KNPNHS. This paper summarizes the results of these studies, as
previously reported in d’Entremont et al. (1998) and Carter et al. (2001), and adds some
new data on methyl mercury (MeHg) in fish.
Freeman H.C., G.B.Sangalang, and L. Sperry. 1989. Studies on Ameliorating Effects
of an Acidic River on the Atlantic Salmon. 11: 251-259pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Medway
Water body: Westfield River, Medway River
Abstract: The decline in Atlantic Salmon populations in poorly buffered rivers in
southwestern Nova Scotia., Canada, has been coincident with increased acidic
precipitation making mitigation necessary. In our studies on mitigating the effects of
acidic water, sexually maturing adult Atlantic Salmon were held in the acidic Westfield
River and the nearby less acidic Medway River as a control. The effects of a diet
enriched with sodium chloride on the reproductive physiology of the Atlantic Salmon
was examined, and the effects of elevating the pH of the acidic waters using crushed
limestone was evaluated.
Freeman H. C, Sangalang G. B, Burns G., and McMenemy M. 1983. The blood sex
hormone levels in sexually mature male atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Westfield
River (pH 4.7) and the Medway River (pH 5.6), Nova Scotia. 32: 87-91pp.
Geographic location: Medway
Abstract: Blood samples were taken from fourteen sexually mature (ripe) male Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salar), eight from the acidic Westfield river (pH 4.7) and six from the less
acidic (pH 5.6) Medway river to determine if there is any difference in sex hormone
production in the fish in the two rivers. The plasma levels of the two principal male sex
20
hormones, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, which normally peak at functional
sexual maturity, were significantly lower in salmon from the more acidic Westfield river
compared to those in salmon from the Medway river. Since these fish were of the same
stock, and were in the same state of sexual maturation, it is suggested that the more acidic
Westfield River has affected the production and/or utilization of sex hormones in this
species.
Haberstock, A. E., H.G. Nichols, M.P. DesMeules, J. Wright, J.M. Christensen, and
D.H. Hudnut. 2000. Method to identify effective riparian buffer widths for Atlantic
salmon habitat protection. 36: 1271-1286pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Successful restoration of declining anadromous species is dependent upon
effective riparian buffer zone management. Natural resource managers, policy developers
and local conservation groups require science-based information concerning the width at
which a given buffer will be effective for its stated purpose. This paper summarizes a
method developed in 1999 to determine effective riparian buffer widths for Atlantic
salmon habitat protection as part of the Atlantic Salmon Conservation Plan for Seven
Maine Rivers. A major assumption of the method is that no two buffers are alike with
respect to their effectiveness and that various buffer characteristics dictate the required
width for a given level of effectiveness. The method uses a predictive model that
generates suggested riparian buffer widths as a function of specific, measurable buffer
characteristics (such as slope, soil characteristics, and plant community structure and
density) that affect buffer function. The method utilizes a variable-width, two-zone
approach and specifies land uses that are consistent with desired buffer function within
the two zones.
Jones, E. B. D., G.S. Helfman, J.O. Harper, and P.V. Bolstad. 1999. Effects of
riparian forest removal on fish assemblages in southern Appalachian streams. 13: 14541465pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Deforestation of riparian zones is known to influence the numbers and kinds of
organisms that inhabit adjoining streams, but little quantitative information is available
on how much deforestation must occur before the biota is affected. We sampled fishes
and stream habitats in 12 stream segments downstream from deforested but vegetated
riparian patches 0-5.3 km long, all downslope from watersheds with at least 95% forest
cover. We found an overall decrease in fish abundance with increasing length of
nonforested riparian patch; sculpins, benthic minnow, and darters decreased, and
sunfishes and water-column minnows increased in numbers. Introduced species were
more common down stream from longer riparian patches. Habitat diversity decreased and
riffles became filled with fine sediments as upstream patch length increased. Length of
21
upstream nonforested patch and substrate particle size were much stronger predictors of
fish occurrence than riparian patch width. Faunal characteristics and physical features of
the stream changes in direct proportion to the gradient of riparian disturbance, but the
abundance of several species underwent pronounced change at particular threshold patch
lengths. These results suggest that riparian forest removal leads to shifts in the structure
of stream fish assemblages due to (1) decreases in fish species that do not guard hidden
eggs or that are dependent on swift, shallow water that flows over relatively sedimentfree substrates, or (2) increases in fishes that guard their young in pebble or pit nests or
that live in slower, deeper water. When watershed development is anticipated or planned,
limited clearing of riparian trees may cause minor disturbance to the fish assemblage, but
streams in even a heavily forested watershed with vegetated riparian buffers cannot
tolerate disruption of riparian-zone trees over much more than 1 km in length. Riparian
buffer length and area should be given stronger consideration in stream protection and
restoration plans.
Kanno, Y. and J. Macmillan. 2004. Developing an index of sustainable coldwater
streams using fish community attributes in River Philip, Nova Scotia. 42: 319-338pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: River Philip
Abstract: An Index of Sustainable Coldwater Streams (ISCS) was developed to quantify
fish community changes affected by water temperature and physical habitat quality for
small streams in the River Philip Watershed, Nova Scotia. The ISCS was modified from
an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) and intended for assessing the quality of streams in
coldwater habitats. The calibration of the ISCS was thought useful since global warming
and habitat degradation, two major aquatic threats in the coming era, could significantly
reduce the amount of undisturbed coldwater streams in Nova Scotia; thus, a tool was
necessary to identify fish species vulnerable to these threats and to monitor fish
community changes in relation to water temperature and physical habitat quality. There
was a strong negative correlation between water temperature and physical habitat quality,
and water temperature increase and habitat degradation replaced coldwater fish
assemblages dominated by salmonids with warmwater and/or tolerant fish assemblages,
coupled with increased total species richness. The proposed ISCS is composed of five
metrics; (1) number of fish species, (2) percent of individuals that are salmonids, (3)
percent of individuals that are brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), (4) percent of
individuals that are white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and (5) percent of
individuals that are catchable salmonids (age 2 years and older). The ISCS is a promising
index to identify priority conservation areas and to monitor changes in aquatic habitat.
22
Kanno, Y. and K. Beazley. 2004. Freshwater fish considerations for aquatic
conservation systems planning in Nova Scotia. 42: 375-391pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Freshwater ecosystems have suffered severe losses of biodiversity as a result of
human activities; however there has been limited attention to freshwater conservation
planning. Key criteria for biodiversity conservation in the terrestrial realm (i.e.,
representation, special elements and focal species) may also be useful in freshwater
systems. Thus, we explore freshwater fish conservation in Nova Scotia (NS) with respect
to these key criteria. Representation of freshwater fish habitats and communities should
include examples of typical and unique biogeographical regions, streams, rivers, lakes,
ponds, communities-at-risk, and hotspots of diversity and rarity. Sufficient habitat to
maintain viable populations of focal species should also be conserved. Focal species 1)
are functionally important, such as those at higher trophic levels and key prey, 2) have
large-area requirements or are wide ranging, 3) are indicators of habitat quality and/or
management practices, and 4) are flagships, such as charismatic and vulnerable species
that garner support for aquatic conservation. Considerations of representation, species
elements and focal species serve to identify important areas for conserving freshwater
fish species, assemblages and habitat in NS. In tolerant and coldwater communities and
species such as Atlantic Whitefish Coregonus huntsmani, Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar,
brook trout Salvelinus frontalis, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and rainbow smelt
Osmerus mordax warrant conservation attention in NS due to their relatively high
ecological importance and/or vulnerability. Other factors for selecting among potential
sites for conservation are stability and resilience to broader cross- or transboundary
threats such as exotic species, global warming, and acidification. Furthermore, as a
consequence of the fluidity and connectivity of aquatic ecosystems, conservation,
planning should encompass a relatively large portion of selected drainages. Our approach
may be useful for other temperate regions in North America.
Kerekes, J. J. 1975. Aquatic resources inventory, Kejimkujik National Park, N.S.
Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service: Halifax.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number GB 1631 .N8 K45
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Lacroix, G. L and J. Korman. 1996. Timing of episodic acidification in Atlantic
salmon rivers influences evaluation of mitigative measures and recovery forecasts . 53:
589-599pp.
Copy location: 2
23
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Episodic acidification in running waters was found to lead to variability in
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)production in southwestern Nova Scotia. The juvenile
component of the Atlantic Salmon Regional Acidification Model
(J. Korman, D.R. Marmorek, G.L. Lacroix, P.G. Amiro, J.A. Ritter, W.D. Watt, R.E.
Cutting, and D.C.E. Robinson. 1994.Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51: 662680) reliably
predicted juvenile salmon densities in an acidified river in response to interannual
variability in pH and egg deposition over a decade. Model simulations revealed that
considerable variability in the timing and duration of periods of low pH from autumn to
spring influenced the mortality of salmon during life-history stages occurring annually at
relatively fixed times. Early episodes and late recovery from episodes led to decreases in
annual salmon smolt production, with delays in recovery having a greater impact than the
timing of episode onset. In the absence of recovery from acidification, the efficacy of
alternative strategies for mitigation of low pH in running waters on salmon production
was assessed. Model simulations indicated that mitigative scenarios that could increase
pH by 0.20.4 units would lead to large relative increases in salmon smolt production and
to population recovery. Further increases in pH up to 1 unit translated into progressively
smaller benefits.
MacEachern, N. 1974. Atlantic salmon investigation survey of Mersey River Queens
County, N. S.
Copy location: KEJ
Geographic location: Mersey
Water body: Mersey River; Lower Great Brook, Deep Brook and Upper Great Brook
Abstract: Spawning grounds of salmon are observed, the effects of dams are discussed,
some gravel beds were artificial spawning grounds, some fishways used as rearing pond
for salmon and trout, by DFO, study was on 12 mile section between developments No.
6 and No. 3, Lower Great Brook as nursery area, Deep Brook and Upper Great Brook
may have been spawning areas in the past. 10-12 salmon caught on this 12 mile section
in 1953. map provided.
MacMillan, J. L. and T. Crandlemere. 2004. Thermal classification of salmonid
streams and summer distribution of fishes in Nova Scotia with potential implication of
climate change, Interim report 2002-04. NS Department of Agriculture and Fisheries
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: LaHave, Petite, Mushamush, Annapolis rivers
24
Abstract: Many Nova Scotia streams are warmed to stressful levels for brook trout and
Atlantic Salmon. Seventy-seven streams were electrofished to determine is salmonoids
were influenced by thermal conditions in the summer. The results of the survey clearly
indicated that cool water streams are vital to brook trout during warm summer conditions
in Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotia salmonid stream classification system worked very
well to describe brook trout habitat. The salmonid steam classification of watercourses
will be used to assess the potential success of future trout fishery enhancement strategies
in Nova Scotia.
MacRae, P. S. D and D. A. Jackson. 2001. The influence of smallmouth bass
(Micropterus dolomieu) predation and habitat complexity on the structure of littoral zone
fish assemblages. 58: 342-351pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Fish assemblages in small lakes (£50 ha) in central Ontario were characterized
to determine the impact of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) predation and
habitat complexity on the structure of littoral zone fish assemblages. Data were collected
employing minnow traps and visual assessment. Although species richness did not differ
between lakes with and without smallmouth bass, species composition and relative
abundance did differ. We identified two distinct fish assemblage types: one characterized
by small-bodied species, mainly cyprinids, and a second by largebodied centrarchid
species, e.g., smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass appear to reduce abundance, alter
habitat use, and extirpate many small-bodied species such as brook stickleback (Culaea
inconstans), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), pearl dace (Margariscus margarita),
and Phoxinus spp.
Melville, G. E. 2005. Development of an assessment approach for remnant lake
salmonin. 18:
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Water body: Crean Lake
Abstract: This research investigates a status assessment for remnant lake salmonin
populations, using the lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum) of Crean Lake
(105km^2) as an example. A mark-recapture program was implemented employing
small-mesh gill nets to ensnare charr by the teeth at spawning. Prior to sampling,
potential spawning sites were designated primary or secondary based on habitat. Most
25
charr were caught on three primary reefs, with some spawners moving between reefs.
The spawning period peaked at day 2, enhancing spawning synchrony, and lasted up to
10 days. Results produced very low sampling mortality (5.7%), consistent estimates of
the number of spawning charr in Crean Lake. The approach offers an effective means of
assessing remnant salmonins with minimal impact on their impact on their populations.
Mersey River Task Force. 1980. Mersey River Task Force Report 1979-80.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL618.3 .M4 1980
Geographic location: Mersey
Abstract: In response to requests from a number of Queens County residents concerning
the present status of the Mersey River fish resources, the MLA Queens, approached the
provincial Deputy Minister of Fisheries, for assistance in gathering available information
on the subject. It was decided that a task force comprised of experts from both
government and the private industry who were in some way connected to the Mersey
River, would be the quickest and most efficient way of compiling the required
information. This is a summary the Mersey River Task Force'
s discussions and
presentations during their meetings. The meeting minutes are included as appendices.
Nicholas, R. 1994. 1994 Fish management research report. Kejimkujik National Park:
Maitland Bridge. 54pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number SH 328 N53 1995
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to describe research carried out in 1994 at
Kejimkujik National Park dealing with fish. The overall aim of the study is to provide
managers with the information they need to effectively manage fish stocks, particularly
those subjected to recreational harvesting. The year 1994 was the first of a three year
study recommended in the parks'recent Fish Management Plan (Nicholas et al. 1994).
Nislow, K. H. and W. H. Lowe. 2003. Influences of Logging History and Stream pH on
Brook Trout Abundance in First-Order Streams in New Hampshire. 132: 166-171pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
26
Perry, R. W., M. J. Bradford, and J. A. Grout. 2003. Effects of disturbance on
contribution of energy sources to growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha) in boreal streams. 60: 390-400pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We used stable isotopes of carbon in a growth-dependent tissue-turnover model
to quantify the relative contribution of autochthonous and terrestrial energy sources to
juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in five small boreal streams
tributary to the upper Yukon River. We used a tissue-turnover model because fish did not
grow enough to come into isotopic equilibrium with their diet. In two streams,
autochthonous energy sources contributed 23 and 41% to the growth of juvenile salmon.
In the other three, fish growth was largely due to terrestrial (i.e., allochthonous) energy
sources. This low contribution of autochthonous energy appeared to be related to streamspecific disturbances: a recent forest fire impacted two of the streams and the third was
affected by a large midsummer spate during the study. These disturbances reduced the
relative abundance of herbivorous macroinvertebrates, the contribution of autochthonous
material to other invertebrates, and ultimately, the energy flow between stream algae and
fish. Our findings suggest that disturbances to streams can be an important mechanism
affecting transfer of primary energy sources to higher trophic levels.
Peterson, R. H., J. J. Kerekes, and D.J. Martin-Robichaud. 1983. Age-size
relationships and food habits of fish sampled from the Kejimkujik calibrated watershed.
Government of Canada, Fisheries and Oceans: St. Andrews.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number SH156.8 .P47 1983
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake, Beaverskin Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: Food habits and age-size relationships of brown bullheads, yellow perch, white
perch, and golden shiners from the three lakes of the Kejimkujik Calibrated Watershed
Study are compared with these parameters for the same species in less acidic New
Brunswick lakes. Brown Bullheads from the KNP lakes had less in their stomachs, grew
more slowly, and were in poorer condition than were those sampled from New
Brunswick populations.
Power, M. E. 1998. Decision-making for the restoration of Atlantic salmon populations
damaged by acid precipitation. National Research Council of Canada: Ottawa. 55 : 143149pp.
27
Geographic location: Medway
Abstract: Acidification of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rivers represents a major threat
to salmon production in much of Nova Scotia, Canada. Efforts at understanding the
efficacy of proposed remedial strategies have concentrated on estimating the biological
parameters of the acidification issue. However, the dominance of societal values in the
allocation of resources to fisheries management problems demands alternative strategies
for the remediation of acidity in salmon rivers be developed that account for both the
biological and cost constraints on remedial strategy selection. A theoretical framework
incorporating biological and cost detail is developed that demonstrates the dependence of
optimal remedial strategy selection on the biological, physical, and cost parameters of
acidification and responses to it in the juvenile portion of the life history. Marine smolt
survival is also shown to have an influence on the selection of the optimal remedial
strategy. Only when all relevant biological and cost parameters are appropriately
estimated, validated and included in decision-making can useful strategies promising to
optimize the restoration of Atlantic salmon stocks in acidified waters be developed.
Rabeni, C. F. and M.A. Smale. 1995. Effects of Siltation on Stream Fishes and the
Potential Mitigating Role of the Buffering Riparian Zone. 303: 211-219pp.
Copy location: ISI:A1995RC89500020
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Riparian buffer zones serve several important roles in linking a stream to its
watershed. A main function is controlling the dynamics of sedimentation. This paper
documents how siltation impacts fish communities and how proper riparian management
can mitigate the negative effects of sedimentation. Two studies examined the relation
between stream siltation and fish community characteristics. Community responses to
siltation were poorly described by common structural indices. Community level
responses to varying siltation were most consistently described by changes in functional
characteristics of the resident fish species using a guild-based analysis. Herbivores,
benthic insectivores and simple lithophilous spawners were most sensitive to siltation
while other guilds were not. These results were repeatable in both intraregional
comparisons among sites of similar size and character, and in interregional comparisons
of streams which varied in characteristics besides siltation. This suggests the index may
be useful in separating the effects of siltation from other environmental variables. A
discussion of bufferstrip characteristics important in mitigating against, or preventing,
excess siltation is presented.
Thexton, B. 1976. The Mersey River Salmon Reintroduction Study. 33pp.
28
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL 638.S2 .T34 1976
Geographic location: Mersey
Abstract: This report deals with the possible reintroduction of the Atlantic Salmon
(Salmo salar) to the Mersey River system in Nova Scotia. It deals particularly with that
area of the Mersey River system located within the boundaries of Kejimkujik National
Park.
Whittier, T. A. and T. M. Kincaid. 1999. Introduced Fish in Northern USA Lakes:
Regional Extent, Dominance, and Effect on Native Species Richness. Dynamac
International, Inc., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and
Environmental Effects Research Laboratory Western Ecology Division, 200 Southwest
35th Street, Corvallis, Oregon 97333, USA. 128: 769-783pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: We assessed the effects of nonnative fish on native fish biodiversity, using
assemblage data collected during 19911996 from 203 randomly selected lakes in the
northeastern USA by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. An estimated 74% (±17.6%, 95%
confidence interval) of the region'
s 10,608 lakes between 1 and 10,000 ha contain at least
one introduced species. Based on our samples, nonnative individuals outnumbered
natives in an estimated 31.5% (±11%) of lakes. Regression models indicated that native,
introduced, and total species richness were associated with lake surface area, elevation,
and lake depth (0.31 = R2 = 0.81). The intensity of human disturbance in the watershed
was positively associated with introduced species richness but not associated with native
species richness. The number of nonnative species was a significant variable in the
native-species regression models for the entire Northeast and for only one of five
subregions, the Northeast Coastal Zone ecoregion. Of the types of fishes that have been
introduced, littoral predatorsprimarily Micropterusappeared to have the greatest negative
effect on native species richness. Small or soft-finned species appeared to be the least
tolerant of these introduced predators. Native brook trout and minnow assemblages,
typical of northern lakes in the Northeast but now rare in the Adirondacks, appeared to be
at the greatest risk from continued introductions in northeastern New England. Current
among-lake (â) species diversity was associated more with regional diversity of lake
types than with extent or dominance of nonnative species. Without quantitative historical
data, it was not possible to demonstrate a homogenizing effect of introductions on lake
fish assemblages.)
29
Forestry
Betts, M., J.A. Loo, and N. Ives. 2002. A comparison of pre-European settlement forest
characterization methodologies. 78: 422-432pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The characterization of "natural" or "presettlement" forest has become a
relatively common practice in Canada as forest managers strive to put into practice
concepts of sustainable forest management. Various methods have been developed to
undertake such characterizations, leading to confusion about how to define "presettlement
forest" and uncertainty over the approach that will best serve as a basis for management.
We report on two methods of presettlement forest characterization: the "Witness Tree"
and the "Potential Forests" approaches. We compare results from these approaches to the
existing forest composition in the Fundy Model Forest, New Brunswick. Both approaches
indicate a decline in the predominance of tolerant hardwood and eastern cedar since
presettlement. However, the Potential Forests approach consistently suggests much
higher presettlement frequencies of spruce (Picea spp.) and, in most cases, pine (Pinus
spp.) than the Witness Tree method. Differences between frequencies of tree speceis
estimated by the two methods probably result from biases associated with both methods
and the different scales of reporting. If used critically, the combined use of both sets of
presettlement forest information will allow managers to determine the historical
frequency of individual tree species and forest communities. Such information will
provide some guidance in maintaining the diversity of native species and community
types.
Betts, M. G. and G. J. Forbes. 2005. Forest Management Guidelines to Protect Native
Biodiversity in the Greater Fundy Ecosystem . New Brunswick Co-operative Fish and
Wildlife Research Unit 1-110pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: New Brunswick
Cameron, R. P. 2003. Preliminary assessment of the ecological impacts of the Wallace
Lake Fire on Tobeatic Wilderness Area. Technical Note No.03-01. Nova Scotia
Environment and Labour Protected Areas Branch.
Geographic location: Tobeatic
Water body: Wallace Lake
30
CPAWS. Alternative Silviculture Approaches for Canada'
s Boreal Forest: A Cut Above.
25-37pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Davis, M. 1996. Eastern Old Growth Forests: Prospects for rediscovery and recovery.
Island Press: Washington. 375pp.
Geographic location: USA
Epstein, J. 2004. Comparison of Understory Vegetation in a Chronosequence of
Unharvested and Partially Harvested Coniferous Forests in Southern Nova Scotia.
Dalhousie. 57pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: SNBR
Abstract: The impacts of partial harvests on understory vegetation were investigated in a
chronosequence of coniferous Acadian forests in southern Nova Scotia. Vascular species
(excluding trees) and conspicuous bryophytes were sampled stands ranging in age from
55 years to 190 years, that have either remained unharvested since stand initiation or have
recently (3-6 years ago) been partially harvested. The objectives were to describe the
differences in understory species richness, diversity and composition that occur in stands
of different ages, and the differences between the understory of partially harvested stands
and that of unharvested stands, and to also determine if the age of a stand at the time of
partial harvesting differentially affects understory species richness, diversity and
composition. Understory species richness peaks during the understory reinitiation stage,
but species diversity differs little between different aged stands. Partial harvests
differentially affected the understory depending on the age of the stand at the time of
harvest. Species richness and diversity were especially affected in mid-aged stands, but
understory composition was more heavily affected the greater the age of the stand.
Species attaining their greatest importance in old-growth stands were also most
negatively affected by partial harvests. These results indicate that partial harvests in older
stands pose a risk to species dependant on old-growth forests and especially species
dependant on woody debris in the later stages of decay.
Freedman, B, S. Woodley, and J. Loo. 1994. Forestry practices and biodiversity with
particular reference to the maritime provinces of eastern Canada. 2: 33-37pp.
31
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Freedman, B., V. Zelazny, D. Beaudette , T. Fleming , S. Flemming , G. Forbes, J. S.
Gerrow , G. Johnson , and S. Woodley. 1996. Biodiversity implications of changes in
the quantity of dead organic matter in managed forests. 4: 238-265pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Hannerz, M. and B. Hanell. 1997. Effects on the flora in Norway spruce forests
following clearcutting and shelterwood cutting. 90: 29-49pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Sweden
Abstract: Clearcutting and shelterwood cutting of mature Norway spruce peatland forests
were compared regarding the effects on the forest flora. Repeated observations of the
field and bottom layer vegetation were made before and until 7 or 8 years after harvesting
at four sites located along a gradient from southern to northern Sweden. Clearcutting
resulted in a greater change of species composition compared with shelterwood cutting.
Diversity, measured as Simpson’s index, and species number per subplot were lower in
the clearcut than in the shelterwood after 7 or 8 years. By applying Ellenberg’s indicator
values, it was concluded that shelterwood regimes may preserve species preferring
shaded and moist conditions, whereas those species decreased after clearcutting. Species
preferring high levels of nitrogen increased in the clearcut. According to both
multivariate analyses, the vegetation changed in a similar direction at all sites, although
the level of response differed considerably. Despite these similarities, there was a marked
site effects, which was not surprising considering the large geographic variation between
sites. It is concluded that shelterwood cutting might be a better alternative tan clearcutting
for forests on fertile peatland sites, with respect to conservation of vascular plants and
bryophytes.
Holloway, G. 2000. Multi-scale habitat selection by northern flying squirrels in
managed forests in central Ontario: proposal.
Geographic location: Canada
Keys, K. and P.A. Arp. 1998. Benchmark soil descriptions for biodiversity monitoring
and sustainable forest management research plots : established by Bowater Mersey Paper
Co. Ltd., N.F. Douglas Lumber Co., Harry Freeman & Son Lumber Ltd., Kejimkujik
National Park. University of New Brunswick: Fredericton.
32
Copy location: KEJ Call Number S 592.16 .K49 1998
Geographic location: Mersey, Medway, Kejimkujik
Lockaby, B. G, J. A. Stanturf, and M.G. Messina . 1997. Effects of silviculture
activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States: a
review of existing reports. 90: 93-100pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain
forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in
the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of
harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving
influence behind all the ecological processes in floodplains, and timber harvesting alone
usually has little long-term effect on hydroperiod to the extent that vegetation
productivity is raised or lowered. There is no evidence that harvesting followed by
natural regeneration represents a threat to ground or surface water quality on flood plain
sites, as long as “ best management practices” are flowed. Harvested floodplains may
increase or have little effect on decomposition rates of surface organic matter. The nature
of the effect seems to be controlled by site wetness. Data from recently harvested sites
(i.e. within the last ten years) suggest that vegetation productivity is maintained at levels
similar to those observed prior to harvests. During the early stages of stand development,
tree species composition is heavily influenced by harvest method. Similarly, amphibian
populations (monitored as bioindicators of ecosystem recovery) seem to rebound rapidly
following harvest, although species composition may be different from that of
unharvested stands.
Loo, J. A. and N. Ives. 2003. The Acadian forest: historical condition and human
impacts. 79: 462-474pp.
Geographic location: Maritimes
Abstract: The Acadian Forest Region comprises the three Maritime Provinces of Canada,
each of which as a distinct history resulting in different patterns of land ownership, land
use, and impacts on the forest. The region encompasses a high degree of physiographic
and biological diversity, being situated where the warm, moist influence of the Gulf
Stream from the south collides with the cold Labrador Current and the boreal forest
gradually gives way to mostly deciduous forest. Natural forest types in the Acadian
Forest Region include rich tolerant hardwood, similar to the deciduous forests to the
south; spruce-fir forest, similar to boreal forest to the north; and an array of coniferous,
deciduous, and mixed intermediate types. Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), yellow birch
33
(Betula alleghanienesis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and balsam fir
(Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) are considered characteristic of the Acadian Forest Region.
Except for one quantitative study in one county of New Brunswick, and another study on
Prince Edward Island, most knowledge of the historical forest condition has been gleaned
from early descriptions by explorers, surveyors, and settlers of the Maritimes region.
Although some regions have been affected much more than others, little, if any forested
area has escaped human influence over the past four centuries. A general result of human
activities has been a shift in successional status and age distribution, with increased
frequency of relatively young, often even-aged, early successional forest types including
balsam fir, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), red maple (Acer rubrum L.),
white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides
Michx.). Both the abundance and age of late-successional species such as sugar maple,
red spruce, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carrière), yellow birch, cedar (Thuja
occidentalis L.), and beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) have declined.
Lynch, J. A. and E.S. Corbett. 1990. Evaluation of best management practices for
controlling nonpoint pollution from silvicultural operations. 26: 41-52pp.
Copy location: ISI:A1990CU00400006
Geographic location: USA
;Lynds, A. and J. LeDuc. 1995. Old Forests of Nova Scotia. Department of Natural
Resources Occasional Papers, Parks and Recreation Division: Nova Scotia. 1-18pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present background material and ecological
characteristics for old forests of Nova Scotia for use in identifying, evaluating and
protecting these increasingly uncommon forests.
MacLean, D. A., J.W. Higdon, B. Hemens, D.A. Etheridge, J.M. Hagan, J.M. Reed,
R.G. Wagner, and K.B. Porter. 2003. Patterns of natural and human-caused forest
disturbance in northwestern New Brunswick and assessment of risk of extirpation of
vertebrate species . Sustainable Forest Management Network 1-17pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
34
Abstract: The objectives are to analyze natural and human-caused disturbance effects on
forest structure and function in the Black Brook District as a case study, by:
1) assessing the risk of extirpation (degree of management concern) on individual
vertebrate species that potentially occur on the landbase;
2) characterizing historical natural disturbance regimes (spruce budworm outbreaks);
3) establishing the state/structure of vegetation patterns on the Black Brook District
before JDI began actively managing the forest about 1945;
4) modeling the current and future forest states with and without natural disturbance and
harvesting/silviculture; and
5) analyzing management and disturbance effects on species composition, patch size, and
age class distributions and within-stand structures.
Mailman, G. E. Tobeatic Resource Management Area Land Inventory. Nova Scotia
Department of Lands and Forests
Geographic location: Tobeatic
McCurdy, D and B. Stewart. 2003. A Discussion Paper on Climate Change and
Forestry in Nova Scotia: Ecological Implications and Management Options. Forest
Research Report: Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources 1-23pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere is a major global environmental issue facing Canadians
(Papadopol, 2000) and may be one of the greatest environmental challenges humanity
will face (Pollard, 1989). Despite a number of uncertainties, scientific evidence has lead
to a general consensus that climate change is occurring (Albritton et al., 2001).
Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere and emissions have been increasing
steadily since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century and
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have increased by 25% since that era (Pollard, 1989;
Papadopol, 2000; Parker et al., 2000). Fuel-powered transportation and deforestation for
agricultural use have contributed greatly to the increased emissions in recent times
(Papadopol, 2000). Some of the more significant greenhouse gases are listed in Table 1
along with their ability to trap heat relative to CO2 and their lifespan in the atmosphere.
McCurdy, D., B. Stewart, P. Neily, E. Quigley, and K. Keys. 2004. Post-Harvest Soil
Disturbance and Permanent Structure Survey: Pockwock-Bowater Watershed Project.
Forest Research Report : Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources 1-16pp.
Copy location: 2
35
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: A survey of soil disturbance and permanent structure features following
clearcut harvesting was conducted as part of the Pockwock-Bowater Watershed Project in
Nova Scotia. Following harvest, approximately half of all treated area was disturbed to
varying levels. Machine traffic was the most common disturbance found, affecting
between 18.8 and 39.4% of cutover area. Intact forest floor and light slash was the
dominant surface condition, covering an average of 61.9% of harvested area (where
assessed). Despite extensive disturbance levels, impacts were considered light on all
treated areas, due largely to low hazard ratings associated with soil types found. With
respect to permanent structures, several harvest areas have significant road coverage and
water crossings which give rise to potential off-site impacts. These sites will need to be
monitored to ensure these impacts are minimized over time.
Moffat, A. C. 1998. Forest Certification: An Examination of the Compatibility of the
Canadian Standards Association and Forest Stewardship.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Societal concern for forests has been growing, particularly regarding the
traditional economic management of forests for timber. The concept of sustainable forest
management has been developed to support the recognition of both timber and nontimber values of forests. Systems of forest certification are evolving to advance the
practical application of sustainable forest management. The Canadian Standards
Association (CSA) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) are two organizations that
are developing forest certification systems in the Maritime region of Canada. This study
investigates whether the CSA and FSC forest certification systems are compatible,
through the identification of similarities and differences between the systems. The case
studies for this comparison are the Southern New Brunswick Forest Products Marketing
Board'
s CSA system, and the FSC Maritime Regional Standards Initiative. A literature
review, semi-structured interviews, observation of meetings, and documentation were
used to collect information for this comparison. Results indicate that both systems of
forest certification share the overall goal of improving forest management, value public
participation for determining forest values, and emphasize the need for continual revision
of criteria, indicators and standards. Interview results reveal that most participants
perceive the certification systems as compatible. The interview results also indicate that
there are many potential benefits and problems with forest certification, and that each
system can improve. Finally, suggestions are made on how the development of forest
certification can proceed in the Maritimes, and how the CSA and FSC can address some
of the challenges facing forest certification.
Mosseler, A., J.A. Lynds, and J.E. Major. 2003. Old-growth forests of the Acadian
Forest Region. 11: S47-S77pp.
36
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: In the absence of sufficient data from directed studies of old-growth forests in
the Acadian Forest Region (AFR), we must rely on a general knowledge of forest
ecology and natural succession, population biology, disturbance dynamics, and
palynological evidence to understand the probable extent of old-growth, late-successional
forest types before European settlement, their role in the biological diversity of Acadian
forests, and the silvicultural prescriptions required to maintain a component of such old
growth (OG) on the landscape. The structural features of representative Acadian old
growth can be understood from the few remaining stands of such forest in the AFR and
from studies in the closely related forest types of the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Forest
Region of Canada and other eastern North American temperate-zone forests.
Mosseler, A., J.E. Major , and O.P. Rajora. 2003. Old-growth red spruce forests as
reservoirs of genetic diversity and reproductive fitness. 106: 931-937pp.
Copy location: Web of Science
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Old-growth forests are assumed to be potential reservoirs of genetic diversity
for the dominant tree species, yet there is little empirical evidence for this assumption.
Our aim was to characterize the relationship of stand traits, such as age, height and stem
diameter, with the genetic and reproductive status of old-growth and older second-growth
stands of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in eastern Canada. We found strong
relationships between height growth (a fitness trait) and measures of genetic diversity
based on allozyme analyses in red spruce. The negative relationship between height and
the proportion of rare alleles suggests that high proportions of these rare alleles may be
deleterious to growth performance. Latent genetic potential, however, showed a
significant and positive relationship with height. Stand age was not correlated to height,
but was correlated to seedling progeny height. In late-successional species such as red
spruce, age and size (e.g., height and stem diameter) relationships may be strongly
influenced by local stand disturbance dynamics that determine availability of light,
growing space, moisture and nutrients. In larger and older stands, age appeared to provide
a good surrogate measure or indicator for genetic diversity and progeny height growth.
However, in smaller and more isolated populations, these age and fitness relationships
may be strongly influenced by the effects of inbreeding and genetic drift. Therefore, older
populations or old-growth forests may represent superior seed sources, but only if they
are also of sufficient size and structure (e.g., stem density and spatial family structure) to
avoid the effects of inbreeding and genetic drift. Thus, larger and older forests appear to
have an important evolutionary role as reservoirs of both genetic diversity and
reproductive fitness. Given the rapid environmental changes anticipated (as a result of
climate change, increasing population isolation through fragmentation, or following the
37
introduction of exotic pests and diseases) these older populations of trees may have a
valuable function in maintaining the adaptive potential of tree species.
Muise, R. Logging history of the Tobeatic Resource Management Area. Nova Scotia
Department of Natural Resources
Geographic location: Tobeatic
NRC. 2003. National Forestry Database. Canadian Forestry Service
Copy location: http://nfdp.ccfm.org/Detailed/reports/provinces/novascotia
NSDNR. 2000. Ten year periodic annual increment for Nova Scotia Permanent Forest
Inventory Plots 1980-85 to 1990-95, Report FOR 2000-2. Nova Scotia Department of
Natural Resources, Renewable Resources Branch, Forestry Division, Forest Inventory
Section: Truro, Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Palen, H. 2004. Public participation and the Fundy Model Forest: reconciling activities
and experiences with government and certification requirements (New Brunswick).
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: To achieve sustainable forest management, decision-making processes should
involve the public and consider society'
s values. Various public participation
mechanisms and collaborative institutions provide citizens with opportunities to influence
the future of Canada'
s forests. These opportunities may arise as a result of initiatives
including: requirements established in provincial legislation and regulations, pursuit of
sustainable forest management certification, and in the operation and activities of
Canada'
s Model Forests. This study examines opportunities for joint fulfillment of
requirements and expectations. I investigated whether public participation activities of
the Fundy Model Forest (FMF) in New Brunswick could be considered sufficient for the
industrial timber license holder to meet provincial regulations and requirements of forest
certification standards as they relate to public participation. The study involved several
data collection and analysis methods: (a) participant observation at meetings; (b)
interviews; and (c) document analysis. All 34 official partner organizations in the FMF
(as of May 2002) were invited to participate, and 29 partner representatives were
interviewed. The interviews consisted of open-ended questions designed to identify the
perspectives and understand the experiences of participants at the FMF.
38
Park, A., C. Henschel , B. Kuttne , and G. McEachern. 2004. A Cut Above: A Look
at Alternatives to Clearcutting in the Boreal Forest. Wildlands League 1-50pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: In this report, we explore ways in which silvicultural alternatives to traditional
clearcut harvesting can support wildlife conservation goals in boreal forests. We describe
the effects of clearcut logging on boreal forests and their wildlife, summarize recent
changes in forest management philosophy and outline the basis of these changes in recent
research. The stand and landscape levels of management are both important in wildlife
management. However, in this report we focus on stand-level practices, because this is
where silvicultural practices directly influence local habitat quality.
Peterson, J. E. 1999. The effects of forest harvest on bryophyte recolonization in a
mixed forest in New Brunswick M.Sc. thesis . University of New Brunswick: Saint John.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: This study examined disturbance characteristics resulting from forest harvest
and associated changes in bryophyte species, the ability of two bryophyte species to
tolerate the environmental conditions that result from forest harvest, and the species
composition of the bryophyte diaspore bank in the Hayward Brook watershed. Different
suites of disturbance characteristics were associated with specific forest practices, i.e.
cutting and scarification. Whereas clearcutting removes tree canopy, thereby altering the
microclimate, subsequent scarification redistributes slash and disturbs the litter and soil
substrates, increasing the intensity of disturbance. At the quadrat scale, individual
disturbance characteristics occur in all treatments (uncut, cut, and cut and scarified),
however their occurrence increases in frequency with harvest intensity. Bryophyte
community composition immediately after harvest is more strongly related to pre-harvest
bryophyte composition than to disturbance variables, however loss of species from the
community is more prevalent with the combination of cutting and scarification.
Transplant experiments showed that both Dicranum polysetum and Pleurozium schreberi
were able to tolerate the environmental conditions that commonly occur during and after
forest harvest for at least two years. The amelioration of environmental extremes that is
provided by light slash cover proved beneficial to Pleurozium but not Dicranum. Both
species exhibited greater final weights on mineral substrate than on humus, which is at
least partly due to increased inorganic uptake from mineral substrate. A diaspore bank of
at least 25 bryophyte taxa exists in the soil of the Hayward Brook area, but its species
composition is very different from that of the pre-harvest vegetation. There is no apparent
relationship between stand treatments (uncut, cut, and cut and scarified) and the species
composition of the diaspore bank. The diaspore bank is a potential source for
recolonization after forest harvest, but it is unlikely to result in reassembly of the same
pre-harvest bryophyte community.
39
Ponomarenko, E. and A. Telka. Paleoentomological investigation of forest insect
influences on older growth eastern hemlock. . Unpublished report for Parks Canada.
18pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: A preliminary paleoentomological study was conducted in selected hemlock
stands of Keimkujik National Park and National Historic Site in 2003. Forest duff
components were examined in four sites within the park and two sites outside the park
and used as a source of information for past natural disturbances such as insect outbreaks
and fires. The study involved analysis of stratigraphic zonation of forest duff,
morphological analysis of coprolites of forest pests, and identifications of insect remains
in forest duff. This approach allowed the recording of current and past pale-winged gray
infestations, along with other insect pests in sites within and outside the park. The resuts
show that some sites are currently infested only by pale-winged gray, whereas in other
sites pwg and other insect pests are affecting hemlock stands.
Rajora, O. P., A. Mosseler, and J.E. Major. 2002. Mating system and reproductive
fitness traits of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in large, central versus small, isolated,
marginal populations. 80: 1173-1184pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Multilocus (tm) and single-locus(ts) outcrossing and actual inbreeding rates and
seed traits were determined for eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in six small,
remnant, and marginal populations from two regions (East and West) in Newfoundland
and in three large populations from the center of the species'geographic range in Ontario
to examine the effects of small population size and fragmentation on mating system
parameters and reproductive fitness. The population tm ranged from 0.867 to 0.991, with
a mean of 0.924 over all nine populations. The mean ts ranged from 0.672 to 0.908, with
a mean of 0.797 over the nine populations. The Ontario populations, on average, showed
higher but statistically similar outcrossing rates (tm = 0.947, ts = -.848) to the
Newfoundland populations (tm = 0.912, ts = 0.772). The Newfoundland West
populations, on average, showed the lowest outcrossing rates (tm = 0.889, ts = 0.716).
Individual family outcrossing rates, although slightly higher, were similar to their
respective population outcrossing rates, and no significant differences were observed
among families within populations. The mean ts were significantly lower than their
corresponding tm, and the differences were significantly and positively correlated with
the number of loci showing significant regression of pollen allele frequency on ovule
genotype, suggesting possible occurrence of consanguineous mating. The Ontario
populations showed the highest and the Newfoundland West populations the lowest
40
reproductive fitness, with Newfoundland East populations ranking higher than
Newfoundland West but significantly lower than Ontario populations. Actual inbreeding
rates, determined by combining allozyme-based estimates of selfing in the filled seed
component with estimates of inbreeding from the proportions of empty seeds, ranged
from 7.4 to 31.6%, with an average of 22% for all populations and 11.1% for the Ontario,
24.7% for the Newfoundland East, and 30.1% for the Newfoundland West populations.
Multilocus outcrossing rates were significantly correlated (i) negatively with the average
distance to the five nearest neighboring trees (a surrogate measure for within-stand
densities of reproductively mature trees) and (ii) positively with the proportion of filled
seeds per cone. The filial seed progeny fixation index was positively correlated with both
(i) average nearest-neighbor distances and (ii) proportion of empty seeds per cone. Thus,
we detected strong interrelationships between the within-stand density of reproductively
mature trees and both outcrossing rates and filled seed production. Interestingly, there
was no relationship between the fixation index of the mature parent stands and their
density. The genetic status of integrity of the extant parental populations may have been
largely unaffected by the large-scale population decline experienced by eastern white
pine early in the 20th century, a decline that showed an adverse effect on reproductive
fitness of these populations.
Rempel, R. S., D.W. Andison, and S. L Hannon. 2004. Guiding principles for
developing an indicator and monitoring framework. 80: 82-90pp.
Copy location: 1
Abstract: Sustainable forest management ideally involves five elements; 1) establishing a
clear set of values, goals and objectives and, 2) planning actions that are most likely to
meet desired goals and objectives, 3) implementing appropriate management activities, 4)
monitoring the outcomes to check on predictions, effectiveness, and assumptions, and 5)
evaluating and adjusting management depending on the outcome of monitoring. Within
this framework, indicators are used to determine whether the outcome of management
has met the intended goals. In this paper we provide general guidance for developing an
integrated and logical monitoring system, define and differentiate between “evaluative”
and “prescriptive” indicators, provide more specific advice on choosing evaluative
indicators (including a comparison of types of ecological indicators), and provide specific
advice on defining prescriptive indicators. Our guidelines for developing an indicator and
monitoring framework are based on three principals. The first principle is to develop a
logical framework, including 1) establishing clear values and goals before settling
indicators and objectives, and 2) linking prescriptive and evaluative indicators directly to
plan objectives, and to each other. The second principal is to use the framework to learn
adaptively by: 1) designing management activities to address specific questions, 2)
learning about thresholds, and 3) testing assumptions. The third principal is to create a
formal plan for learning.
Rowe, J. S. 1972. Forest Regions of Canada. Canadian Forestry Service: Halifax.
41
Geographic location: Canada
Sanderson, L, K.Beesley, and R. Colborne. 2000. Public Perceptions and Attitudes
toward Sustainable Forest Management: Central Nova Scotia, 2000. Nova Forest
Alliance 94pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Forests are an integral part of the economy and way of life of Nova Scotians.
Increased knowledge about the interaction between the forest environment and people is
an essential part of understanding sustainable forest management in a region. Therefore, a
comprehensive study of sociocultural character, including perceptions and attitudes, is
necessary to ensure the viability of our forests. Within this context, the current research is
directed at an in-depth understanding of the perceptions, beliefs, and behaviour of the
people living in and near the Nova Forest Alliance (NFA) Model Forest Project Area,
which constitutes an area of 458,000 ha or 1.3 million acres and stretches between Truro
and Halifax and Windsor and Caribou Mines. In particular this study focuses on the
general public’s ideas about the sustainability of Nova Scotia’s forests.
Sanderson, L, R. Colborne, and K. Beesley. 2000. Woodland Owners’ Perceptions and
Attitudes toward Sustainable Forest Management: Central Nova Scotia, 2000. Nova
Forest Alliance 104pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Forests are an integral part of the economy and way of life of Nova Scotians.
One of the groups most interested in the long-term viability of the forests is the group
who own woodland. The beliefs and attitudes of woodland owners play an important role
in how forests are managed and sustained. Yet a comprehensive study of the sociocultural
character of woodland owners has not been undertaken in Nova Scotia in recent times.
Within this context, the current research is directed at an in-depth understanding of the
perceptions, beliefs, and behaviour of the people living in and near the Nova Forest
Alliance (NFA), Nova Scotia’s Model Forest Project area which constitutes an area of
458,000 ha or 1.3 million acres and stretches between Truro and Halifax and Windsor
and Caribou Mines. In particular this study focuses on woodland owners’ ideas about the
sustainability of Nova Scotia’s forests.
42
Stewart, B. J., P.D. Neily, E.J. Quigley, A.P. Duke, and L.K. Benjamin. 2003.
Selected Nova Scotia old-growth forests: age, ecology, structure, scoring. 79: 632644pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: north river, panuke lake, sporting lake
Strang, R. M. 1971. To plant or not to plant: land use on the barrens of southwestern
Nova Scotia. 47: 1-2pp.
Geographic location: Tobeatic
Sun, G., S. G. McNulty, J. P. Shepard, D. M. Amatya, H. Riekerk, N. B. Comerford,
W. Skaggs, and L. Swift Jr. 2001. Effects of timber management on the hydrology of
wetland forests in the southern United States. 143 : 227-236pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to review the hydrologic impacts of various
common forest management practices that include harvesting, site preparation, and
drainage. Field hydrological data collected during the past 5-10 years from ten forested
wetland sites across the southern US are synthesized using various methods including
hydrologic simulation models and Geographic Information Systems. Wetland systems
evaluated include red river bottoms, black river bottoms, pocosins, wet mineral flats,
cypress domes, and pine flatwoods. Hydrologic variables used in this assessment include
water table level, drainage, and storm flow on different spatial and temporal scales.
Wetland ecosystems have higher water storage capacity and higher evapotranspiration
than uplands. Hydrologic impacts of forest management are variable, but generally
minor, especially when forest best management practices are adopted. A conceptually
generalized model is developed to illustrate the relative magnitude of hydrologic effects
of forest management on different types of wetlands in southern US. This model suggests
that in addition to soils, wetland types, and management practice options, climate is an
important factor in controlling wetland hydrology and the magnitude of disturbance
impacts. Bottomland wetlands, partial harvesting, and warm climate usually offer
conditions that result in low hydrologic impacts.
Thompson, S. 2004. Characteristics of Coarse, Woody Debris in Southwestern Nova
Scotia Forests. Dalhousie University 1-110pp.
Copy location: 2
43
Geographic location: SNBR
Abstract: Coarse woody debris (CWD) was characterized in eleven coniferous stands in
southwestern Nova Scotia. The stands were dominated by red spruce (Picea rubens),
white pine (Pinus strobus), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). They ranged in age
from 55 to 190 years old, and were classified as young (40 to 80 yr), mature (80 to 120
yr), and old-growth (120+ yr) forest. Each age class included two unharvested and two
partially-harvested stands, except for the mature class in which only one harvested stand
was found. Harvest treatment consisted of commercial thinning in the young stands,
uniform selection harvest in the mature stand, and selection and/or shelterwood harvest in
the old-growth stands in the past three to six years. The main objective of this study was
to evaluate the effects of stand age (using a chronosequence approach) and harvest
treatment on the quantity and quality of CWD. Subsidiary objectives were to determine
the accuracy of the line-intersect method for estimating the volume of downed CWD, and
compare the difference in volume between using 7.0 and 9.0 cm as the minimum
diameter to define CWD. The volume of snags ranged from 13.3 to 50.2 m3/ha in the
unharvested stands, and 7.1 to 46.2 m3/ha in the harvested stands. By age class, snag
volumes averaged 21.2, 34.0, and 37.4 m3/ha in the young, mature, and old unharvested
stands respectively. For the harvested stands, they were 15.5, 7.1, and 28.1 m3/ha in the
young, mature, and old age classes respectively. The volume of downed CWD ranged
from 22.2 to 77.9 m3/ha in the unharvested stands, and 57.0 to 154.0 m3/ha in the
harvested stands. By age class, downed CWD volumes averaged 26.3, 39.2, and 77.5
m3/ha in the young, mature, and old unharvested stands respectively. For the harvested
stands, they were 69.2, 63.4, and 113.4 m3/ha in the young, mature, and old age classes
respectively. The total volume of CWD ranged from 35.5 to 128.1 m3/ha in the
unharvested stands, and 69.2 to 163.8 m3/ha in the harvested stands. By age class, the
total CWD volumes averaged 47.5, 73.2, and 114.9 m3/ha in the young, mature, and old
unharvested stands respectively. For the harvested stands, they were 84.6, 70.4, and 141.4
m3/ha in the young, mature, and old age classes respectively. The volume of snags was
concentrated in decay classes 1 and 2, but there were no major patterns by stand age or
harvest treatment. The volume of downed CWD in decay classes 2 and 3 was higher in
the harvested stands, while that in decay class 5 was higher in the unharvested stands.
There were no major patterns for the total volume of CWD by decay class. The results of
this study suggest that harvest treatment may have an effect on the volume of snags, and
stand age may have an effect on the volume of downed CWD. The line-intersect method
was a good approach for estimating the volume of downed CWD in these stands. The
CWD volumes for the two minimum diameters were significantly different in almost all
cases, but had little impact on the analysis of the effects of stand age and harvest
treatment on the volume of CWD.
Vowell, J. L. and R.B. Frydenborg. 2004. A biological assessment of best management
practice effectiveness during intensive silviculture and forest chemical application. 4:
297-307pp.
Geographic location: Florida
44
Abstract: A multi-year study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Florida’s
Best Management Practices (BMPs) for protecting aquatic ecosystems during intensive
forestry operations and forest chemical applications. Five silviculture sites adjacent to
stream systems were selected for study from major eco-regions of the state. Replicate
stream bioassessments, using a multimetric approach (the Stream Condition Index), were
conducted as part of a ‘before-after, control-impact’ (BACI) study design.
Bioassessment stations were established above and below the treatment area to determine
pre-treatment reference and test conditions. Silviculture treatments of clearcut harvesting,
intensive mechanical site preparation and machine planting were then completed, during
which all applicable BMPs were adhered to. In addition, two sites received an herbicide
application and one site was fertilized. Following the treatments, the sites were resampled at the same points both one year, and two years after the first bioassessment. No
significant differences in the SCI were observed between the reference and test portions
of the streams that could be attributed to the silviculture operations using BMPs. Hence,
the study showed that BMPs provided protection to adjacent stream ecosystems, even
during intensive silviculture and forest chemical applications.
Wilson, S. J. and R. Colman. 2001. The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index Forest
Accounts. GPI Atlantic: Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
45
Invertebrates
Behmer, D. J. and C.P. Hawkins. 1986. Effects of overhead canopy on
macroinvertebrate production in a Utah stream. 16: 287-300pp.
Copy location: ISI:A1986C915200001
Geographic location: USA
Briers, R. A., H.M. Cariss, and J.H.R. Gee. 2002. Dispersal of adult stoneflies
(Plecoptera) from upland streams draining catchments with contrasting land-use. 155:
627-644pp.
Copy location: ISI:000179937500007
Geographic location: New Zealand
Abstract: Populations of benthic invertebrates in neighbouring streams are isolated from
each other by intervening terrestrial habitat. The adult stages of stream insects that are
capable of flight may disperse between streams, although little is known of the extent of
inter-stream dispersal, or the degree to which movement is influenced by riparian
vegetation. Double-headed Malaise traps were set at differing distances from the channel
to measure the numbers of adult stoneflies moving towards or away from three upland
streams draining adjacent catchments on the Plynlimon ridge in mid-Wales. Riparian
vegetation differed between the streams: open sheep-grazed moorland, buffer strips left
free from 15 year old plantation forestry, and mature conifers planted up to the stream
bank. Adult abundance was broadly consistent with benthic larval abundance. In three of
the five most abundant species (Amphinemura sulcicollis, Leuctra fusca and
Siphonoperla torrentium) abundance varied inversely with the amount of forestry in the
riparian zone. In the others (L. inermis and L nigra) numbers caught were unrelated to
forestry. Relationships between adult abundance and distance from the channel were best
described by inverse power functions. Numbers of adults declined sharply with distance
from the stream; 90 % of adults were caught within I I in of the stream channel. The rate
of decline of adult numbers with distance did not differ with riparian vegetation. Interstream differences in the numbers caught at particular distances were due to differences
in overall abundance. There were no differences in the number of males or females
caught at different distances from the stream. At all times more stoneflies were caught in
the side of the trap facing the stream than that facing away, although the difference was
greatest in the middle of the flight period and least at the beginning and end. Overall, the
majority of adult stoneflies did not disperse a significant distance from the stream
channel, suggesting that only a very limited number of individuals are likely to disperse
between streams.
46
Briers, R. A. and J.H.R. Gee. 2004. Riparian forestry management and adult stream
insects. 8: 545-549pp.
Geographic location: England
Brown, A. V., Y. Aguila, K.B. Brown, and W.P. Fowler. 1997. Responses of benthic
macroinvertebrates in small intermittent streams to silvicultural practices. 347: 119125pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: We examined macroinvertebrate communities in small (0.1-1.0 m(2)) pools of
intermittent streams (always containing some water but without perennial flow) with
small watersheds (2-6 ha) subjected to five types of forest harvest to assess potential
impacts of the different harvest methods. Buffer strips 10 m wide were left on each side
of the streams. Each harvest treatment was coupled with a similar unharvested reference
stand. An incomplete block design included three 0.05 m(2) vacuum samples from each
treatment paired with three from the adjacent references. There was a high degree of
similarity among references for parameters other than taxonomic composition (e.g.
macroinvertebrate density, number of species, Shannon diversity, functional groups, etc.).
Statistically significant differences were found between references and treatments and
among harvest methods but the responses varied among response variables (density,
Shannon-Weiner diversity, species composition), different species assemblages (all
invertebrates, chironomids, Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera [EPT], isopods), and
functional group categories (shredders, collector-gatherers). We collected 56 taxa, 7-16
per site, with low community similarity (mean Jaccard'
s = 0.18, mean Bray-Curtis
percent dissimilarity = 81). The most severe harvest treatments resulted in the highest
diversities of total invertebrates in these small spring pool communities.
Collier, K. J. and B.J. Smith. 2005. Effects of progressive catchment harvesting on
stream invertebrates in two contrasting regions of New Zealand'
s North Island. 56: 5768pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: New Zealand
Abstract: We examined in stream habitat and benthic communities in two contrasting
regions of New Zealand’s North Island over 9-10 year periods as pine forest harvesting
progressed through the catchments. Increases in streambed cover by sand/silt, wood and
macrophytes were recorded as harvesting progressed, but little change was observed in
qualitative periphyton abundance. Despite similar high-level taxonomic structure of
47
invertebrate communities between the two regions, differences in percentage and logtransformed abundance indicated an effect of landscape context that reflected different
hydrologies and bed-substratum stabilities. Within regions, ordination plots indicated
broadly distinct site clusters that persisted through time and reflected variations in stream
size, substratum composition, periphyton abundance and degree of catchment harvesting.
Generally, few of the invertebrate community metrics examined showed clear responses
to progressive catchment or onsite harvesting relative to previous intra- and inter-annual
variation. The most noticeable exceptions were percentage Ephemeroptera, negatively
and positively correlated, respectively, with percentage catchment harvested. We
identified three broad response categories to catchment harvesting that reflect subsidystress effects as logging progressed and discuss the relevance of these findings to
potential pine forest harvesting effects in southern Australia.
Cortes, R. M. V. 1992. Seasonal pattern of benthic communities along the longitudinal
axis of river systems and the influence of abiotic factors on the spatial structure of those
communities. 126: 85-103pp.
Copy location: 1
Abstract: Multivariate analysis (ordination and classification) of assemblages of
macroinvertebrates in nutrient poor fast flowing streams in northern Portugal, show that
these communities are mainly controlled by environmental factors. Besides, temporal
variation in these commmunities of benthic fauna is more reduced in the middle order
stretches when compares with the upper ones.
D’Amico, F., S. Darblade, S. Avignon, S. Blanc-Manel, and S. J. Ormerod. 2004.
Odonates as Indicators of Shallow Lake Restoration by Liming: Comparing Adult and
Larval Responses. 12: 439-446pp.
Geographic location: France
Abstract: Odonate assemblages were compared between replicate sets of shallow lakes
that had been created and acidified byopen-cast mining across a large area (2,451 ha) of
southwest France (Arjuzanx, Landes); one set of lakes (n55) was experimentally restored
by liming with calcium carbonate, whereas another group (n55) was left as untreated
reference lakes. Both odonate adults and exuviae were sampled bimonthly during
May_August 1998. Elevated turbidity and conductivity in limed lakes were the only
physicochemical measures differing between restored and reference lakes, because
deacidification occurred naturally, even in reference lakes during the 17 years after the
onset of restoration. Restoration by liming can apparently lead to effects on lake turbidity
that might be considered adverse. Twenty-four and 19 odonate species occurred among
adults and exuviae, respectively, but there were no significant differences in richness
between restored and reference sites. However, significantly, more exuviae were
collected from the reference sites (588 vs. 180), where exuvial diversity and rank
48
abundance indicated more evenly structured assemblages than those in restored lakes.
Ordination showed that adult assemblages differed significantly between restored and
reference lakes, and varied highly significantly with lake turbidity. This effect occurred
because a small group of generally scarce adults were characteristic of reference sites
(Chalcolestes viridis, Lestes virens, Cordulia aenae, Leucorrhinia albifrons, and
Sympetrum sanguineum). Exuviae of these same species were less abundant at restored
sites, but exuvial assemblages overall did not discriminate between restored and reference
lakes. We conclude that lake restoration by liming can reduce diversity and larval
numbers among odonates and subtly affects adult assemblages. In this case study, adult
assemblages discriminated best between the lake types involved in the experiment, but
important additional information arose from exuvial abundance and structure. This study
indicates that natural recovery processes after acidification in formerly open-cast
areas__rather than chemical intervention through liming__might lead to preferable
conservation outcomes.
Gjerløvl, C. and J.S. Richardson. 2004. Patchy resources in a heterogeneous
environment: effects of leaf litter and forest cover on colonisation patterns of
invertebrates in a British Columbian stream. Stuttgart. 161: 307-327pp.
Geographic location: British Colombia
Abstract: We tested experimentally the hypotheses that leaves are colonised for their
value as food and not as microhabitat, and that colonisation of leaves would be faster in a
clearcut reach due to food limitation. During weekly trials in a forested and a clearcut
reach of a small stream in the continental interior of British Columbia, Canada, we
provided colonisation cages with one of three leaf treatments (no leaves, artificial, red
alder). Shredder-detritivores referentially colonised the alder leaf packs in both reaches
(densities 3.9 times greater in alder leaf treatments), but there was no difference between
the artificial and no leaf treatments. Preferential colonisation of alder leaves suggests they
were being colonised for their value as food and not microhabitat. Colonisation was faster
in the forested reach for all treatments (cage: benthos ratio for densities greater than 2.3
times those of the clearcut reach), contrary to predictions. Faster colonisation in the
forested reach may be a response to lower UV radiation, a more patchy food source (leaf
litter vs. algae) or greater habitat heterogeneity. These results suggest forest harvesting
can affect community dynamics of streams, primarily through shifts in community
composition.
Haggerty, S. M., D.P. Batzer, and C.R. Jackson. 2003. Macroinvertebrate response to
logging in coastal headwater streams of Washington, U.S.A. 61: 529-537pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
49
Abstract: We examined the effects of logging on macroinvertebrate assemblages in firstorder streams of four coniferous watersheds in Washington’s Coastal Mountain ranges.
Each watershed contained three to four first-order streams that were placed into one of
three treatment types: clear-cut logging, operational buffer-strip (2.521 m) logging, or
uncut reference streams. Prelogging baseline data on macroinvertebrate assemblages,
channel morphology, sediment composition, sediment accretion rates, and water
temperatures were collected from each stream in summer 1998. Logging operations were
conducted the next winter and spring. Streams were resampled in summer 1999, within 1
year of logging, and summer 2000, 1+ years after logging. Preexisting treatment
differences did not exist in 1998, indicating that postharvest treatment differences could
be attributed to logging operations. In 1999, densities of macroinvertebrate collectors,
densities and biomass of macroinvertebrate shredders, and accretion rates of organic
sediments were greater in clear-cut and buffered streams than uncut references. These
differences diminished by 2000. An increase in collecting and shredding
macroinvertebrate is not a typical response to logging and may reflect the fact that logged
streams became buried under slash, increasing detrital food supplies for these organisms.
The narrow buffers used for this study did not prevent macroinvertebrate community
changes associated with logging.
Hawkins, C. P. and J.R. Sedell. 1981. Longitudinal and seasonal changes in functional
organization of macroinvertebrate communities in four Oregon streams. 62: 387-397pp.
Geographic location: USA
Hawkins, C. P., M.L. Murphy, and N.H. Anderson. 1982. Effects of canopy, substrate
composition, and gradient on the structure of macroinvertebrate communities Cascade
Range streams of Oregon. 63: 1840-1856pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The relative importance of surrounding riparian vegetation and substrate
composition on invertebrate community structure was investigated in six streams in
Oregon, USA. We found that canopy type was more important than substrate character in
influencing total abundance and guild structure. Streams without shading had higher
abundances of invertebrates than did shaded streams. Most guilds were influences by
qualitative differences in food availability rather than quantity of food or substrate
composition. Open streams had higher abundances in the collector-gatherer, filter feeder,
herbivore shredder and piercer, and predatory guilds. Contrary to expectations, shredders
were no more abundant in shaded streams that in streams lacking a riparian canopy.
Scraper density was inversely related to standing crop aufwuchs, but biomass was
positively correlated with quantity of aufwuchs. Examination of dominance-diversity
curves showed that both canopy and substrate influenced ranked abundances of taxa, but
50
neither canopy nor substrate strongly influenced number of taxa. Differences in
community structure were not always revealed by analysis of community-level
properties, although differences in both the absolute and relative abundances of
individual taxa were observed.
Hawkins, C. P., R.H. Norris, J.M. Hogue, and J.W. Feminella. 2000. Development
and evaluation of predictive models for measuring the biological integrity of streams.
10: 1456-1477pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: California
Abstract: The ratio of the number of observed taxa to that expected to occur in the
absence of human-caused stress (O/E) is an intuitive and ecologically meaningful
measure of biological integrity. We examined how O/E ratios derived from stream
invertebrate data varied among 234 unimpaired reference sites and 254 test sites
potentially impaired by past logging. Data were collected from streams in three montane
ecoregions in California. Two sets of River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification
System (RIVPACS) predictive models were built: one set of models was based on nearspecies taxonomic resolution; the other was based on family identifications. Two models
were built for each level of taxonomic resolution: one calculated O and E based on all
taxa with probabilities of capture (Pc) . 0; the other calculated O and E based on only
those taxa with Pc $ 0.5. Evaluations of the performance of each model were based on
three criteria: (1) how well models predicted the taxa found at unimpaired sites, (2) the
degree to which O/E values differed among unimpaired reference sites and potentially
impaired test sites, and (3) the degree to which test site O/E values were correlated with
independent measures of watershed alteration. Predictions of species models were more
accurate than those of family models, and predictions of the Pc $ 0.5 species model were
more robust than predictions of the Pc $ 0 model. O/E values derived from both species
models were related to land use variables, but only assessments based on the Pc $ 0.5
model were insensitive to naturally occurring differences among streams, ecoregions, and
years.
Hogg, I. D. and D.D. Williams. 1996. Response of stream invertebrates to a globalwarming thermal regime: an ecosystem-level manipulation. 77: 395-407pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Hogg, I. D., D.D. Williams, J.M. Eadie, and S.A. Butt. 1995. The consequences of
global warming for stream invertebrates - a field simulation. 20: 199-206pp.
Copy location: ISI:A1995QL61000020
51
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: 1. We manipulated the thermal regime of a stream and analyzed the population
genetics of constituent species to examine the effects of global warming on stream
invertebrates.
2. Increased temperature resulted in significantly lower total densities of invertebrates
and altered growth patterns for two target species.
3. Hyalella azteca showed the greatest change in growth and also exhibited high levels of
genetic differentiation among populations. Nemoura trispinosa showed only small shifts
in growth and phenology and exhibited little genetic differentiation among populations.
4. The potential impacts of global warming may depend critically on the dispersal
abilities and genetic structure of lotic populations.
Hogg, I. D. and R.H. Norris. 1991. Effects of runoff from land clearing and urbandevelopment on the distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates in pool areas of a
river. 42: 507-518pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Australia
Abstract: We examined the effects of runoff from urban land clearing and development
on the macroinvertebrate Pool fauna of the Murrumbidgee River, Australia, over 1 year.
Tuggeranong Creek, which flows through the urban development, often recorded higher
instantaneous (storm) discharges than did the Murrumbidgee River. Monitoring of
suspended solids during one storm event revealed high concentrations of suspended
solids (max. 560 mg L-1) entering the Murrumbidgee River for an 8 h period. Such
concentrations were not detected by regular two-monthly sampling, although
concentrations were generally higher downstream of Tuggeranong Creek. Analysis of
substratum particle size revealed a higher proportion of fine inorganic material (< 250mu-m) at stations downstream of Tuggeranong Creek, suggesting a settling of fine
material discharged during storm events. Number of taxa and macroinvertebrate density
were lower at downstream stations. We conclude that the deposition of fine inorganic
sediment following storm events, and the resulting change in the composition of the
substratum, was the major cause of low invertebrate numbers in pools downstream of the
cleared catchment.
Jennings, G., D. Oenrose, M. Shaffer, and D. Tullos . 2004. Evaluating the controlling
processes of benthic communities in the NC Piedmont . SRI 1-43pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
52
Karr, J. R. and B.L. Kerans. 1992. Components of biological integrity: their definition
and use in development of an invertebrate IBI. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:
Chicago, IL. 1-16pp.
Copy location: KEJ (D. Ure)
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Protection of quality of water resources is critical to the maintenance of our
way of life. Recent threats, such as the drought in California, fish consumption
advisories, and contamination of beaches, are illustrative of the extent of abuse of water
resources. These widespread declines in the quality of water resources have altered
societal perceptions of and goals for the management of those resources. Growing
interest in biological assessment in the last decade is in sharp contrast to the status quo of
earlier decades. In this paper, we briefly review the evolution of water law and outline the
conceptual foundations of ambient biological monitoring. We illustrate the use of those
foundations as we outline our efforts to develop a methodology for use of invertebrates in
assessing biological integrity.
Kreutzweiser, D. P., S.S. Capell, and K.P. Good. 2005. Effects of fine sediment inputs
from a logging road on stream insect communities: a large-scale experimental approach
in a Canadian headwater stream. 39: 55-66pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: A forest headwater stream was manipulated (logging road-crossing amended)
to induce fine sediment inputs. Benthic inorganic sediment concentrations (particles 1.5250 & mu; m) increased from a 2-year pre-disturbance average of about 800 g m(-2) to
over 5000 g m(-2) that persisted for 3 years. Aquatic insect communities were examined
over the 5-year study period in the manipulated and nearby reference streams. Overall,
the effects of the fine sediment increases on aquatic insect communities were minimal.
There were no significant effects of sedimentation on total aquatic insect abundance or
biomass. An index of multivariate dispersion gave no evidence of community stress at the
manipulated site. Multivariate ordination plots and time trends among univariate
community metrics indicated only subtle changes in community structure. Among the
univariate metrics (16 time series analyses in total), six gave evidence of a sediment
impact on aquatic insect communities. Of those, the clearest indications of an effect were
small reductions in diversity and richness of spring communities. These resulted from a
significant decline in the proportion of spring shredders, accompanied by a significant
increase in the percent Chironomidae. This large-scale experimental approach integrated
the realism of a whole-stream study with the control of a manipulative study by including
pre-manipulation measurements and excluding other confounding catchment
53
disturbances. In this regard, it may provide a more realistic measure of benthic
community-level responses to sedimentation in streams at a magnitude associated with
logging activity than many previous studies.
Kreutzweiser, D. P., S.S. Capell, and K.P. Good. 2005. Macroinvertebrate community
responses to selection logging in riparian and upland areas of headwater catchments in a
northern hardwood forest. 24: 208-222pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Aquatic insect communities were examined in 2 streams at different selection
logging intensities in headwater catchments of a northern hardwood forest. Insect
communities of these streams were compared to those of a nearby reference stream (no
harvesting) over a 2-y pre- and 3-y post-logging period. The experimental catchments
were logged by mechanical harvester and cable skidders, one at a low-intensity (29%
basal area removal) and the other at a moderate-intensity (42% basal area removal)
harvesting rate. There were no riparian reserves or buffer zones, but logging was
conducted in compliance with riparian code of practice (3-m setback from stream edges)
and other best management practices. Changes in community structure, community
metrics, or relative abundance of discriminatory taxa attributable to logging impacts were
not detected at the low intensity site. Some deviations from reference and pre-logging
trends in community structure, multivariate dispersion, and population levels of
discriminatory taxa were detected at the moderate-intensity site after the logging. These
deviations were mainly driven by small, but usually significant, increases in abundance of
5 gatherer taxa. The increases in abundance of gatherer taxa appeared to be a response to
a significant increase (~2.5X) in streambed deposition of fine particulate organic material
at that site. However, the shifts in community structure and changes in abundance of
these taxa at the moderate-intensity site were not larger than some natural changes in
abundance among other taxa at the reference site over the 5-y study. The increase in
abundance of some taxa at the moderate-intensity site may indicate a logging impact, but
the changes were small and there were no indications of reciprocal declines among other
taxa. It appears that selection logging at up to 42% basal area removal in compliance with
the riparian code of practice and other good management practices largely mitigated
alterations to stream habitat and insect communities in these northern hardwood forest
catchments.
Melody, K. J. and J.S. Richardson. 2004. Responses of invertebrates and algae of a
boreal coniferous forest stream to experimental manipulation of leaf litter inputs and
shading. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Netherlands. 519: 197-206pp.
Copy location: 2
54
Geographic location: British Colombia
Abstract: Forest harvesting alters leaf litter inputs and shading of small streams. Most of
the previous studies of harvesting effects are limited to coastal or deciduous forests, so
here we consider a sub-boreal forest stream. To test the hypothesis that changes in light
and litter inputs would affect the benthic community in these streams, we experimentally
manipulated these variables in stream mesocosms. We used a 2 × 2 factorial design with
light (shaded or full light) and leaf litter inputs (equivalent to a forested stream or one
quarter that rate) as factors. The high leaf litter treatment resulted in differences in
macroinvertebrate community composition and higher densities of two shredders,
Limnephilus sp. and Podmosta sp., suggesting food limitation. Algal filaments were
longer in the high light treatments indicating a change in periphyton composition. There
were no significant differences in chlorophyll a or ash-free dry mass, suggesting that light
was not limiting to periphyton. The community structure clearly shifted in response to
both resources, although primarily to detrital inputs. These results provide evidence
that changes to shading and leaf inputs to small streams can affect the benthos and may
limit secondary production.
Newbold, J. D., D.C. Erman, and K.B. Roby. 1980. Effects of logging on
macroinvertebrates in streams with and without buffer strips. 37: 1076-1085pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: California
Abstract: The impact of logging with and without buffer strip protection on stream
macroinveterebrates was examined through comparisons of community structure in
commercially logged and control watersheds throughout northern California. A
nonparametric test of community dissimilarities within matched blocks of two control
and one or two treated stations showed significant (P<0.05) logging effects on
unprotected streams when Euclidean distance and mutual information were used as
dissimilarity indices, but not when chord distance was used. Shannon diversity in
unprotected streams was lower (P<0.01) than in controls (unlogged) streams: densities of
total macroinvertebrate fauna and of Chironomidea, Baetis, and Nemoura were higher in
unprotected streams than in controls ( P<0.05). Streams with narrow buffer strips (<30m)
showed significant effects by the Euclidean distance test, but diversity varied widely and
was not significantly different from that in either unprotected or control streams.
Macroinvertebrate communities in streams with wide buffers (> 30m) could not be
distinguished from those of controls by either Euclidean distance or diversity; however,
diversity in wide- buffered streams was significantly greater than in streams without
buffer strips, indicating effective protection from logging effects.
55
Ormerod, S. J., M.E. Jones, M.C. Jones, and D.R. Phillips. 2004. The effects of
riparian forestry on invertebrate drift and brown trout in upland streams of contrasting
acidity. 8: 578-588pp.
Geographic location: England
Ormerod, S. J., S.D. Rundle, E.C. Lloyd, and A.A. Douglas. 1993. The Influence of
Riparian Management on the Habitat Structure and Macroinvertebrate Communities of
Upland Streams Draining Plantation Forests. 30: 13-24pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: UK
Abstract: 1. Habitat features and macroinvertebrate communities were surveyed in 66
predominantly upland streams throughout Wales and Scotland to assess the efficacy of
riparian management (as '
buffer strips'
) in protecting stream resources during commercial
forestry. 2. Habitat data were reduced by principal components analysis (PCA). Macroinvertebrates in the stream margins and riffles were considered separately, and ordination
of the community data was by DECORANA. 3. Habitat gradients recognized between the
streams from PCA included trends in size, ionic strength, acidity, substratum type, and in
the characteristics of marginal habitats. The latter represented a change from margins
dominated by '
soft'vegetation features to margins composed of '
hard'features such as
tree roots, rock and stones. 4. Marginal habitat characteristics differed between streams
with different riparian management. Streams with '
harder'margins occurred where the
banks were covered with either conifers or broadleaves. Streams with '
softer'margins
occurred in seminatural moorland, and where a '
buffer strip'of moorland vegetation had
been retained along the stream at the planting stage. Streams in conifer forest in which a
riparian buffer strip had been cleared retrospectively were intermediate. 5. For any given
pH, aluminum concentrations were significantly higher in streams draining conifer
catchments than in streams draining whole catchments of moorland or deciduous
woodland. This effect occurred irrespective of buffer strips in conifer catchments. 6. The
taxon richnesses of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and all taxa combined, in
both riffles and margins, declined significantly with increasing acidity and aluminum
concentration. Primary ordination axes from both habitats correlated with taxon richness,
and hence also with pH and aluminum. However, there were significant effects on the
ordination scores by riparian management, due mostly to reduced taxon richnesses in
conifer sites without buffer strips. Significant effects remained even after accounting for
increased aluminum concentration at conifer sites. 7. We conclude that gradients related
to acidity are dominant correlates with the composition of invertebrate communities in
upland British streams. However, riparian management can influence stream habitat
structure and, to some extent, the macroinvertebrate fauna in the stream margins. Buffer
strips consisting of broadleaf trees and moorland/grassland vegetation have different
effects on taxonomic composition and abundance. They are most effective when
56
implemented at the planting stage, though further data are required to assess succession
with time where buffer strips have been cleared retrospectively.
Petersen, I, Z. Masters, A. G. Hildrew, and S. J. Ormerod. 2004. Dispersal of adult
aquatic insects in catchments of differing land use. 41: 934-950pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: England
Abstract: 1.There have been widespread changes in land use in the uplands of the UK but
the implications for dispersal of adult stages of aquatic invertebrates are poorly known.
We estimated the lateral dispersal of adult aquatic insects (Plecoptera, Trichoptera,
Ephemeroptera) in seven small, upland streams draining catchments under three
categories of land use (coniferous plantation forest, cleared forest, moorland).
2.Malaise traps were set out in transects perpendicular to each stream. More than
29 000 adult insects were taken, distributed among 15 species of stoneflies, 40 species
of caddisflies and eight taxa of mayflies. Overall species diversity and equitability
were highest in the moorland catchments, and few species were numerous in all
catchments.3.Nearly all the mayflies were taken in the moorland catchments, where
caddisflies were also most abundant. Fewest stoneflies were taken in the forested
catchments. 4.The vast majority of insects were taken either directly over, or very close
to, the stream channel. Half the stoneflies were taken within 18 m of the channel, while
90% had travelled less than 60 m. Caddisflies and mayflies travelled even shorter
distances. Although there were differences in lateral dispersal between some catchments,
there was no overall effect of land use.5.The overall sex ratio in stoneflies and mayflies
in the riparian zone was close to 1 : 1 and lateral dispersal was similar between the sexes.
Male mayflies outnumbered females in the riparian zone and males travelled further from
the stream, on average, than females. In catches taken directly over the stream, female
stoneflies outnumbered males. 6.Regardless of land use, the flight of mayflies and
caddisflies was concentrated along the stream, rather than perpendicular to it. This was
also true for two numerous stoneflies (Amphinemura sulcilcollis and Protonemura
meyeri) and for female stoneflies overall. 7. Synthesis and applications. The stream
corridor, including the riparian strip extending 1020 m on either side of the channel, is
the main habitat for adult aquatic insects, and its management may affect the biodiversity
of aquatic communities. The stream corridor is also revealed as the main ‘highway’ for
adult dispersal. While there is no evidence from this study of an effect on interstream
dispersal of land use elsewhere in the catchment, such an effect cannot yet be refuted
because rare long-distance dispersal events are difficult to record.
Rowe, L. and J.S. Richardson. 2001. Community responses to experimental food
depletion: resource tracking by stream invertebrates. 129: 473-480pp.
Copy location: 2
57
Geographic location: British Colombia
Abstract: The regulation of population processes for most organisms depends upon the
strength and rate of feedback between resources and consumers. We conducted an
experimental manipulation of leaf packs in stream channels, a patchy and ephemeral
resource, which is consumed by a number of detritivorous invertebrates. We reduced the
number of available food patches (red alder leaf packs) by half and then measured a
variety of community responses, including emigration rate, aggregation on remaining
food patches, decomposition rate of food patches, and species-specific differences in
these responses. Replacement of removed leaf packs with polyester mimics resulted in no
statistical difference in emigration rates or aggregation on remaining resources when
compared to those removal channels without replacement. These results indicate that leaf
packs are not used primarily for refuge. In the removal channels (including those with
leaf pack mimics) emigration rate nearly doubled relative to control channels. Those
invertebrates that did not emigrate from removal channels aggregated on remaining leaf
packs, which led to more rapid decomposition of leaf packs relative to control channels.
The increase in emigration rate only became apparent 23 days after the manipulation,
presumably because animals colonized the remaining leaf packs and did not emigrate
until food patch value per individual had been reduced by higher densities or due to
increased discharge. Discharge through the channels increased slightly starting 3 days
after the manipulation, resulting in increased emigration rates in all channels. Despite the
increase in discharge, the effect of the manipulation remained strong. These results show
that stream invertebrates colonizing leaf packs responded in predictable ways to a shortterm reduction in food resources which would be adaptive in a system which is
heterogeneous in space and time.
Schell, V. A. and J.J. Kerekes. 1989. Distribution, abundance and biomass of benthic
macroinvertebrates relative to pH and nutrients in eight lakes of Nova Scotia, Canada.
46: 359-374pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: The lakes investigated ranged widely in pH (3.6-6.3), total phosphorus (3.333.1 ug/L) and calcium (0.35-6.30 mg/L). Several macroinvertebrate groups especially
Pelecypoda, Hirudinea and Gastropoda do not occur in lakes of low pH (<5.0). The
bivalve Pisidium sp. occured in one acidic lake (pH 5.2). Apparently this is the lowest pH
occurence for Pisidium sp. at such low calcium levels (0.35 mg/L). Macroinvertebrate
richness was reduced with increased levels of acidity but nutrient availability apparently
controlled macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass in the lakes.
58
Shaw, E. A. and J.S. Richardson. 2001. Direct and indirect effects of sediment pulse
duration on stream invertebrate assemblages and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
growth and survival. 58: 2213-2221pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: British Colombia
Abstract: Elevated concentrations of inorganic sediment supply in streams may impair
many biological functions. However, the contribution of exposure duration to the
observed impacts has not been previously considered. We evaluated the effects of
sediment pulse duration using 14 streamside flow-through experimental channels, each of
which contained a naturally colonised invertebrate assemblage and 10 rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Channels were exposed to fine sediment pulses of constant
concentration but varied pulse duration (ranging from 0 to 6 h) every second day over 19
days. Total abundance of benthic invertebrate and family richness declined as sediment
pulse duration increased. Invertebrate drift total abundance increased as pulse duration
increased; however, family richness of drift decreased. Trout length and mass gain over
the 19-day period was negatively correlated with pulse duration. Path analysis suggests
that the direct effects of fine sediment on trout (impaired vision leading to reduced prey
capture success and (or) increased metabolic costs from physiological stress) are more
important to trout growth than indirect effects (decreased drift and benthic invertebrate
richness and drift abundance).
Traylor K.M. and J.A. Davis. 1998. Forestry impacts and the vertical distribution of
stream invertebrates in south-western Australia. 40: 331-342pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Australia
Abstract: Vertical distributions of invertebrates were compared from two logged and two
undisturbed head water streams in South West Australia. The abundance and composition
of invertebrates from core samples were determined at different intervals. This study
provides the first description of the interstitial communities of Australian sandy streams.
The invertebrate community was substantially altered in the logged streams, with fewer
taxa collected than in undisturbed streams. Invertebrate densities in the logged and
undisturbed streams did not differ in the upper 5cm of the bed, but below this, densities
were significantly lower in the logged streams. Increased sedimentation did not appear to
be responsible for the differences in community structure between logged and
undisturbed streams.
59
Landscape Connectivity
Arnold, H. 1998. Corridors and connectivity on forest biodiversity planning. B.Sc.F
Thesis. Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New
Brunswick
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The objective of this paper was to determine whether corridors are an
appropriate conservation measure for New Brunswick. Empirical evidence indicates that
species use corridors for movement and for habitat, and that corridors increase both
migration and survival rates. Forestry practices in New Brunswick are fragmenting the
interior, old and unique forest types. The species that are vulnerable are interior habitat
specialists with low mobility (plants, amphibians and small mammals). Corridors are put
forward as a means of conserving biodiversity in a multiple-use landscape by
reconnecting the forest and preserving the flow of wildlife in a changing environment.
Bauer, M. E., N. J. Heinert, J. K. Doyle , and F. Yuan . 2004. Impervious Surface
Mapping and Change Monitoring Using Landsat Remote Sensing. ASPRS Annual
Conference Proceedings. 10pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Landsat TM data have been used to map the percentage of impervious surface
area of the seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in 1986, 1991, 1998 and 2000.
Following classification of land cover types, a regression model relating percent
impervious surface area to “tasselled cap” greenness was used to estimate the percent
impervious surface area for pixels classified as urban or developed. Eighty to 90% of the
variation in imperviousness is accounted for by greenness. Over the entire seven-county
area the amount of impervious area increased from 8.8 to 14.1% between 1986 and 2000.
Classification of the Landsat TM data provides a means to map and quantify the degree
of impervious surface area, an indicator of environmental quality, over large geographic
areas and over time at modest cost.
Beazley, K. 1997. Ecological considerations for protected area system design: the need
for an integrated approach to maintaining biological diversity. 41: 59-76pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
60
Beazley, K. 98. A Focal-Species Approach to Biodiversity Management in Nova Scotia.
Dalhousie University: Halifax. Ph. D. thesis:
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: This thesis examines biodiversity management in Nova Scotia with a particular
focus on protected areas. The necessity for species-population level considerations. In
biodiversity management is demonstrated. An approach for identifying focal-species is
developed and tested. Potential focal-species are identified. The focal-species approach is
then adapted and utilized to select Indicator species to monitor biodiversity in Kejimkujik
National Park. Finally, links are made between focal-species and landscape-level
considerations in Nova Scotia by considering habitat requirements of viable populations.
The framework was found to be useful for identifying potential mammal, reptile and
amphibian, and freshwater fish focal-species. The focal-species framework was also
found to be useful for identifying potential indicator species for monitoring population
dynamics as a measure of biodiversity. Focal-species may also be linked to the
landscape-level by defining parameters relative to the resource or habitat requirements of
the most demanding focal-species. If the landscape requirements of the most vulnerable
and demanding focal-species are met, then many other species will also be protected.
Focal-species were characterized according to threats and habitat or resource
requirements. They were also categorized as area-, dispersal-, resource-, or processlimited, after Lambeck (1997). Focal-species requiring landscape-level biodiversity
management attention include: American moose, fisher, eastern cougar, lynx, little brown
bat, northern longeared bat; wood turtle, Blanding'
s turtle, northern ribbon snake and
Pickerel frog; Atlantic whitefish, Atlantic salmon, and brook trout. Additional
information regarding specific species-population-habitat relationships for particular
regional or biogeographical contexts is required to make precise prescriptions for
landscape-level parameters such as habitat requirements. The thesis concludes that
species-population-level considerations are necessary for biodiversity management. The
focal-species approach may be the best way to integrate and focus information and
initiatives at various levels. A regional population-level approach is recommended to take
into account variations in population and habitat status and biogeographic context. The
approach could also be adapted for other applications and jurisdictions. In summary,
several focal-species were identified in every assessment and thus warrant special
biodiversity management attention at all levels: Eastern cougar, lynx, American marten,
fisher, American moose; wood turtle, Blanding'
s turtle, northern ribbon snake, bluespotted salamander, four-toed salamander; and, Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon,
Atlantic whitefish, brook trout, lake trout and blueback herring. Other potential focalspecies requiring additional research include bats and frogs. Other classes of flora and
fauna should be assessed to identify a full suite of focal-species for biodiversity
management attention in Nova Scotia. These focal-species can provide a focus for
numerous biodiversity planning and management initiatives including partnership and cooperative arrangements and education. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
61
Beazley, K. 1998. Focal-species approach for trans-boundary biodiversity management.
Wolfville. 755-771pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Refinement of a focal-species approach to biodiversity conservation, including
extension of the concept to invertebrate, plant, and marine species; Adaptation and
application of the focal-species selection process to various geographical areas and for
various biodiversity management purposes, including monitoring; Refinement of the
process for linking focal-species to landscape-level parameters for biodiversity
conservation initiatives, through further research in species-habitat relationships,
particularly for viable populations, and in specific populations and regions.
Beazley, K. 1999. Permeable boundaries: Indicator species for transboundary
biodiversity monitoring at Kejimkujik National Park. Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic
Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada 119-135pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Beazley, K. 2004. Systems Planning and Transboundary Protected Areas Management:
An example from Nova Scotia In Making Ecosystem Based Management Work:
Connecting managers and researchers. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference
on Science and Management of Protected Areas May 11-16 2003. Editors: N. Munro, P.
Dearden, T. Herman, K. Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson. Science and Management of
Protected Areas Association: Nova Scotia. 9pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Existing protected areas are generally not sufficiently numerous, large, or
connected to maintain ecological integrity on their own (1-6). The protected area system
design literature suggests that the maintenance of biodiversity involves conservation of
genetic, species and ecosystem structures and processes in both protected and extensive
areas (7-10). For protected areas system planning and management, a regional approach
is necessary to accommodate critical large-scale spatial and temporal components such as
representation of natural landscapes and population viability of focal species and other
transboundary phenomena (9-11). Systems planning applications are thus of potential
value and utility to managers of protected areas and surrounding lands. For example,
approaches to system planning indicate that it is not necessary or desirable to consider
every aspect of biodiversity: focal species and ecosystems warrant special consideration
because they are functionally important, and/or sensitive to changes in habitat quality,
62
quantity and configuration (12-17). Accordingly, a carefully chosen suite of species and
ecosystems can provide a multi-element umbrella, which can aid decision-making and
improve ecosystem-based management in both existing and proposed protected areas (1418).Protected area system planning components were applied at the provincial scale in
Nova Scotia to identify critical areas for maintaining biodiversity (19-23). GIS/mapbased
coverages were created to identify 1) representative samples of natural landscapes,
2) special elements such as hotspots of diversity and rarity, and 3) critical habitat area for
viable populations of selected focal species. By overlaying these coverages, critical areas
for biodiversity protection were identified, the majority of which extend beyond the
boundaries of existing protected areas. These transboundary phenomena can serve to
define greater ecosystem boundaries. Critical elements and functions such as population
viability of wide-ranging species, habitat effectiveness, and natural cover represent
important landscape-scale indicators of ecological integrity. Key stressors, such as
changes in road density and natural land cover beyond threshold values of 0.6 km/km2
(45) and 60% (28, 29) respectively, are contra-indicators of ecological integrity. These
transboundary elements, functions and stressors should be managed and monitored to
maintain ecological integrity in protected and extensive areas over time.
Beazley, K., M. Willison, R. Long, and P. MacKay. 2004. A report on a conservation
planning process for a terrestrial and marine biodiversity conservation vision in Nova
Scotia. 42: 359-373pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Beazley, K., T. Snaith, F. MacKinnon, and D. Colville. 2004. Road density and
potential impacts on wildlife species such as American moose in mainland Nova Scotia.
42: 339-357pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Betts, M. 2000. In Search of Ecological Relevancy: A Review of Landscape
Fragmentation Metrics and Their Application for the Fundy Model Forest. Submitted to
the Group 1 (Biodiversity) Working GroupFundy Model Forest. Greater Fundy
Ecosystem Research Group
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The "Degree of forest fragmentation or connectedness of forest ecosystem
components" is one of the principal indicators of forest biodiversity in the Fundy Model
Forest. The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers also identified fragmentation as one of
the important indicators to monitor. Further, guidelines developed for the protection of
63
native biodiversity in the FMF recommend landscape-level management strategies such
as minimum patch size and connectivity. The purpose of this project is to: (1) review the
concepts of biodiversity, landscape ecology and fragmentation, (2) review metrics that
have been proposed to measure fragmentation, (3) summarize studies that have applied
metrics to landscapes, and (4) summarize landscape ecological literature to determine
which metrics are the most ecologically relevant. Five major categories of landscape
metrics are identified and reviewed: (1) habitat area/ landscape composition metrics, (2)
patch size metrics, (3) edge metrics, (4) landscape configuration metrics, and (5) patch
shape metrics. No single metric is able to satisfactorily describe landscape pattern and
composition. Of utmost importance is the relation of metrics to ecological processes and
the life histories of native species. While a number of research projects have used metrics
for comparative purposes, very few have successfully related the quantitative results
provided by metrics directly to species requirements. A summary of previous literature
reviews on the influence of landscape structure on ecological processes and biotic
communities indicates that a wide range of metrics may explain the distribution and
abundance of species. ‘Total proportion of suitable habitat'and ‘patch size'seem to be the
most frequently cited important landscape features. However, configuration metrics (e.g.
connectivity, isolation, and contagion) are frequently reported as being significant
features.A review of recent studies on the spatial requirements of species from a range of
taxa (birds, mammals, amphibians, plants, and insects) reveals that ‘configuration'
(55.5%), ‘patch size'(39%), and ‘total proportion of suitable habitat'(30.5%) are the most
frequently cited landscape factors explaining distribution, movement and reproductive
success. However certain factors seem to be more common within each of the taxa
examined.To prioritize metrics for application, it is recommended that an indicator
species approach be adopted. The best indicators will be species that are sensitive to a
range of landscape effects such as patch size and configuration. Once indicator species
have been selected it is recommended that metrics be grouped into three major prioritized
categories: (1) principal metrics (directly related to the habitat requirements of
indicators), (2) secondary metrics (tangentially related to the habitat requirements of
indicators), and (3) baseline monitoring metrics.Adherence to the following four criteria
will assist in developing a landscape fragmentation measurement approach that is
relevant to forest management and biodiversity conservation in the Fundy Model Forest:
(1) establish indicator species, (2) develop ‘historical'condition and acceptable reference
variation, (3) implement metrics for historical and present landscapes to determine rates
of landscape change, (4) test the influence of habitat composition and pattern by
monitoring actual populations of indicator species. It is recommended that the Fundy
Model Forest, in co-operation with all major landowners, initiate a landscape-level
fragmentation monitoring program.
Betts, M. and R. Taylor. 2005. An assessment of current and potential fragmentation of
forest ecosystems in the fundy model forest (proposed project).
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
64
Abstract: Degree of forest fragmentation or connected ness of forest ecosystem
components” is one of the principal indicators of forest biodiversity in the Fundy Model
Forest (Etheridge et al. 1999). However, very little information exists on the rate of
habitat fragmentation in the FMF. Woodley (1993) examined habitat fragmentation in an
Intensive Study Area surrounding Fundy National Park. This study only covered a small
portion of the Fundy Model Forest area and did not make any quantitative projections
about future landscape change. Currently, the GFERG is examining a range of
methodologies that have been used to measure fragmentation. The purpose of this
proposed study is to apply one or more of these methodologies to the Fundy Model
Forest. This will provide managers with quantified baseline data to assist in long-term
forest management decision-making. The project has three major phases: (1) Identify and
research species which will be good indicators of fragmentation, (2) Use a method
defined by the GFERG to measure the rate and extent of fragmentation as it relates to
these indicator species. (3) Propose an approach for integrated landscape-level planning
in the Fundy Model Forest.
Betts, M. G., S. E. Franklin, and R. G. Taylor. 2003. Interpretation of landscape
pattern and habitat change for local indicator species using satellite imagery and
geographic information system data in New Brunswick, Canada. 33: 1821-1831pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Abstract: We measured the extent and rate of habitat change and interpreted
landscape metrics for fragmentation in the Fundy Model Forest, New Brunswick, from
1993 to 1999 using geographical information system baseline data updated with
landscape changes detected on Landsat satellite imagery. We report on three categories of
landscape metrics (habitat cover, patch size, and nearest neighbour), which we interpret
as applicable to potentially fragmentationsensitive local indicator species in specific
habitat types. Between 1993 and 1999, 5.6% of forest land in the Fundy Model Forest
was estimated by satellite image analysis as having >30% of canopy cover removed,
primarily as a result of forest harvesting treatments. In four of five habitat types, the rate
of habitat loss from harvesting outpaced habitat replacement due to forest growth.
Changes in landscape pattern metrics indicate that fragmentation has occurred in each of
the five indicator species habitat types over the available time period; furthermore, the
rate of fragmentation exceeded the rate of habitat loss. Declines in the number and area of
mixedwood patches dominated the fragmentation of the landscape in this region. More
attention to the spatial distribution of harvesting activities may be necessary to change
this trend in landscape pattern in the future.
Bowman, Dr. J. 1931. Development of a novel technique for monitoring range
contraction and expansion: a case study of northern and southern flying squirrels.
65
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We are studying the distributions and population genetics of two cryptic
mammal species, the northern and southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus and G.
volansrespectively). These two species are relatively common, but poorly understood,
due to their arboreal, nocturnal habits. We have carried out an extensive trapping study,
conducting 25,159 trap nights during 2002 and 2003, resulting in 986 flying squirrel
captures, and DNA samples from > 600 individual squirrels. Our surveys have revealed
that the southern flying squirrel (which is a COSEWIC-listed species) has a much
broader range than previously believed, occurring > 200 km north of its supposed limit.
We hypothesize that these squirrels have expanded their range due to climate warming,
and sought to use this opportunity as a case study for developing genetic techniques to
study range expansion. Theoretical studies suggest that an expanding population should
have a genetic pattern of isolation by distance, due to the spread of alleles from the core
to the periphery of a population. Our preliminary analyses of Ontario flying squirrels are
consistent with this pattern. We also have produced climate maps that demonstrate a
considerable shift to the north in the average minimum January temperature during the
last two decades, and suggest that the shift in this critical energetic limit is the reason for
the expanding southern flying squirrel population. A predicted consequence of an
expanding G. volans population is a contraction in the range of northern flying squirrels
due to competition. Hybridization between species is another possibility. Our field
surveys and genetic work are consistent with a contracting northern flying squirrel
population, and have not yet ruled out hybridization. We also have developed a
diagnostic genetic test for species identification. One more year of field sampling is
planned for this project, in order to ascertain the definitive northern limit of the southern
flying squirrels.
Broders, H., G. Quinn , and G. Forbes. 2003. Species status, and the spatial and
temporal patterns of activity of bats in southwesten Nova Scotia, Canada. 10(4):
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Seven bat species have been recorded in Nova Scotia, but little information is
available on their relative abundance, ecology, and migratory patterns. In the summer of
2001 we used echolocation and trapping surveys at Kejimkujik National Park, Brier
Island and Bon Portage Island to help fill this information gap. Our results suggest that
significant populations of Myotis septentrionalis, M. lucifugus and Pipistrellus subflavus
occur in the province. Although we note the first breeding record of the red bat (Lasiurus
borealis) in Atlantic Canada, survey results suggest this species is probably rare and that
previous records were probably extralimital. Fewer than five echolocation sequences
were attributable to each of hoary bat (L. cinereus) and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris
66
noctivagans) suggesting that Nova Scotia is at, or beyond, the northern fringe of the
range of these species. We recorded three or fewer echolocation sequences of the big
brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), however, further work should be done in more humanpopulated areas to confirm the distributional range of this species. At Kejimkujik
National Park, we captured Myotis septentrionalis (n = 26), M. lucifugus (n = 17), and
Pipistrellus subflavus (n = 3). Despite lower capture success of P. subflavus, echolocation
surveys suggest that this species is locally abundant. These records may represent the
most northerly breeding population of this species and is the first noted, and maybe only,
breeding population of this species in Canada. Poor trapping success for this species is
likely the result of its foraging behaviour (i.e., flying high over open areas). On Brier
Island we captured only two M. lucifugus and no echolocation sequences were identified
as P. subflavus. The magnitude of all species activity at the still water site on Brier Island
was one-third the average magnitude of activity at still water sites at Kejimkujik National
Park. We captured and/or recorded M. septentrionalis only along forested trails, P.
subflavus only over water, and M. lucifugus at all sitetypes. The overall nightly activity
pattern of M. lucifugus was characteristic of the activity pattern of Myotis spp. recorded
in other areas, with a peak in activity just after sunset followed by a progressive decline
in activity through the remainder of the night. However, P. subflavus activity was more
constant through the night.
Colville, D. and K. Rozalska. 2003. Analyzing landscapes for ecological monitoring in
southwestern Nova Scotia. In Making Ecosystem Based Management Work: Connecting
managers and researchers. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science
and Management of Protected Areas May 11-16 2003. Editors: N. Munro, P. Dearden, T.
Herman, K. Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson. Science and Management of Protected Areas
Association: Nova Scotia. 14pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: SNBR
Abstract: Environment Canada’s Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network
(EMAN) has been coordinating the development of a set of protocols for systematic
environmental monitoring throughout the country. Numerous ecological indicators have
been established and the need for indicators that focus on the assessment of landscape
structure and change has been recognized. The Applied Geomatics Research Group
(AGRG) has implemented the draft landscape indicators in southwestern Nova Scotia.
The definition of the landscape units used, the characterization of landscape structure,
and the analysis of landscape change that has taken place over more than a decade are
each presented. Specific landscape measures will include a focus on assessing: habitat
alteration (type and structure), edge density, and interior forest habitat availability.
Thereby the use of landscape metrics for assessing ecological integrity will be shown.
Three approaches to implementing landscape monitoring protocols are described, and the
benefits and difficulties with each of them are addressed. Many of the analyses completed
have been conducted within watershed boundaries. These natural units inherently connect
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protected areas to the larger landscape and are useful units in the assessment of transboundary issues. The results of this study have conservation management implications for
Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site, the neighbouring Tobeatic
Wilderness Area (largest wilderness area in the Maritimes), and the encompassing
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve.
Coppin P.R. and M. E. Bauer. 1996. Change Detection in Forest Ecosystems with
Remote Sensing Digital Imagery. 13: 207-234pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The world'
s forest ecosystems are in a state of permanent flux at a variety of
spatial and temporal scales. Monitoring techniques based on multispectral satelliteacquired data have demonstrated potential as a means to detect, identify, and map
changes in forest cover. This paper, which reviews the methods and the results of digital
change detection primarily in temperate forest ecosystems, has two major components.
First, the different perspectives from which the variability in the change event has been
approached are summarized, and the appropriate choice of digital imagery acquisition
dates and interval length for change detection are discussed. In the second part,
preprocessing routines to establish a more direct linkage between digital remote sensing
data and biophysical phenomena, and the actual change detection methods themselves are
reviewed and critically assessed. A case study in temperate forests (north-central U.S.A.)
then serves as an illustration of how the different change detection phases discussed in
this paper can be integrated into an efficient and successful monitoring technique. Lastly,
new developments in digital change detection such as the use of radar imagery and
knowledge-based expert systems are highlighted.
Darveau, M., P. Labbe , P. Beauchesne, L. BeÂlanger , and J. Huot. 2001.
The use of riparian forest strips by small mammals in a boreal balsam forest. 143: 95104pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Because riparian forest strips are perceived to buffer aquatic ecosystems from
logging-related disturbance, they are usually not harvested. However, their value as
refuges for terrestrial wildlife is unknown. We conducted two live-trapping experiments
in the riparian zone adjacent to rivers in a boreal balsam ®r (Abies balsamea) forest in
Quebec. In the ®rst experiment, we compared late summer use, during 4 separate years,
of different width riparian strips (20, 40, 60 m, and control [>300 m wide]), and different
stand thinning intensities (20 m intact and 20 m thinned of 1/3 of all trees) on resident
68
small mammals. We found no differences in the densities of the most common species,
Clethrionomys gapperi and Peromyscus maniculatus, among strip types or among years
(P>0.05). We also tested for edge effects in large strips (60 m and controls). In controls,
C. gapperi was less abundant in the ®rst 20 m adjacent to the river (P.0.004) while P.
maniculatus was more abundant (P.0.02) in that area. Neither species, however, showed
an edge effect in the 60 m-strips (P>0.10). In the second experiment, we monitored small
mammals over eight consecutive weeks in a 160 m_170 m quadrat enclosing a 20 mthinned forest strip and a clear-cut to investigate some aspects of the role of riparian
strips at the landscape scale. During that time, Microtus pennsylvanicus, which was
nearly absent from our study area in the previous years, invaded the clear-cuts and
apparently con®ned C. gapperi and P. maniculatus to forest remnants such as 20 m-wide
strips. A conclusion that emerges from this study and related studies on birds is that some
species prefer larger strips or non-riparian habitats whereas others prefer narrow strips
along riparian habitats. We recommend that managers ban the all-encompassing norms
and manage for heterogeneity at different scales. Because our study was conducted at the
stand scale and because it is not accompanied with an evaluation of the socio-economic
aspects of riparian management, we cannot determine the proper mixture of strips in the
landscape. However, our results could help managers to enhance the key-role of riparian
ecosystems in maintaining regional biodiversity and contribute to the maintenance of
local biodiversity by creating refuges for terrestrial wildlife.
Fahrig, L., J.H. Pedlar, S.E. Pope, P.D. Taylor , and J.F. Wegner . 1995. Effect of
road traffic on amphibian density. Carlton University: Ottawa. 73: 177-182pp.
Copy location: http://landscape.acadiau.ca/Phil_Taylor/Pubs.html
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We studied the effect of traffic intensity on local abundance of anurans. We
counted dead and live frogs and toads per km and estimated frog and toad local
abundances using breeding chorus intensities on similar roads through similar habitats,
but with different levels of traffic intensity. After correcting for effects of date, local
habitat, time, and region, our analyses demonstrated that (1) the number of dead and live
frogs and toads per km decreased with increasing traffic intensity; (2) the proportion of
frogs and toads dead increased with increasing traffic intensity; and (3) the frog and toad
density, as measured by the chorus intensity, decreased with increasing traffic intensity.
Taken together, our results indicate that traffic mortality has a significant negative effect
on the local density of anurans. Our results suggest that recent increases in traffic
volumes worldwide are probably contributing to declines in amphibian populations,
particularly in populated areas.
Flemming, S. 1995. Using metapopulation viability analysis as a tool for assessing and
maintaining the ecological integrity of protected areas. Science and Management of
Protected Areas Association: Wolfville. 59-67pp.
69
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Many protected areas possess remnants of rare habitat in a fragmented
landscape, and as a consequence tend to have important populations of rare species.
Metapopulation viability analysis (MPVA) is a new tool used to make predictions about
the extinction risk posed to small interconnected populations: populations that are often
only partially encompassed within the boundaries of a protected area. MPVA addresses
two fundamental questions. Is a protected area likely to be effective in maintaining its
species composition and hence its ecological integrity in the long term? If a protected
area will not be effective in isolation, what can be done in terms of cooperative landscape
management to further this goal? This paper develops the concept of measuring and
maintaining ecological integrity using MPVA as a tool.
Franklin S.E., M.G. Betts, and R.G. Taylor. 2003. Interpretation of landscape pattern
and habitat change for local indicator species using satellite imagery and geographic
information system data in New Brunswick, Canada. 33: 1821-1831pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: We measured the extent and rate of habitat change and interpreted landscape
metrics for fragmentation in the Fundy Model Forest, New Brunswick, from 1993 to
1999 using geographical information system baseline data updated with landscape
changes detected on Landsat satellite imagery. We report on three categories of landscape
metrics (habitat cover, patch size, and nearest neighbour), which we interpret as
applicable to potentially fragmentationsensitive local indicator species in specific habitat
types. Between 1993 and 1999, 5.6% of forest land in the Fundy Model Forest was
estimated by satellite image analysis as having >30% of canopy cover removed, primarily
as a result of forest harvesting treatments. In four of five habitat types, the rate of habitat
loss from harvesting outpaced habitat replacement due to forest growth. Changes in
landscape pattern metrics indicate that fragmentation has occurred in each of the five
indicator species habitat types over the available time period; furthermore, the rate of
fragmentation exceeded the rate of habitat loss. Declines in the number and area of
mixedwood patches dominated the fragmentation of the landscape in this region. More
attention to the spatial distribution of harvesting activities may be necessary to change
this trend in landscape pattern in the future.
Green, D. G. 1994. Connectivity and complexity in landscapes and ecosystems. 1: 194200pp.
Geographic location: Australia
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Abstract: The connectivity of sites in a landscape affects both species distribution
patterns and the dynamics of whole ecosystems. Dispersal tends to produce clumped
distributions, which promote species persistence and provide a possible mechanism for
maintaining high species richness in tropical rainforests and other ecosystems.
Simulations of multi-species systems shows that, below a critical rate, disturbance
regimes have little impact on species richness. With super-critical rates of disturbance the
rate of decrease in species richness depends on the balance between the rate of
disturbance and dispersal range. Theoretical and simulation studies shown here reveal
that landscape connectivity falls into three distinct classes: connected, disconnected, and
critical. Landscape processes are inherently unpredictable when connectivity lies within
the critical range. Critical levels of connectivity lead to phase changes in the behaviour of
many ecosystem processes. For instance epidemics, fire spread, and invasions by exotic
plants or animals are all suppressed if inter-site connectivity is too low. Conversely,
genetic drift within individual populations is an order of magnitude greater if connectivity
is sub-critical.
Hannon, S. J. and F.K.A. Schmiegelow. 2002. Corridors may not improve the
conservation value of small reserves for most boreal birds. 12: 1457-1468pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Building or maintaining corridors in fragmented landscapes may be an
important method to conserve gap-sensitive species that avoid crossing gaps in forest
cover. We tested the effectiveness of corridors by examining the changes in abundance of
boreal birds pre- and post-logging in experimental 10-ha and 40-ha reserves that were
isolated or connected by corridors, relative to their abundance responses in continuous
forest (reference sites). Prior to the analysis, we categorized birds as to their predicted
gap sensitivity based on two measures: their use of corridors and gap-crossing behavior
in small-scale trials, and their habitat affinities (forest species vs. habitat generalists). The
abundance of forest species as a group was consistently higher in reference reserves than
in isolated or connected reserves after harvest, except for the first year, after harvest,
when crowding occurred in isolates. Habitat generalist species showed no differences in
abundances across reserve types. As a group, resident species were more abundant in
reference and connected reserves than in isolates in three of five years post-harvest,
suggesting that corridors might benefit these species. None of the single species analyzed
showed consistent evidence of benefiting from corridors. Although four species were
most abundant in connected reserves after harvest, their abundances were not
significantly lower in isolates than in reference sites. Behavioral classification (gapcrossing propensity) was not useful in classifying single species as to how gap sensitive
they would be in response to our experiment: habitat affinity was a better predictor. We
suggest that corridors may be useful to retain resident birds on harvested landscapes, but
that corridors connecting small reserves of forest are unlikely to offset the impacts of
fragmentation for most boreal birds. Assessments of the utility of corridors must,
however, be done in the context of the full plant and animal communities that live in the
boreal forest.
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Harrison, S. and J. Voller. Connectivity : Conservation Biology Principles for Forested
Landscapes. UBC Publishing: Vancouver. 1-97pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Jonsen, I. and P. D. Taylor. 2000. Calopteryx damselfly dispersions arising from
multiscale responses to landscape structure. (4)2: 4pp.
Copy location: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss2/art4/
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Using spatially explicit simulation models, we explored the extent to which
fine-scale (i.e., meters to tens of meters) movement behaviors could be used to predict
broader scale patterns of distribution on heterogeneous landscapes. Our models were
tailored by empirical data on Calopterygid damselfly movements on three types of
landscapes that differed in amount of forest habitat. Surveys of the two congeneric
damselflies, Calopteryx aequabilis and Calopteryx maculata, demonstrated that both
species occupied stream and forest habitats on forested and partially forested landscapes,
but were found primarily along streams on non-forested landscapes. Simulation models
whose parameters were derived using empirical movement data for both species showed
that fine-scale movement behaviors could be used to predict, on average, broader scale
dispersion across a range of landscape structures, but that it was necessary to include
information about broader scale landscape features in those models. In particular, the
probability of crossing a patch boundary (patch boundary permeability) and the rate of
movement in a given habitat patch (patch viscosity) were important determinants of
damselfly dispersion on heterogeneous landscapes. In other words, our results suggest
that damselfly dispersions may arise as a function of behavioral responses to spatial
patterns at multiple scales.
Krawchuk, M. A. and A.M. McPherson. 2002. A review of landscape connectivity and
adaptive management for the greater Gros Morne Ecosystem. The Connectivity Working
Group of the Greater Gros Morne Ecosystem 59pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide relevant and current information from
the disciplines of landscape ecology and conservation biology pertaining to organisms
inhabiting the Greater Gros Morne Ecosystem and to its long-term management. In
addition to a review of theory, this also includes a composite of habitat requirements and
72
pertinent studies of the Newfoundland pine marten, woodland caribou, Canada lynx, and
resident birds. This information will aid in decision-making to provide ample suitable
habitat and functional connectivity for organisms within this commercially harvested
ecosystem, including Gros Morne National Park.
Krawchuk, M. A. and P.D. Taylor. 2002. Songbird response to multiple scales of
boreal forest structure in Newfoundland, Canada .
Copy location: http://landscape.acadiau.ca/Phil_Taylor/Pubs.html
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: This study quantifies the relationship between simple measures of boreal forest
structure and the distribution of 13 common species of songbird at multiple spatial scales.
Data were collected from the Greater Gros Morne Ecosystem study region of western
Newfoundland, Canada in 1998, 1999 and 2000. Bird surveys were conducted in unharvested landscapes in 1998 & 1999; both harvested and un-harvested landscapes were
surveyed in 2000. Forest structure was measured at local (25 m), neighbourhood (300 m)
and landscape (2500 m) spatial scales. In the study we assessed: i) which species were
sensitive to simple measures of forest structure; ii) the spatial scales at which these
relationships occurred; and iii) whether these patterns changed between harvested and unharvested landscapes. The overall aim of the research was to infer how increasing harvest
activity in the region may influence species distribution through changes in the amount of
forest cover. Significant relationships with forest cover were detected for eight species at
a local scale, five at a neighbourhood scale and five at a landscape scale using
generalized (logistic) linear mixed models. The significance of model terms was assessed
using Akaike’s Information Criteria and model fit was summarized using Receiver
Operating Characteristics. The incidence of Blackpoll Warblers, Ruby-crowned Kinglets
and Yellow-rumped Warblers increased linearly with neighbourhood forest cover; Darkeyed Juncos increased with landscape cover. This suggests that continued forest loss may
have a direct, negative effect on the distribution of these four species and emphasizes that
taxonomically similar species are influenced by structure at disparate spatial scales.
American Robins and Lincoln’s Sparrows decreased linearly with neighourhood forest
cover, while Blackpoll Warblers and Fox Sparrows decreased with landscape forest
cover. Northern Waterthrush and White-throated Sparrows responded to a quadratic form
of forest cover suggesting a non-linear relationship with landscape structure. There was
no evidence to suggest that responses to identical measures of structure changed
significantly among harvested and un-harvested landscapes. However, the incidence of
Hermit Thrushes, Lincoln’s Sparrows, Northern Waterthrush and Ruby-crowned Kinglets
decreased across the study period. This temporal relationship is proposed as a proxy
response to cumulative forest loss a broader, regional scale.
Krawchuk, M. A. and P.D. Taylor. 2003. Changing importance of habitat structure
across multiple spatial scales for three species of insects. 103: 153-161pp.
73
Copy location: http://landscape.acadiau.ca/Phil_Taylor/Pubs.html
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Considerable scientific effort has gone into examining how the spatial structure
ofhabitat influences organism distribution and abundance in both theoretical and
applied contexts. An emerging conclusion from these works is that the overall
amount of habitat in the landscape matters most for species persistence and that
more local attributes of habitat structure such as the size and arrangement of patches
is of secondary importance. In this study, we quantify how and when the effects of
habitat configuration (patch size and isolation) influence the density of three species
of insects (Order: Diptera; Wyeomyia smithii, Metriocnemus knabi, Fletcherimyia
fletcheri ) whose larvae are found exclusively in identical habitats (the water-filled
leaves of pitcher plants – Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at
multiple spatial scales. We illustrate that relationships with configuration exist
regardless of the overall amount of habitat in the broader landscape, and that there
are distinct changes in the relationship between insect density and habitat configuration
across multiple spatial scales. In general, patch size is more important within the
movement range of the individual and isolation is important at larger, aggregation
scales. Thus we demonstrate that a) both the amount and configuration of habitat are
important attributes of species distribution; b) responses to measures of configuration
can be scaled to processes such as movement and c) that hierarchical frameworks
extending across very broad scales are essential for understanding how species
respond to habitat structure and their role in ecosystem function.
Lavers, A. 2004. Spatial ecology in a northern disjunct population of southern flying
squirrel. MSc thesis. Acadia University: Wolfville. 166 .pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejimkujik, Mersey, Medway
Abstract: Distribution, movement, behaviour, and habitat selection of a disjunct
population of southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans, were investigated at three
scales: population range, home range, and activity point. The distribution of G. volans in
Nova Scotia was delineated by adding 32 new site records to seven historical ones. Site
records were obtained from live trapping and public assistance. Using radio telemetry, 53
winter nests were located at five study areas. Tracking revealed that G. volans used on
average five nests separated by a mean distance of 300 m over two-month tracking
periods. Individuals nested solitarily and aggregated in mixed-sex groups of 2-10
individuals. Glaucomys volans shared home ranges and winter nests with northern flying
squirrels, G. sabrinus. Vegetation at G. volans sites was analysed with GIS and groundtruthing. Glaucomys volans in Nova Scotia select species-rich mixedwood forests with
red oak and eastern hemlock that have large, mature trees with cavities and standing dead
wood.
74
Lavers, A. J. 2004. Spatial ecology in a northern disjunct population of southern flying
squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Acadia University : Wolfville. 1-166pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Distribution, movement, behaviour, and habitat selection of a disjunct
population of southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans, were investigated at three
scales: population range, home range, and activity point. The distribution of G. volans in
Nova Scotia was delineated by adding 32 new site records to seven historical ones. Site
records were obtained from live trapping and public assistance. Using radio telemetry, 53
winter nests were located at five study areas. Tracking revealed that G. volans used on
average five nests separated by a mean distance of 300 m over two-month tracking
periods. Individuals nested solitarily and aggregated in mixed-sex groups of 2-10
individuals.Glaucomys volans shared home ranges and winter nests with northern flying
squirrels, G. sabrinus. Vegetation at G. volans sites was analysed with GIS and groundtruthing.Glaucomys volans in Nova Scotia select species-rich mixedwood forests with red
oak and eastern hemlock that have large, mature trees with cavities and standing dead
wood.
Loo, J. A., N.W.P Munro , and J. H. M. Willison. 1998. Protected Areas and the
genetic question. Science and Management of Protected Areas Association: Wolfville,
Nova Scotia. 518-528pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Luque, S. S, R. G. Lathrop , and J. A. Bognar. 1994. Temporal and spatial changes in
an area of the New Jersey Pine Barrens landscape. 9: 287-300 pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: In order to document the extent of landscape fragmentation for a section of the
New Jersey Pine Barrens region, we have used satellite image and spatial analysis to
monitor landscape change between 1972 and 1988. Land-cover patterns were quantified
by mean, number, and size of patches; and amount of edges between land cover types.
During the intervening sixteen year period, fractal dimension, diversity, and contagion
generally decreased while dominance, disturbance and edges increased, indicating a trend
to a more dissected and disturbed landscape. There was an increase in the number of
forest patches and a significant decrease in the average size of forest patches. In contrast,
75
the mean patch size for the non-forest category has increased as a result of a coalescence
of patches. The landscape fragmentation is shown by a downward shift in the distribution
of forest patches by size class. These changes in landscape pattern have implications for
many ecological processes and resources. Management practices need to consider
landscape fragmentation in the Pinelands National Reserve in order to preserve the
essential character of the Pine Barrens landscape.
MacDonald, A and R. Clowater . 2005. Natural Ecosystem Connectivity across the
Chignecto Isthmus - Opportunities and Challenges. CPAWS NS& NB 1-81pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Between November 2004 and May 2005, the Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
Chapters of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society assessed the opportunities and
challenges involved in conserving ‘ecosystem connectivity’ on the Chignecto Isthmus,
a narrow frontier between the two Maritime Provinces. Existing scientific, geographic
and historical information was used to conduct a preliminary identification of challenges
and opportunities in this area, coupled with the use of local knowledge to provide a
relevant context for our efforts. The analysis was focused on the areas east of Shemogue
and Sackville, New Brunswick, and west of the Shinimicas River and Nappan, Nova
Scotia. Ecosystem connectivity refers to a landscape-level approach to maintaining
suitable habitats and functional movement corridors for flora and fauna. A group of focal
species was used as a framework for assessing connectivity on the Chignecto Isthmus,
including mainland moose, black bear, Canada lynx, American marten, northern flying
squirrel, barred owl and other interior forest bird species. To understand the local
challenges and opportunities related to habitat connectivity for these species, land-use
and land cover information was compiled using GIS (geographic information system)
technology. The interpretation of this geographic information shows that habitat
fragmentation by roads, forest harvesting, human development and small-scale
agriculture may interrupt connectivity for a number of these species. The assessment was
informed through conversations with more than forty-five local residents and
stakeholders, who helped identify some of the challenges and opportunities discussed.
MacLean, D. A., P. Etheridge, J. Pelham, and W. Emrich. 1999. Fundy Model Forest:
Partners in sustainable forest management. 75: 219-227pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Scenario planning was used to develop a consensus-based, multi-stakeholder
management planning process for a 114,000 ha land base in New Brunswick, Canada.
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This is part of the Fundy Model Forest, which involves four major landowner groups,
along with 26 other Partnership organizations. Public consultation and Partnership input
were used to define 25 scenarios, determining effects of alternative means of riparian
strip management, road construction, vegetation and insect control, harvesting,
maintenance of biodiversity, and plantation establishment. The Woodstock forest
modeling software was used to determine effects of each scenario on timber supply,
forest structure, measures of biodiversity and ecological integrity, areas of mature forest,
and wildlife habitat. In a series of workshops, the Partners were successful in reaching
consensus on a Fundy Model Forest “preferred” management scenario, which was
conveyed to the land managers for implementation. Development of the management
planning process and the use of scenarios planning procedures in the Fundy Model Forest
are described.
Nakano, S and M. Murakami. 2001. Reciprocal subsidies: Dynamic interdependence
between terrestrial and aquatic food webs. 98: 166-170pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Mutual trophic interactions between contiguous habitats have remained poorly
understood despite their potential significance for community maintenance in ecological
landscapes. In a deciduous forest and stream ecotone, aquatic insect emergence peaked
around spring, when terrestrial invertebrate biomass was low. In contrast, terrestrial
invertebrate input to the stream occurred primarily during summer, when aquatic
invertebrate biomass was nearly at its lowest. Such reciprocal, across-habitat prey flux
alternately subsidized both forest birds and stream fishes, accounting for 25.6% and
44.0% of the annual total energy budget of the bird and fish assemblages, respectively.
Seasonal contrasts between allochthonous prey supply and in situ prey biomass determine
the importance of reciprocal subsidies.
Nova Forest Alliance. Making the Most of Your Woodlot. Nova Forest Alliance: Nova
Scotia.
Copy location:
http://www.novaforestalliance.com/media/documents/Woodlot_Owners_Primer.pdf
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: This document teaches landowners about the importance of planning for their
woodlot.
Nova Forest Alliance. 2000. A Report on Working Forest Conservation Easements.
Nova Scotia Nature Trust: Halifax. 25pp.
77
Copy location:
http://www.novaforestalliance.com/media/documents/Report_on_conserv_easements.pdf
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: The first step of this project entailed researching the efforts and experiences of
other land trusts in incorporating forestry into conservation easements. This involved a
telephone survey of ten land trusts with a wide range in approaches to conservation
easements; synthesizing information, such as template easements and exemplary
management plans; and reviewing conservation easement legislation for different
provinces and American states where working forest easements are a reality.
Part I of this report summarizes the different approaches, experiences, and information
published by the land trusts interviewed. Parts II and III compare these different
approaches, and provide recommendations for the most appropriate strategy for Nova
Scotia. This includes suggestions as to the expertise required on staff, the monitoring
demands of working forest easements and how to address them, and the additional costs
involved. Part IV of this report reviews various guides and manuals for forest
management practices, and recommends a set of non-intensive, uneven-aged forest
management practices acceptable under a working forest conservation easement.
Nova Forest Alliance: Woodlot Working Committee. Small Private Woodlot Survey.
Nova Forest Alliance
Copy location:
http://www.novaforestalliance.com/media/documents/priv_landusesummary.pdf
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: The Woodlot Working Committee of the Nova Forest Alliance initiated a
survey of small private woodlots in the model forest area- Robert Cameron of Cameron
Forestry Consulting conducted the survey and developed a computer database using the
results. The Woodlot Working Committee wanted to get a better understanding of the
current situation on smallprivate woodlots in the model forest. What kinds of activities
are occurring, what areas have the most activity and what level of activity is occurring on
small private woodlots were some of the questions being asked.Answers to these types of
questions would help the committee in planning education, research and extension
programs.
Opdam, P. and D. Wascher. 2004. Climate change meets habitat fragmentation: linking
landscape and biogeographical scale levels in research and conservation . 117: 285297pp.
Copy location: 2
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Abstract: Climate change and habitat fragmentation are considered key pressures on
biodiversity. In this paper we explore the potential synergetic effects between these
factors. We argue that processes at two levels of spatial scale interact: the metapopulation
level and the species range level. Current concepts of spatially dynamic metapopulations
and species ranges are consistent, and integration improves our understanding of the
interaction of landscape level and geographical range level processes. In landscape zones
in which the degree of habitat fragmentation allows persistence, the shifting of ranges is
inhibited, but not blocked. In areas where the spatial cohesion of the habitat is below the
critical level of metapopulation persistence, the expansion of ranges will be blocked. An
increased frequency of large-scale disturbances caused by extreme weather events will
cause increasing gaps and an overall contraction of the distribution range, particularly in
areas with relatively low levels of spatial cohesion. Taking into account the effects of
climate change on metapopulations, habitat distribution and land use changes, future
biodiversity research and conservation strategies are facing the challenge to re-orient
their focus and scope by integrating spatially and conceptually more dynamic aspects at
the landscape level.
Pither, J. and P.D. Taylor. 1998. An experimental assessment of landscape
connectivity. 83: 166-174pp.
Copy location: http://landscape.acadiau.ca/Phil_Taylor/Pubs.html
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Power, M. E. 2001. Prey exchange between a stream and its forested watershed elevates
predator densities in both habitats. 98: 14-15pp.
Copy location: 2
Rader, M. 2001. Challenges to Biodiversity Conservation in Forest Landscapes with
Fragmented Cover and Ownerships: Case Study of the Nova Forest Alliance.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Wildlife Habitat Canada has developed an adaptive management framework as
part of its Forest Biodiversity Program for application to forest companies managing
relatively contiguous forest cover under one ownership. The principal objective of this
study was to determine the efficacy of this management framework in the context of the
forest biodiversity conservation challenges of a region with multiple land cover and
ownership boundaries such as the Nova Forest Alliance (NFA) area of central Nova
Scotia. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to assess landscape
79
configuration, ecosystem diversity, and habitat suitability for the American marten and
northern goshawk to determine the extent, spatial distribution, and regional variation of
threats to native forest biodiversity in the NFA area. GIS was then used to overlay the
NFA'
s land ownership boundaries over the identified biodiversity challenges to determine
how ownership patterns might contribute to socio-political challenges in implementing
conservation strategies. The applicability of the adaptive management framework to the
NFA was then evaluated in the context of the distribution of biodiversity challenges
across ownership. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Rajora, O. P. and A. Mosseler. 2001. Challenges and opportunities for conservation of
forest genetic resources. Kluwer Acedemic Publishers 118: 197-212pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Increased use of forest resources and a shrinking forestland base threaten the
sustainability of forest genetic resources and highlight the importance of conservation
and sustainable management of these resources. As forest trees are normally the keystone
species of forest ecosystems, their continued existence is essential for many floral and
faunal associations of these ecosystems. Major concepts, challenges and opportunities for
conservation of forest genetic resources are briefly discussed in this paper. The major
challenges include population decline and population structure changes due to forest
removal and conversion of forest land to other uses, forest fragmentation, forestry
practices, climate change, disease conditions, introduced pests, atmospheric pollution,
and introgressive hybridization. Developing scientifically sound conservation strategies,
maintaining minimum viable population sizes, and deployment of genetically engineered
organisms represent other important challenges in conservation. The usefulness of
various biochemical and molecular genetic markers, adaptive traits, and genetic diversity
measures for developing conservation strategies for in situ and ex situ genetic resource
conservation are also discussed. Major opportunities for conservation of forest genetic
resources include: use of molecular genetic markers and adaptive traits for developing
conservation strategies; in situ conservation through natural reserves, protected areas, and
sustainable forest management practices; ex situ conservation through germplasm banks,
common garden archives, seed banks, DNA banks, and tissue culture and
cryopreservation; incorporation of disease, pest, and stress tolerance traits through
genetic transformation; plantation forestry; and ecological restoration of rare or declining
tree species and populations. Forest genetic resource conservation and resource use
should be considered complementary rather than contradictory to each other.
Rivard, D. and M. Seaby. 2004. Road Systems as Indicators of Status and Trends in
Land Use in and Surrounding Canada'
s National Parks In Making Ecosystem Based
Management Work: Connecting managers and researchers. Proceedings of the Fifth
International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas May 11-16
2003. Editors: N. Munro, P. Dearden, T. Herman, K. Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson.
Science and Management of Protected Areas Association: Nova Scotia.
80
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Road density surrounding Canada’s national parks was correlated with other
infrastructure, land use and human population to demonstrate that the former was a valid
quantitative, spatially and temporally explicit index to the latter. Population density, land
use and road density in the areas adjacent to the parks (measures of regional land use)
were negatively correlated with latitude, as were road density and the ratio of alien to
native species in the national parks (negative measures of the ecological integrity of the
parks). Park area (a positive measure of park ecological integrity) was positively
correlated with latitude. These parallel latitudinal trends indicate that the parks are
reflections of regional land use. Roads adjacent to the parks formed reticulated and/or
dendritic networks that were largely contiguous and that therefore tended to maximize the
fragmentation of regional landscapes. Thus regional land use places a constraint on park
size and the ecological integrity of both the region and the park. Conversely, comparisons
of road densities and landscape metrics inside and adjacent to the parks for the 1950s and
the 1990s indicate that there was a significant increase in land use and landscape
fragmentation adjacent to the parks but less so in the parks. A majority of the parks had
maintained their relatively undeveloped condition to a measurable degree in the context
of the expansion and intensification of regional land use during the latter half of the
twentieth century. However, the extent and intensity of landscape fragmentation is a
systemic problem that will not be effectively mitigated in the foreseeable future.
Robichaud, I., M.A. Villard, and C.S. Machtans. 2002. Effects of forest regeneration
on songbird movements in a managed forest landscape of Alberta, Canada. 17: 247262pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that barrier effects exist even in relatively vagile
species such as forest songbirds. The objectives of this study were to determine whether a
560 x 100 m riparian buffer strip of mature forest was used as a movement corridor by
forest songbirds and, if so, to what extent corridor effects persisted as woody vegetation
regenerated in the adjacent clearcut. Over a 4-yr period, juvenile movement rates
decreased in the riparian buffer strip and increased in the regenerating clearcut. Adult
movement rates increased in the riparian buffer strip in the first year after logging, then
gradually decreased, while still increasing in the regenerating clearcut. However, both
juvenile and adult movement rates were higher in the buffer strip than in an undisturbed
control site. Results suggest that most adults we captured held territories in the vicinity of
the net lanes, and that most of the juveniles captured were dispersing away from their
natal territory. Four years after harvest, juvenile movement rates were higher in the
regenerating clearcut than in the riparian buffer strip, but several species had not yet been
captured or detected in the regeneration. Our results suggest that the use of the riparian
buffer strip as a movement corridor decreased with forest regeneration for both adults and
81
juveniles. However, the buffer strip still acted as a movement corridor for the following
species: Philadelphia and Red-eyed Vireos, Red-breasted Nuthatch, and Ovenbird.
Roland, J. and P.D. Taylor. 1997. Insect parasitoid species respond to forest structure
at different spatial scales. 386: 710-713pp.
Copy location: http://landscape.acadiau.ca/Phil_Taylor/Pubs.html
Abstract: There is now a solid body of theoretical work demonstrating that the spatial
structure of the habitat combined with animal movement strongly influence host–
parasitoid dynamics. The spatial pattern over which parasitoid search takes place can be
affected by the distribution of the hosts, by the spatial arrangement of the host'
s habitat
and by the spatial scale at which the parasitoid perceives variation in host abundance.
Empirical work, however, has been largely restricted to small-scale field studies of less
than one hectare with very few larger. Here we report initial results of a many-year, largescale study that is among the first to examine the interaction between a population-level
process (parasitism) and anthropogenic forest fragmentation at large and at multiple
spatial scales. We demonstrate that parasitism by four species of parasitoids attacking the
forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, is significantly reduced or enhanced
depending on the proportion of forested to unforested land. Each of the parasitoid species
responds to this mosaic at four different spatial scales that correspond to their relative
body sizes. Our data give empirical support to the argument that changes in landscape
structure can alter the normal functioning of ecological processes such as parasitism, with
large-scale population consequences.
Rosenblatt, D. L, E. J. Hesk, S. L.cNelson, D. M. Barber, B. Macallister, and M.A
Miller. 1999. Forest fragments in east-central Illinois: Islands or habitat patches for
mammals? 141: 115-123pp.
Abstract: We surveyed the nonvolant mammals in 10 forest fragments embedded in a
matrix of row crop agriculture in east-central Illinois to assess the impact of forest
fragmentation on mammalian diversity and distributions. A total of 19 species were
recorded during our study, including 16 native species that occur naturally in forest
habitat. We found a significant species-area relationship and a significantly nested subset
structure. In particular, gray squirrels, chipmunks and flying squirrels were only
encountered in the larger, more continuous sites suggesting a negative effect of habitat
fragmentation. Seven species were ubiquitous and we believe that several others occur
periodically at all study sites, indicating that most mammalian species currently present
have not had their distributions altered by changes in the intervening habitat. Though
an analogy to oceanic islands may apply for some species, we believe that most mammals
treat forest remnants as habitat patches rather than islands, and that mechanisms such as
habitat selection, constraints due to home range size and differential dispersal ability best
explain the observed distributions of mammals.
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Sabine, D., A. Boer , and W. Ballard. 1996. Impacts of habitat fragmentation on
pairing success of male Ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapillus, in southern New Brunswick.
110: 688-693pp.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: This study evaluated the hypothesis that fragments of mature forest in a
managed-forest landscape in southern New Brunswick are sub-optimal habitat for
Ovenbirds compared to large tracts of similar forest. There were no significant
differences in pairing success or territorial density of male Ovenbirds between fragments
and contiguous forest sites in 1992 and 1993.
Schmiegelow, F. K. A., C.S. Machtans, and S.J.Hannon. 1997. Are boreal birds
resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community
responses. 78: 1914-1932pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We studied the effect of habitat fragmentation on the richness, diversity,
turnover, and abundance of breeding bird communities in old, boreal mixed-wood forest
by creating isolated and connected forest fragments of 1, 10, 40, and 100 ha. Connected
fragments were linked by 100 m wide riparian buffer strips. Each size class within
treatments and controls was replicated three times. We sampled the passerine community
using point counts before, and in each of two years after, forest harvesting, accumulating
21 340 records representing 59 species. We detected no significant change in species
richness as a result of the harvesting, except in the 1-ha connected fragments, where the
number of species increased two years after isolation. This increase was accounted for by
transient species, suggesting that the adjacent buffer strips were being used as movement
corridors. Diversity (log series alpha index) was dependent on area in the isolated
fragments only after cutting, having decreased in the smaller areas. Turnover rates in the
isolated fragments were significantly higher than in similar connected or control areas,
due to species replacement. Crowding occurred in the isolated fragments immediately
after cutting, but two years after fragmentation, the responses in abundance of species
varied with migratory strategy. Numbers of Neotropical migrants declined in both
connected and isolated fragments, and resident species declined in isolated fragments.
Most species in these groups require older forest, many favoring interior areas.
Abundance df short-distance migrants, most of which are habitat generalists, did not
change. Overall, although there was no decrease in species richness from our recently
fragmented areas, community structure was altered; maintaining connections between
fragments helped to mitigate these effects. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the
fragmentation effects we documented is small compared with those observed elsewhere.
Birds breeding in the boreal forest, where frequent small-and large-scale natural
83
disturbances have occurred historically, may be more resilient to human-induced habitat
changes, such as those caused by forest harvesting. However, these results should be
interpreted with caution. First, they are short-term and address only broad-scale
community responses based on species richness and relative abundance. Second, the
study area was embedded in a landscape where large areas of old, mixed forest are still
available, potentially dampening any local-scale impacts of fragmentation.
Silva, M. 2001. Abundance, diversity, and community structure of small mammals in
forest fragments in Prince Edward Island National Park, Canada. 79: 2063-2071pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Anthropogenic activities in Prince Edward Island (Canada) have created a
mosaic of fragmented uneven-aged forests and agricultural and pasture lands, as well as
large amounts of edge habitat. Although the mammalian fauna of the province is largely
composed of small mammals, no previous study has investigated how they respond to
habitat fragmentation. I surveyed 14 forest fragments in Prince Edward Island National
Park to assess the effects of habitat fragmentation on the abundance and diversity of
small mammals. A total of 897 small mammals from 11 different species were captured
during 10 231 trap-nights. The most frequently captured species were the eastern
chipmunk, Tamias striatus (53.5%), and the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus
(24.9%). Neither species richness, total population size, nor the Shannon-Wiener speciesdiversity index (H'
) was significantly associated with either fragment area or perimeter
length. The results also indicated no difference in species diversity between linear
fragments and other-shaped fragments. The only species showing a response to edge
habitat was the eastern chipmunk. We concluded that future research in Prince Edward
Island National Park should assess the abilities of small mammals and their predators to
use edge habitats and agricultural fields.
Sircom, J. 1999. The effect of dispersal on predator-prey dynamics in a spatially
heterogeneous environment: MSc. Thesis. Dalhousie University: Halifax.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Smandych, L. 2002. Selecting Core Areas for the Maintenance of Biodiversity in Nova
Scotia: A Conceptual Study.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Protected areas should be managed as a large interconnected system of core
areas, connectivity linkages and buffer zones for the maintenance of provincial
84
biodiversity. The scientific approach for conserving biodiversity through the selection of
core areas has proceeded with the use of three tracts of coarse and fine-filter criteria: (1)
representation of natural cosystems/landscapes/enduring feature types; (2) the protection
of special elements; and (3) meeting the requirements of selected focal species.
Provincial representivity was assessed relative to the degree of landscape representivity,
degree of landscape naturalness, size of remaining natural areas, provincial road densities
and forest maturity classes. Sixty-two of the 80 natural provincial landscape were
inadequately represented (<12%) by the existing system of protected areas. Within these
inadequately protected landscapes, remaining natural areas greater than 10,000 ha in size,
containing areas of roadlessness (0 density) and uneven aged maturity stands were
selected to best represent the natural condition of Nova Scotia'
s landscapes. (Abstract
shortened by UMI.)
Taylor, P. D. Resilience and Biosphere Reserves . 1-10pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Theories of resilience in social-ecological systems are based in the area of
complex system science. Complex systems are systems with both self-organizing and
emergent properties. That is, the vast array of interconnections among components of the
systems tend to mediate change (at least in the short term) and those interactions produce
behavior in the system that is not obvious (or possible) when one looks at the component
parts. A key aspect of complex systems is that they are non-linear there exist a number of
possible configurations where the system can be stable (that is, from which the system
tends to return after being disturbed) but, given the right conditions, these ‘domains of
stability’ can shift sometimes dramatically. One only has to consider fisheries such as the
cod fishery of Newfoundland for an illustration. Once the dominant species in the North
Atlantic Ocean, cod are now (in spite of 10 years of restricted fishing) virtually absent.
The system was pushed from a stable configuration with large numbers of fish to one
with many fewer fish, with no signs of recovery (Hutchings 2000).
Taylor, P. D. 2000. Landscape connectivity: linking fine-scale movements and largescale distributions of damselflies. In: Ekbom, Bl, M.E. Irwin, Y. Robert. Interchanges of
insects between agricultural and surrounding landscapes. Kluwer: Dordecht.
Taylor, P. D., F. Lenore, and A. Kimberly. 2005. Landscape Connectivity: A return to
the basics. unpublished. 22pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
85
Abstract: Issues, concepts, assessment and missapplication realted to landscape
connectivity
Taylor, P. D., L. Fahrig, K. Henein , and G. Merriam . 1993. Connectivity is a vital
element of landscape structure. 68: 571-573pp.
Vines, S. 1994. The Relationship Between Protected Areas and Adjacent Lands: A Case
Study of Kejimkujik National Park.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Wind, E. Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Amphibians: What Do We Know and
Where Do We Go From Here? UBC: Vancouver. 8pp.
Copy location:
http://www3.telus.net/public/leahmalk/Wind_Amphibians%20&%20Habitat%20Fragme
ntation.pdf
Geographic location: British Columbia
Abstract: Numerous studies across North America indicate that clearcuts and secondgrowth stands are unsuitable habitat for amphibians compared to old-growth forests. As
landscapes become increasingly fragmented, amphibian populations in remaining oldgrowth patches are isolated. Insularization leads to decreased genetic fitness within
populations and may lead to local extirpations or extinctions of species. Because
amphibians have low vagility, high philopatry, and are susceptible to desiccation they
may be particularly vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. I present a general overview of
impacts of forest practices and habitat fragmentation on amphibian populations,
highlighting key management issues: forest patch size, importance of wet areas, and
connectivity. I draw examples from studies that have specifically investigated effects of
habitat fragmentation, clearcutting, and habitat juxtaposition to address the following
questions: 1) What do we know about the impacts of forest practices and habitat
fragmentation on amphibian populations?, and 2) What information is needed for
resource managers to conserve amphibian populations in British Columbia?
Woodworth, C. J., E.K. Bollinger, and T.A. Nelson. 2000. The effects of forest
fragment size, isolation, and microhabitat variables on nest box use by southern flying
squirrels (Glaucomys volans) in southern Illiinois. 135-147pp.
Geographic location: Illinois
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Other Reports
Burzynski, M., T. Knight, S. Gerrow, J. Hoffman, R. Thompson, P. Deering, D.
Major, S. Taylor, C. Wentzell, A.Simpson, and W. Burdett. 2005. State of the Park
Report:Gros Morne National Park of Canada: An Assessment of Ecological Integrity.
23pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: In 2025, many Canadians are aware that Gros Morne National Park of Canada
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and they recognize that the park is part of a national
system and represents its natural regions. Gros Morne is a tourism icon for the province.
Parks Canada is engaging Canadians, working particularly closely with local
stakeholders, communities, and educational institutions. The knowledge that we need to
manage for ecological integrity comes from sound science and local knowledge. The park
is not significantly affected by pollution or environmental degradation. Park operations,
traditional uses of the land, and visitor use are harmonious with park ecosystems. Natural
processes continue to shape the landscape and its ecosystem. Native wildlife
(biodiversity) is present in healthy and viable populations. The Greater Gros Morne
Landscape has enough connected habitat to maintain ecological processes over the longterm. Canadians understand and appreciate the need to maintain the ecological integrity
of the park.
CPAWS. 2004. Riding Mountain Ecosystem Community Atlas. Canadian Parks and
Wilderness Society
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
CPAWS. 2004. Thousand Islands Ecosystem: Community Atlas. Canadian Parks and
Wilderness Society: Ottawa, Ontario. 48pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Dryden-Cripton, S. 2005. Big Creek Watershed Report. University of Guelph: Ontario.
87
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Francis, M. and J. Leggo. 2004. St. Lawerence Islands National Parks of Canada:State
of Parks Report . 73pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
KNPNHS. 2003. Kejimkujik National Park and National Historical Site of Canada:
Ecological Integrity Statement. KNPNHS. 50pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: “The National Parks of Canada are hereby dedicated to the people of Canada
for their benefit, education and enjoyment, and shall be maintained and made use of so as
to leave them unimpaired for future generations” (Canada National Parks Act 2000). The
Act states further that maintenance or restoration of ecological integrity, through the
protection of natural resources, shall be the first priority when considering park zoning
and visitor use in a management plan. In keeping with this philosophy, the National
Business Plan for Parks Canada (Parks Canada, 1995) has called for the preparation of
benchmark statements on ecological integrity. The Ecological Integrity Statement is a
fundamental component of the Park Management Plan for Kejimkujik National Park and
National Historic Site and the Seaside Adjunct, and provides a context for protection and
management of its natural heritage resources.
Martin, V. and et al. 2004. A Watershed Forest Plan for the Grand River . Grand River
Conservation Authority 146pp.
Copy location: 1, 2
Geographic location: Canada
Miistakis Institute. 2002. Miistakis Institute for the Rockies Annual Report. Miistakis
Institute 14pp.
Copy location: 1
Abstract: The annual report highlights the activities of Miistakis for 2002 and details ongoing projects for 2003.
88
Morrison, I., S. O’Grady, L. Vasseur, and N. Green. 2004. Kejimkujik National Park
and National Historic Site of Canada Visitor Impact Assessment and Rehabilitation of a
Campground: Final Report. The Friends of Keji Cooperating Association: KNPNHS.
153pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: KNPNHS
Abstract: Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site of Canada located in
Southwest Nova Scotia, was established in 1969. The main camping facility, Jeremys
BayCampground, has been in operation since 1971. Heavy use of the facility’s 360
campsites has resulted in considerable human induced environmental impacts. In an
effort to mitigate these impacts, an assessment and rehabilitation project was initiated in
the summer of 2001 through support of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.
The objective of this project was to develop and implement a rehabilitation program; for
assessment, rehabilitation, monitoring and prevention of human use impacts in a
campground.
Parks Canada. 2003. Annual Report of Research and Monitoring in National Parks of
the Western Artic 2003. Parks Canada 80pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Parks Canada. 2004. Georgian Bay Islands: State of the Parks Report. Parks Canada
57pp.
Copy location: 1, 2
Geographic location: Canada
Parks Canada. 2005. Establishing a Network of Cooperative Study Units for Parks
Canada'
s Protected Heritage Areas. 20pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
89
Rush, R. 2003. Oldman River Watershed Report. University of Guelph: Ontario.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Rush, R. 2003. Maitland River Watershed. University of Guelph: Ontario.
Copy location: 1, 2
Geographic location: Canada
S. Woodley, G. Forbes , and A. Skibicki. 1998. State of the Greater Fundy Ecosystem.
Greater Fundy Ecosystem Research Project: Fredericton.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Since 1991, the Greater Fundy Ecosystem Research Group (GFERG) has been
conducting intensive research aimed at understanding the state of the Greater Fundy
Ecosystem (GFE). From the start, the GFE project was conceived as a research and
monitoring effort that could provide the science support necessary to manage an
ecologically sustainable landscape. The specific objectives of the GFE project are: 1) to
identify strategies to maintain viable populations of native species within the GFE by
focusing on species whose population levels are perceived to be at risk; 2) to quantify
species-habitat relationships for select species so that they can be used in management
decisions; 3) to examine stresses in the GFE and how they affect valued resources in the
area; and, 4) to identify operational management options that will ensure the ongoing
sustainability of the GFE. Past research has concentrated on measuring the impacts of
forestry, tourism and related infrastructure.
SNBRA. 2001. Biosphere Reserve Nomination for Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve.
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve Association 1-125pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: SNBR
90
Riparian Buffers
Azzaino, Z., J. M. Conrad, and P. J. Ferraro. 2002. Optimizing the riparian buffer:
Harold Brook in the Skaneateles Lake watershed, New York. 78: 501-514pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The use of riparian land buffers to protect water quality for human consumption
and wildlife habitat has become an important conservation tool of both government and
non-government agencies. The funds available to acquire private lands for riparian
buffers are limited, however, and not all land contributes to water quality goals in the
same way. Conservation agencies must therefore identify effective ways to allocate their
scarce budgets in heterogeneous landscapes. We demonstrate how the acquisition of land
for a riparian buffer can be viewed as a binary optimization problem and we apply the
resulting model to a case study in New York.
Blackler, R. 1999. Assessment of riparian buffer zones as adequate means of connecting
protected forest areas. B.Sc.F Thesis. Faculty of Forestry and Environmental
Management, University of New Brunswick.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Blodau, C. 2002. Carbon cycling in peatlands A review of processes and controls. 10:
111-134 pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Covering only 3% of the land area, northern peatlands store about 30% of the
global soil carbon and account for 5 to 10% of the global methane burden to the
atmosphere. A review of the literature on net ecosystem exchange, net primary
productivity, carbon mineralization, methane emissions, and dissolved organic carbon
dynamics indicates that peatlands can be both C sources and sinks. The temporal and
spatial variability of fluxes is large, but a substantial portion of this variation can be
explained by environmental and ecological variables. Uncertainty in predictions about
carbon dynamics under changing environmental conditions arises from a number of
knowledge gaps: (i) the understanding of how organic matter is mineralized and
partitioned into carbon dioxide, methane, and dissolved organic carbon is insufficient; (ii)
little is known about the consequences of longterm and short-term disturbances, such as
elevated carbon dioxide concentrations, nitrogen and sulfur deposition, fire, and droughts,
on the individual components of the carbon cycle; (iii) models that capture the dynamic
91
interaction of the processes and their controls have not been developed yet, with the
notable exception of methane dynamics.
Bodie, J. R. 2001. Stream and riparian management for freshwater turtles. 62: 443455pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA, Global
Abstract: The regulation and management of stream ecosystems worldwide have led to
irreversible loss of wildlife species. Due to recent scrutiny of water policy and dam
feasibility, there is an urgent need for fundamental research on the biotic integrity of
streams and riparian zones. Although riverine turtles rely on stream and riparian zones to
complete their life cycle, are vital producers and consumers, and are declining
worldwide, they have received relatively little attention. I review the literature on the
impacts of contemporary stream management on freshwater turtles. Specifically, I
summarize and discuss 10 distinct practices that produce five potential biological
repercussions. I then focus on the often-overlooked use of riparian zones by freshwater
turtles, calculate a biologically determined riparian width, and offer recommendations for
ecosystem management, migration data were summarized on 10 species from eight US
states and four countries. A riparian zone encompassing the majorly of freshwater turtle
migrations would need to span 150m from the stream edge. Freshwater turtles primarily
chose high, open, sandy habitats to nest. Nests in North America contained eggs and
hatchlings during April through September and often through the winter. In addition,
freshwater turtles utilized diverse riparian habitats for feeding, nesting, and
overwintering. Additional documentation of stream and riparian habitat use by turtles is
needed. (C) 2001 Academic Press.
Boulet, M., M. Darveau, and L. Belanger. 2003. Nest predation and breeding activity
of songbirds in riparian and non riparian black spruce strips of central Quebec . 33,5:
922-930pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: The black spruce(Picea mariana) forest of Quebec are often harvested
according to a single pass system where clearcuts are seperated by 20- to 60- m-wide
forest strips. Little is known about the suitablilt of these strips as habitats for breeding
birds. We selected five nonriparian strips, five riparian strips, and five forest control sited
located in a forested area of central Quebec. During 1997-1998, we monitored the
predation of artificial bird nests baited with a common quail(Coturnix coturnix L.) egg
and plasticine egg and the bredding activity of adult songbirds in strips and controls.
92
Artificial nest predation was high in all sites (72%). The most common predators were
specialist of mature coniferous forest: gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis L) and red
squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben). In forest dwelling bird species, the number
of breeding pairs was lower in strips than in controls. We conclude that the small number
of forest dwelling breeding birds observed in strips is not related to an increase in
predation pressure following harvest of adjacent forests and that forest strips are not
suitable breeding habitats for these species.
Broadmeadow, S. and T.R. Nisbet. 2004. The effects of riparian forest management on
the freshwater environment: a literature review of best management practices. 8: 286305pp.
Geographic location: England
Burke, V. J. and J. W. Gibbons. 1995. Terrestrial buffer zones and wetland
conservation: a case study of freshwater turtles in a Carolina Bay. 9: 1365-1369pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Because freshwater wetlands often support diverse and unique species
assemblages, wetland loss is a primary concern in biological conservation. U. S. federal
statutes protect many wetlands by deterring development within delineated borders that
segregate wetland habitats from upland regions. In addition, some state and local
jurisdictions mandate buffer zones that afford varying levels to protection to upland
habitats adjacent to wetlands. We used geographic information systems analysis to test
the adequacy of federal and state wetland protection statues by determining the degree to
which protected acreage encompassed the habitats freshwater turtles needed to complete
their life cycles. Two critical life- cycle stages, nesting and terrestrial hibernation
occurred exclusively beyond wetland boundaries delineated under federal guidelines. The
most stringent state buffer zone insulated 44% of nest and hibernation sites. Our data
indicates that the freshwater turtles examined in this study required a 275-m upland
buffer zone to protect 100% of the nest and hibernation sites. Insulating 90% of the sites
required a 73-m buffer zone. We suggest that the habitat needs of freshwater turtles
demonstrate the dependence of wetland biodiversity on the preservation of adequate
amounts of upland habitats adjacent to wetlands.
Castelle, A. J., A.W. Johnson, and C. Conolly. 1994. Wetland and Stream Buffer Size
Requirements-A Review. 23: 878-882pp.
Copy location: 1
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Abstract: Upland vegetated buffers are widely regarded as being necessary to protect
wetlands, streams, and other aquatic resourced. Buffer size requirements, however, have
typically been established by political acceptability, not scientific merit. This often leads
to insufficiently buffered aquatic resources. In order to assist public agencies in
formulating appropriate buffer standards, we conducted a literature search of the
scientific function of buffers. The literature search reconfirmed the need for buffers and
emphasized the importance of considering specific buffer functions. A range of buffer
widths from 3m to 200m was found to be effective, depending on site-specific conditions;
a buffer of at least 15m was found to be necessary to protect wetlands and streams under
most conditions.
Cockle, K. L. and J.S. Richardson. 2003. Do riparian buffer strips mitigate the impacts
of clearcutting on small mammals? 113: 133-140pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We assessed the impact of clearcutting on small mammals in riparian areas and
evaluated riparian buffer strips as a tool for conserving small mammals in managed
forests. Over two summers, we trapped small mammals of seven species in riparian areas
in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Communities of small mammals were
compared across three different habitat types: (1) clearcut to the stream bank, (2) clearcut
with a 30 m riparian buffer strip, and (3) control (no logging). Species richness was
significantly lower in clearcuts than in controls and buffers. On clearcut sites, creeping
voles were more abundant, but red-backed voles and dusky shrews were less abundant
than at the control sites. At sites with riparian buffer strips, both voles were present in
numbers similar to those found in controls, but dusky shrews were less common.
Significantly more deer mice and creeping voles were infested with bot flies at clearcut
sites than at buffer sites, and no animals were infested at any of the control sites. Riparian
reserves appear to be useful in reducing the short-term impacts of clearcutting on small
mammal communities, though they do not eliminate these impacts altogether. (C) 2003
Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Collier, K. J., B. J. Smith , and N. J. Halliday. 2004. Colonization and use of pine
wood versus native wood in New Zealand plantation forest streams: implications for
riparian management. 14: 179-199pp.
Geographic location: New Zealand
Abstract: 1. Riparian management is becomingly increasingly recognized as an important
tool for reducing harvesting impacts on plantation forest streams. To provide information
for a riparian management decision support system, this study investigated effects of
94
riparian tree type (plantation Pinus radiata D. Don versus four native species) on the
development of epixylic biofims, and colonization and feeding by invertebrates on wood
at two contrasting stream sites in the central North Island, New Zealand.2. Electron
micrographs revealed a diverse microfora colonizing all wood types, which generally
had similar ergosterol concentrations, microbial activity and algal biomass after 12 years
immersion. 3. Wood type (pine versus native) did not have a significant effect on
densities of total invertebrates or dominant taxa. Percentage abundance of some dominant
invertebrate groups differed between wood species, apparently in relation to surface
complexity, but overall physical habitat differences appeared to override any effects of
wood type on community composition. 4. The mass of one particulate material produced
by larvae of the conoesucid caddis fly, Pycnocentria funerea McLachlan, differed
significantly among wood species, but this was not related to whether the wood was from
native trees or plantation pine.5. Overall, the results indicate that local variations in
habitat heterogeneity and differences in wood surface texture were more important than
wood type in influencing epixylic bio development, and utilization by invertebrates.
Alien pine wood generally provided habitat conditions and tropic resources during initial
decomposition that were within the range of variation of native wood species expected to
colonize riparian planting set-backs in northern New Zealand pine forests.
Darveau, M., J. Huot, and L. Belanger . 1998. Riparian forest strips as habitat for
snowshoe hare in a boreal balsam fir forest . 28: 1494-1500pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Riparian forest strips are usually protected from logging for their buffer effect
on aquatic habitats. However, their value to terrestrial wildlife species such as snowshoe
hare (Lepus americanus Erxlebon) is unknown. From 1990 to 1996, we compared habitat
characteristics (shrubs and samplings 0.25-2.25 m high), hare browsing, and hare pellet
densities in five types of experimental riparian forest strips (20, 40, 60, and >300 m wide
intact strips, and 20 m wide thinned strips), in a humid boreal balsam fir (Abies balsamea
(L.) Mill.) Landscape managed primarily for timber harvesting in Quebec. Based on
coniferous and deciduous shrub densities, all riparian forest strips and adjacent clearcuts
remained low-quality habitats for hare over 6 years following clear-cutting. Only 103
shrubs, were browsed in a 1500-m2 area sampled over 3 years, of which only 33 had
>20% of browsed stems. Nevertheless, pellet data revealed a low but sustained use of all
strips each summer and winter, and there were no changes over 6 years ( mean 280
pellets/ha per month; p>0.05). Whether hare populations are cyclic or not in our region
remains an open question. However, they show some fluctuations and timber harvesting
coincided with “high” hare populations in our study area. Sampling in “low” years might
show that fewer hares occupy the forest strips. Further work is required to determine the
influence of regional and local perturbations on the use of riparian forest strips by
snowshoe hares.
95
Darveau, M., P. Beauchesne, L. Belanger, J. Huot, and P. Larue. 1995. Riparian
forest strips as habitat for breeding birds in boreal forest. 59: 67-78pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Riparian forest strips are usually protected from logging for their buffer effect
on aquatic habitats. However, their value to terrestrial wildlife is unknown. From 1989 to
1992, we compared bird abundance and species composition in 5 experimental riparian
forest strips (20-m, 40-m, 60-m, and control [>300m wide], intact strips, and 20-m wide
thinned strips), in boreal balsalm fir (Abies balsamea) stands, for 3 years following clear
cutting. Bird densities increased 30-70% (P<0.05) in all strops the year after cutting and
decreased (P<0.05) therefore after to approximately pretreatment levels. The 20- and 40m-wide riparian strips had highest mean bird densities, but also the fastest (P<0.05)
decreased thereafter. By the third year after clear-cutting, forest dwelling species were
less (P=0.01) abundant than ubiquitous species in the 20-m strips. The golden crowned
kinglet (Regulus satrapa), Swainson’s thrush (Catharus ustulatus), blackpoll warbler
(Dendroica striata), and black throated green warbler (D. virens) became nearly absent in
20-m strips. The removal of 33% of the trees in some 20-m strips resulted in a <20%
decline of bird densities, a moderate effect that combined with the greatest effect of strip
narrowness. There was evidence that 60-m-wide strips are required for forest-dwelling
birds. Bird populations may continue to decline in strips before regeneration of adjacent
clear-cuts provides suitable habitat for forest dwelling species.
Davies, P. E. and M. Nelson. 1994. Relationships between Riparian Buffer Widths and
the Effects of Logging on Stream Habitat, Invertebrate Community Composition and Fish
Abundance. 45: 1289-1305pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Australia
Abstract: Impacts from the logging of Eucalyptus forest on stream habitat,
macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity, and fish abundance were surveyed in
Tasmania, Australia. Forty-five pairs of sites from 34 streams of greater than or equal to
2.5 km(2) catchment area were each sampled once during summer in the period 1990-92.
Each site pair consisted of an '
impacted'site downstream of a logging treatment and an
upstream or closely matched '
paired control'site. Site pair treatments encompassed two
logging methods (cable and conventional) with a range of riparian buffer strip widths (050 m) and included unlogged controls. Differences between site pair variables were used
as test statistics for the detection of logging impacts. Logging significantly increased
riffle sediment, length of open stream, periphytic algal cover, water temperature and snag
volume. Logging also significantly decreased riffle macroinvertebrate abundance,
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particularly of stoneflies and leptophlebiid mayflies, and brown trout abundance. All
effects of logging were dependent on buffer strip width and were not significantly
affected by coupe slope, soil erodibility or time (over one to five years) since logging. All
impacts of logging were significant only at buffer widths of <30 m. Minimum buffer
widths for eliminating logging impacts on stream habitats and biota are discussed.
Decker, R. C., D.A. Scruton, J.A. Meade, K.D. Clarke, and L.J. Cole. 2003. The
Newfoundland small stream buffer study Phase I: Impacts of current forest harvesting
practices on stream and habitat biota. 2449:ix: 77pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The Newfoundland small stream buffer study Phase I was initiated and carried
out by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada on the island of Newfoundland.
Similar research was conducted in N.B. and B.C. The objective was to study the impacts
of forest harvesting on salmonids and their habitat. Twelve stream reaches from 3
different watersheds subjected to forest harvesting were sampled during the summer of
2000.
Evans, J. E., E.E. Prepas, K.J. Devito, and B.G. Kotak. 2000. Phosphorus dynamics
in shallow subsurface waters in an uncut and cut subcatchment of a lake on the Boreal
Plain. 57: 60-72pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Phosphorus dynamics in shallow subsurface waters (<2.5 m depth) were
studied in harvested and unharvested subcatchments of a Boreal Plain lake. The organic
soil layer was underlain by discontinuous layers of sand and clay glacial till. Total
dissolved P (TDP) concentrations (6-798 <mu>g . L-1) of discrete water samples from
mineral layers (0.9-2.5 m deep) generally decreased with depth, were negatively related
to Ca (r(s) < -0.7), and were lower in clay. When the groundwater table rose and
saturated the organic layer, TDP concentrations increased in the composite (organic
mineral layer) but not in the discrete (mineral layer) water samples, indicating that
elevated TDP concentrations originate from the near-surface organic layer. TDP
concentrations in composite samples were negatively correlated with water table depth
(r(s) = -0.6) and were positively correlated with transmissivity (r(s) = 0.7) and dissolved
organic C concentration (r(s) > 0.6). In the riparian buffer zone of the harvested
subcatchment, TDP concentrations of composite samples decreased during high runoff,
but these values remained higher than concentrations in the unharvested subcatchment.
However, surface topography and variable depth to confining clay layers resulted in
97
higher groundwater tables in the harvested subcatchment, especially in the cut area. Mean
daily TDP export coefficients were similar between the unharvested (14 mug . m(-2)) and
harvested (12 mug . m(-2)) subcatchments.
Gignac, L. D and M.R.T. Dale. 2003. The effect of fragmentation size and habitat
heterogeneity on plant diversity: a multiscale study in the subhumid low boreal forest.
Alberta.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Woodlots are an integral part of sustainable forestry management, currently
accounting for 20% of the timber annual sales, and an important component for any
strategy to manage the post clearing landscape'
s biodiversity within the White Zone
(Agricultural Area). As some woodlots are extensively managed, they are subjected to a
significant environmental pressure. The fate of the biota in a short and long-term frame is
of concern to private owners and forest managers. In a general context, the biota of
woodlots represents an equilibrium situation of forest fragments, after sufficient time has
passed for the full range of post fragmentation changes to occur. Forest fragmentation
over the landscape affects both habitat quality and quantity. By reducing the total area of
continuous forest cover, forest fragmentation decreases the quantity of available habitat,
and by changing the physical environment of the remaining forest fragments; it affects
the quality of the remaining habitat. Since reduction of the total area of forest is often
seen as inevitable, it is imperative that forest managers have an understanding of the
qualitative changes in habitat in remaining forest fragments so that they can be
minimised. Changes in the physical environment of forest fragments include increased
wind exposure and higher levels of solar radiation (Camargo & Capos 1995, Sillet et al.
1995, Malcolm 1998). As a result, conditions for plant growth often become warmer and
drier and shadetolerant species are replaced by shade intolerant species (Smith 1996).
These physical and biological changes are often termed '
edge effects'as they are most
pronounced at the edge of forest fragments and decrease until the physical environment
of the forest is similar to that of non-fragmented forest. This forest can be termed '
interior
forest'
. The amount of interior forest remaining in a forest fragment depends on the size
and shape of the fragment. Very small fragments and fragments with a large amount of
edge because of their shape may not contain any truly interior forest. Thus species
requiring interior forest will be absent from these fragments and species diversity may
decline.
Gippel, C. J., I.C. Oneill, B.L. Finlayson, and I. Schnatz. 1996. Hydraulic guidelines
for the re-introduction and management of large woody debris in lowland rivers. 12:
223-236pp.
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Abstract: The volume of large woody debris in most of the world'
s lowland rivers has
been depleted, either through persistent desnagging or clearance of the riparian vegetation
from which it is naturally recruited. The now recognized important environmental role of
debris in rivers, the established environmental value of vegetated riparian buffer strips
and the movement towards rehabilitation of degraded riverine habitats demand more
objective procedures for the management of woody debris in streams. In some instances
it may be centuries before the process of natural recruitment of wood from rehabilitated
riparian strips achieves an ecologically adequate volume and quality of instream debris.
To accelerate this process, the re-introduction of debris is being considered. This paper
presents the results of laboratory and field hydraulic investigations relevant to the
problem of managing debris in lowland rivers. The laboratory experiments were used to
develop a model, based on the momentum principle, of the effect of debris on afflux, or
the increase in water surface elevation. Debris drag was found to be less affected by
position and shape than by orientation to the dow and blockage ratio, or the proportion of
the channel occupied by the debris. Debris aligned at 20-30 degrees to the flow produced
an afflux one-third of that produced by debris which was perpendicular. Significant loss
of conveyance occurs only for debris which is large relative to the channel dimensions
(greater than about 10% of the channel area blocked by debris). Wake interference acts to
reduce the hydraulic effect of debris so that if spaced within two diameters, multiple inline items of debris produce an afflux no greater than that of a single item. The models of
debris hydraulics presented here can be used to predict the effect of removing, lopping,
rotating or re-introducing debris to rivers.
Girardin, M., J.Tardif , and Y. Bergeron. 2001. Gradient analysis of Larix laricina
dominated wetlands in Canada’s southeastern boreal forest. 79: 444-456 pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: With the objective of understanding how vegetation was structured in four
Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch dominated wetlands in north-western Quebec, 186
point-centred quarters were sampled in four stands. For each point, both biotic and
abiotic variables were collected and species cover was recorded. Divisive hierarchical
classification analysis (Twinspan) identified nine vegetation clusters: i) Larix laricina &
Spiraea alba, ii) Larix laricina & Kalmia angustifolia, iii) Larix laricina, Picea mariana
& Alnus rugosa, iv) Larix laricina & Betula pumila, v) Thuja occidentalis & Trientalis
borealis, vi) Abies balsamea & Betula papyrifera, vii) Fraxinus nigra & Onoclea
sensibilis, viii) Alnus rugosa, and ix) Eleocharis smallii. Results of the canonical
correspondence analyses indicated that the distribution of these clusters was mainly
related to (i) distance from shore, (ii) shade (canopy cover), (iii) substrate nitrate
concentration (in relation to the abundance of Kalmia angustifolia and Alnus rugosa), (iv)
substrate pH (in relation to the abundance of Sphagnum spp.), and (v) substrate
99
conductivity. Several characteristics of the water table also affected species distribution,
including pH, depth, and carbon concentration. Further studies should address the effect
of the presence of Kalmia angustifolia and Alnus rugosa on larch growth.
Hagan, J. M. and E. Wilkerson. The Effectiveness of Different Buffer Widths for
Protecting Water Temperature in Headwater Streams. Manomet Center for Conservation
Sciences: USA.
Copy location: http://www.fundymodelforest.net/site/watershed/window/abstracts.htm
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Stream protection is one of the most studied and yet most contentious issues in
forest management. Small streams are numerous in many forest types and protecting all
of them with forested buffers can represent a significant opportunity cost to landowners.
Very small headwater streams (intermittent and first-order) have received relatively little
study regarding forestry impacts. In this study we evaluated the effect of timber
harvesting on water temperature in first-order headwater streams in western Maine.
Fifteen streams were assigned 5 treatments: (1) clearcutting with no stream buffer, (2)
clearcutting with 11-m buffers, both sides, (3) clearcutting with 23-m buffers, both sides,
(4) extensive partial cutting with no designated buffer, and (5) controls (no harvesting
during the study). We measured water temperature before (2001) and after (2002, 2003)
harvest treatments were applied, both above and below the harvest zone in all years.
Streams in the 0-m buffer treatment showed the greatest increase in mean weekly
maximum water temperature following harvesting (1.4-4.4ºC). Streams in the 11-m
buffer treatment showed minor increases (1.0-1.4ºC). Streams in the 23-m buffer
treatment, partial-harvest treatment, and control treatment showed no change in the postharvest years. For the 0-m treatment group the mean daily fluctuation in stream
temperature increased 2 to 3-fold (from 1.0-1.5ºC/day to 2.2-4.9ºC/day).
Stream aspect and groundwater inflow appeared to play significant roles in amplifying or
mitigating stream warming, especially for streams in the 0-m buffer treatment. Based on
mean weekly maximum water temperatures following harvest, water temperature did not
increase to a level that threatened brook trout survival. However, the effects of
temperature on other biota, such as macroinvertebrates and stream amphibians, are not as
well understood. When streams have southeasterly to southwesterly aspects, an
environmentally conservative management approach would be to leave a 10-m partial cut
(<50% canopy removal) buffer on each side of the stream channel. In our study area, if
no buffer is retained temperature changes return to near normal within about 100 m
below the harvest block.
Hagar, J. C. Influence of riparian buffer width on bird assemblages in western Oregon.
1999. 62: 484-496pp.
Copy location: 1
100
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The goals of current management practices in riparian areas in the Pacific
Northwest include protecting and maintaining habitat for terrestrial wildlife. However,
little is known about the use of riparian buffers by terrestrial wildlife, particularly how
buffer width may affect abundance and species composition of wildlife communities. In
this study, I compared bird assemblages in logged and unlogged riparian areas along
headwater streams and assessed the relations between bird abundance and riparian buffer
width. The abundance of 4 species of forest-associated birds that were more abundant in
unlogged that in logged headwater riparian stands (Pacific-slope flycatcher [Empidonax
difficilis], brown creeper [Certhia Americana], chestnut-backed chickadee [Poecile
rufescens], winter wren [Troglodytes troglodytes]) increased with increasing width of
riparian buffers. However, 4 other species that also were more abundant in unlogged
riparian stands (Hammond’s flycatcher [Empidonax hammondii], golden-crowned kinglet
[Regulus satrapa], varied thrush [Ixoreus naevius], hermit warbler [Dendroica
occidentalis]) were rarely observed in even the widest buffers sampled (40-70m on 1 side
of the stream). Although riparian buffers along headwater streams are not expected to
support all bird species found in unlogged riparian areas, they are likely to provide the
most benefit for forest-associated bird species if they are >40 m wide, and density of
large trees within buffers is not reduced by harvesting.
Hagvar, S., P. Nygaard, and B.T. Baekken. 2004. Retention of forest strips for birdlife adjacent to water and bogs in Norway: Effect of different widths and habitat
variables. 19: 452-465pp.
Geographic location: Norway
Abstract: In Fennoscandinan forestry, retention of forest strips as a buffer adjacent to
water and bogs has long been recommended, but their biological value is poorly known
and practice varies greatly. This study explored the value for breeding birds of retaining
buffer strips of different width and structure, after clear-cutting in coniferous forest. The
presence of birds during their nesting season was inventoried in 370 strips in southeastern Norway. The species number per 100 m strip length increased with increasing
strip width up to about 30 m width, and then remained constant up to 70 - 100 m width.
Generalist species dominated all width categories. Important habitat factors other than
strip width were basal area of spruce, short visibility and tree height. Although 11 - 20 m
wide strips had the highest density of species and individuals per hectare, buffer strips of
about 30 m width may be recommended, as narrower strips had fewer species per unit
length of edge.
Hannon, J. H, C.A Paszkowski, S. Boutin, J DeGroot, S.E. Macdonald, M.
Wheatley, and B.R. Eaton. 2002. Abundance and species composition of amphibians,
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small mammals, and songbirds in riparian forest buffer strips of varying widths in the
boreal mixedwood of Alberta . 32: 1784-1800pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Forested buffer strips are left along water bodies after forest harvesting to
protect water quality and fish stocks, but little is known about their utility as reserves for
forest species in managed landscapes. We report on changes in terrestrial vertebrate
communities from pre- to post-harvest in experimentally created buffer strips (20,100,
200, and 800 m wide) in a boreal mixedwood forest of Alberta, Canada. We trapped
anuran amphibians and small mammals and spot-mapped bird territories around 12 lakes
(4 treatment levels, 3 replicates) before and after harvesting. Changes in small mammal
or amphibian abundance were not detected for any treatment relative to controls;
however, these species are habitat generalists that used and even bred in clearcuts. Total
bird abundance did not change after harvesting, with the exception of crowding in 20-m
buffers 1 year post-harvest. Species composition did not change for amphibians and small
mammals after harvest, but forest-dependent bird species declined as buffer width
narrowed from 200 to 100 m and narrower. We concluded that 20-100 m buffers would
not serve as reserves for forest songbirds in managed landscapes, but that 200 m wide
strips conserved the pre-harvest passerine bird community, at least up to 3 years postharvest.
Hanowski, J., N. Danz, J. Lind, and G. Niemi. 2003. Breeding bird response to
riparian forest harvest and harvest equipment. 174: 315-328pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: We examined response of breeding bird communities to timber harvest in
riparian areas using two harvest techniques (full tree harvest and cut-to-length (CTL))
along first to third order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. Although many studies
have quantified bird response to riparian buffer harvest, we are unaware of any study that
examined the response of breeding birds to riparian forest harvest using different cutting
practices. We compared community composition, total abundance and species richness,
as well as abundance of six individual species on plots within four treatments (three
plots/treatment) completed within 30 in on both sides of the stream. Treatments in the
riparian area (30 m on both sides of the stream) were: (1) riparian control (no harvest);
(2) reduction of basal area to an average of 7-10 m(2)/ha with full tree harvest system; (3)
reduction of basal area to an average of 7-10 m(2)/ha with CTL harvest system; and (4)
control (no harvest in riparian area or upland). For treatments 1, 2, and 3, adjacent upland
forests on the plots were clearcut. Bird surveys were completed I year prior to, and 3
years after harvest and revealed a significant response of the bird community to timber
harvest in the riparian area. Bird communities were most affected by tree removal with
both harvest methods, but harvest type also affected bird communities. Early-
102
successional species, e.g. song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), white-throated sparrow
(Zonotrichia albicollis), mourning warbler (Oporornis philadelphia), and chestnut-sided
warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) were associated with harvested plots, whereas forest
species, e.g. scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea) and black-throated green warbler
(Dendroica virens) were associated with riparian control and control plots. Of six
individual species tested for response to riparian harvest treatment over time, only the
ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) showed a significant time by treatment interaction.
Ovenbird numbers decreased in both the CTL and full tree harvest plots through 2000,
when no individuals were observed. Two other forest-dependent species, black-throated
green warbler and hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), showed similar responses to
treatment as the ovenbird. The winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) responded
positively to the greater amount of slash that was left on-plot with the CTL harvest
system. However, with the exception of the winter wren, we found that bird species and
communities did not differ in their response to harvest system. ((C) 2002 Elsevier
Science B.V All rights reserved.
Hodges, M. F. and D.G. Krementz . 1996. Neotropical migratory breeding bird
communities in riparian forests of different widths along the altamaha river, Georgia.
108: 496-506pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: We surveyed riparian forest corridors of different widths along the lower
Altamaha River in Georgia in 1993 and 1994 to investigate the relationships between
forest corridor width and Neotropical breeding bird community diversity and abundance.
Species richness and abundance of three of six focal species increased with increasing
forest corridor width. We suggest if Neotropical breeding bird communities are a target
group, that land managers should consider leaving a 100 m buffer strip along riparian
zones.
Kiffney, P. M., J.S. Richardson, and J.P. Bull. 2003. Responses of periphyton and
insects to experimental manipulation of riparian buffer width along forest streams. 40:
1060-1076pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: 1. Riparian trees regulate aquatic ecosystem processes, such as inputs of light,
organic matter and nutrients, that can be altered dramatically when these trees are
harvested. Riparian buffers (uncut strips of vegetation) are widely used to mitigate the
impact of clear-cut logging on aquatic ecosystems but there have been few experimental
103
assessments of their effectiveness. 2. Forests along 13 headwater stream reaches in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, were clear-cut in 1998, creating three riparian buffer
treatments (30-m buffer, 10-m buffer and clear-cut to the stream edge), or left as uncut
controls, each treatment having three or four replicates. 3. We predicted that periphyton
biomass and insect consumers would increase as buffer width decreased, because of
increased solar flux. We used two complementary studies to test this prediction. 4. In one
study, we compared benthic communities before and after logging in all 13 streams; a
second study focused on periphyton and insect colonization dynamics over 6-week
periods in each of four seasons in four streams, one in each treatment. 5.
Photosynthetically active radiation, and mean and maximum water temperature,
increased as buffer width narrowed. 6. Periphyton biomass, periphyton inorganic mass
and Chironomidae abundance also increased as buffer width narrowed, with the largest
differences occurring in the clear-cut and 10-m buffer treatments. 7. Photosynthetically
active radiation, water temperature, periphyton biomass and periphyton inorganic mass
were significantly greater in the 30-m buffer treatment than in controls during some
seasons. 8. Synthesis and applications. We have shown that a gradient of riparian buffer
widths created a gradient in light and temperature that led to non-linear increases in
periphyton biomass and insect abundance. For example, Chironomidae abundance was
generally greater in the 10-m and 30-m buffer treatments than in controls, whereas this
was not always the case in the clear-cut treatment. This pattern may be due to the high
sediment content of the periphyton mat in the clear-cut treatment, which potentially
limited the response of some insects to increased food resources. Overall, our results
indicate that uncut riparian buffers of 30-m or more on both sides of the stream were
needed to limit biotic and abiotic changes associated with clear-cut logging in headwater,
forested watersheds.
Kiffney, P. M., J.S. Richardson, and J.P. Bull. 2004. Establishing light as a causal
mechanism structuring stream communities in response to experimental manipulation of
riparian buffer width. 23: 542-555pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Previous studies on the effects of logging on streams have suggested that light
and water temperature were important variables structuring stream communities but, in
many cases, these effects were confounded. We observed pronounced gradients in the
flux of solar energy and water temperature in an earlier large-scale experiment in which
we manipulated the width of riparian buffers along headwater streams. Associated with
these abiotic changes were increases in periphyton biomass and primary consumer
abundance. We present results from a study in streamside channels that was designed to
isolate the effects of light on stream communities, while holding water temperature
constant. Light treatments in the channel experiment simulated inputs of solar radiation
created during the prior watershed-scale experiment. Results from the present study
suggested that consumers limited periphyton biomass early in the study; however, a
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rainstorm midway through the experiment reduced periphyton biomass and insect
consumer abundance. Following this disturbance, chlorophyll a biomass was 2 to 4 times
higher in the full sunlight treatment compared to the 2 lowest light treatments. At the end
of the study, primary consumer abundance, biomass, survival, and growth rate were
positively related to light and periphyton resources. Therefore, we inferred biotic control
of periphyton during the early part of the channel study, whereas light appeared to control
periphyton at the end of the study. Results from the large-scale and channel experiments
suggested that light was the primary constraint on periphyton biomass accrual. Moreover,
both experiments, especially the channel study, showed that light indirectly influenced
consumer performance as mediated by increased primary production.
Kinley, T. A. and N. J. Newhouse. 1997. Relationship of Riparian Reserve Zone Width
to Bird Density and Diversity in Southeastern British Columbia. 21: 75-85pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: British Columbia
Abstract: British Columbia forestry guidelines require riparian management areas of 20
to 50m width between small streams and cutblocks, composed of reserve zones (no
timber harvest) and/or management zones (limited timber harvest). Guidelines in
Kootenai National Forest, Montana, limit forest harvesting for 30 m adjacent to
permanent streams. As one step in providing a basis to assess such guidelines, we
compared (1) habitat structure between spruce-dominated riparian forest and pinedominated upland forest, (2) breeding bird characteristics (density of detections, species
richness, species diversity and species equitability) between riparian and upland forest,
and (3) breeding bird characteristics between riparian reserve zones of various widths
(averaging 70, 37, or 14 m wide). The study occurred in the Montane Spruce
biogeoclimate zone of southeastern British Columbia. In relation to upland forest,
riparian forest had greater tall shrub and canopy cover, but fewer live trees. Snag density,
low shrub cover, and coarse woody debris did not differ at P<0.05. The two habitat types
did not differ in mean bird species richness per site, but riparian forest had greater species
diversity and species equitability, greater density of all species combined, and greater
density of three individual species. The density of all birds combined, all riparianassociated birds combined, and three of the four riparian-associated species increased
with increasing reserve zone width. Species diversity and species equitability did not
differ significantly among treatments. The widths of riparian management areas required
under current B.C. and Kootenai National Forest guidelines are considerably narrower
than the widest category of reserves investigated in this study (70m). Our data indicate
that prescribed riparian management areas under current guidelines will have lower
densities of total birds and of riparian-associated birds than if reserves were required to
average 70m in width.
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Klapproth, J. C. and J.E. Johnson. 2000. Understanding the science behind riparian
forest buffers: effects on plant and animal communities.
Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication : Virginia. 420-152: 1-24pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The riparian area is that area of land located immediately adjacent to streams,
lakes, or other surface waters. Some would describe it as the floodplain. The boundary of
the riparian area and the adjoining uplands is gradual and not always well defined.
However, riparian areas differ from the uplands because of their high levels of soil
moisture, frequent flooding, and unique assemblage of plant and animal communities.
Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests
maintain many important physical, biological, and ecological functions and important
social benefits.
Kreutzweiser, D. P. and S.S. Capell. 2001. Fine sediment deposition in streams after
selective forest harvesting without riparian buffers. 31: 2134-2142pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Fine sediment accumulation was measured in streams in low-order forest
watersheds across a gradient of selective harvesting with no protective riparian buffers.
Comparisons were made among sites in selection-cut (40% canopy removal),
shelterwood-cut (50% canopy removal), diameter limit cut (about 85% canopy removal),
and undisturbed tolerant hardwood catchments. These were further compared with a
headwater stream catchment not harvested but affected by logging road activities. The
greatest increases in fine inorganic sediment occurred at the road-improvement site with
mean bedload estimates more than 4000 times higher than pre-manipulation values.
Sediment bedload was still significantly elevated 2 years after the road-improvement
activities. Significant increases (up to 1900 times the pre-harvest average) in inorganic
sediment also occurred at the highly disturbed diameter-limit site as a result of heavy
ground disturbance and channeled flowpaths from skidder activity in riparian areas.
Similar increases were detected at the selection-cut site but were attributable to secondary
road construction in the runoff area. In the shelterwood harvest area, where logging roads
were not a factor, no measurable increases in sediment deposition were detected. There
was little indication that harvesting activities at any site affected the organic fraction or
the particle size distribution of fine sediments. The results of this study suggest that
riparian buffer zones may not be necessary for selective harvesting in hardwood forests at
up to 50% removal, at least in terms of reducing sediment inputs.
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Kreutzweiser, D. P., S.S. Capell, and F.D. Beall. 2004. Effects of selective forest
harvesting on organic matter inputs and accumulation in headwater streams. 21: 1930pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Organic matter inpuls and accumulation were measured in streams of low-order
forest watersheds across a gradient of selective harvesting with no protective riparian
buffers assigned. Comparisons were made among sites in selection-cut (average 29%
basal area removal), shelterwood-cut (average 42% basal area removal), diameter limitcut (average 89% basal area removal), and undisturbed tolerant hardwood catchments.
The diameter limit harvest was an intentionally high-disturbance treatment and is not a
normal silvicultural prescription for tolerant hardwoods in Ontario. Time trend analyses
were conducted to examine differences among sites over a pre- and postharvest
experimental period. Selection-based harvesting at up to 42% basal area removal with no
riparian buffers did not significantly alter average over-stream canopy cover, leaf litter
and other organic matter inputs, benthic particulate organic matter accumulation, or
woody debris abundance. Harvesting impacts on over-stream canopy cover and organic
matter inputs appeared to be minimized by natural crown architecture (overlap in crowns
of over-stream trees, residual mid-crown canopy) and by careful logging practices
including retention of many immediate streamside trees (within a few meters of the
stream, channel) and avoidance of felling directly into the streams. Dissolved organic
matter fluxes increased slightly for 1 year after harvest and were associated with
increased water yield. At the diameter limit harvesting intensity (about 89% basal area
removal), significant effects on organic matter inputs and accumulation in streams were
detected. The results indicate that selective harvesting of hardwood forests tit up to about
42% basal area removal call be conducted without causing significant reductions in
organic matter inputs and accumulation in headwater streams, even without prescribed
streamside buffer strips.
Lachance, D. and C. Lavoie. 2004. Vegetation of Sphagnum bogs in highly disturbed
landscapes : Relative influence of abiotic and anthropogenic factors. 7: 183-192pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Question: Has the vegetation of Sphagnum bogs been affected by more than
200 years of human activities? Location: Bas-Saint-Laurent region, southeastern Québec,
Canada.Methods: Data (species assemblages, abiotic and spatio-historical variables) were
collected in 16 bogs ranging from 2 to 189 ha, and incorporated in a geographical
information system. Major gradients in vegetation composition were identified using
DCA. CCA was used to relate vegetation gradients to abiotic and spatio-historical
variables.Results: A clear segregation of species assemblages was observed, from open
and undisturbed bogs to forested and highly disturbed sites. Among abiotic factors, tree
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basal area, water table level and peat thickness had a significant influence on plant
species composition. Among spatio-historical factors, disturbance level, area loss and fire
were the most influential factors. Variance partitioning between these groups of factors
suggests that spatio-historical factors had a major influence on peatlands, representing
22% of the variation observed in the plant species assemblages while abiotic factors
represent only 17% of the variation.Conclusions: The results highlight the influence of
agricultural and other anthropogenic activities on plant assemblages and suggest that
even wetlands apparently resistant to disturbances, such as peatlands, can be severely
affected by anthropogenic factors. Plant species assemblages of ombrotrophic peatlands
of the Bas-Saint-Laurent region were, and still are, largely influenced by human
activities.
Lambert, J. D. and S.J. Hannon. 2000. Short-term effects of timber harvest on
abundance territory characteristics, and pairing success of Ovenbirds in riparian buffer
strips. 117: 687-698pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: In managed forests, riparian buffer strips typically are maintained to protect
water quality. If properly designed, buffer strips also may act as wildlife reserves.
However, forest managers have lacked the information to develop standards for buffer
strips to maximize benefits for wildlife species. We assessed the conservation potential of
20-, 100-, and 200-m wide buffers for an area-sensitive songbird in boreal mixed-wood
forest in Alberta. We measured abundance, territory characteristics, and pairing success
of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) at treatment and control lakes one year before and
after upland timber harvest. After harvest, Ovenbirds were absent from 20-m buffer
strips. Harvesting did not significantly influence abundance or territory size in 100-m or
200-m buffers, although territories generally became narrower. Postharvest territory
position did not change in 200-m buffers, but territories in 100-m strips shifted lakeward
and included more habitat adjacent to the riparian edge than before harvest. Despite this
shift in territory position, males that occupied 100-m strips successfully attracted mates.
High availability of regional forest cover may have muted the more pronounced effects of
habitat alteration observed in other studies. Our research is among the first to evaluate
individual behavioral responses to the creation of forest edges. Our data indicate that 20m buffer strips do not support breeding Ovenbirds, whereas 100- and 200-m buffers
retain Ovenbirds during the year following harvest. Longterm harvest effects may differ
from those we monitored and require study, particularly as timber extraction increases in
the boreal mixed-wood ecoregion.
Lee, P., C. Smyth, and S. Boutin. 2004. Quantitative review of riparian buffer width
guidelines from Canada and the United States. 70: 165-180pp.
Geographic location: North America
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Abstract: This paper reviewed the provincial, territorial, and state guidelines for the
retention of treed riparian buffers after timber harvest in Canada and the United States.
Comparisons amongst jurisdictions were facilitated through the use of a standardized
template for the classification of waterbodies. Mean buffer widths varied from 15.1 to
29.0 m for different waterbody types when both countries were combined. However,
Canadian jurisdictions had wider buffers (except for intermittent streams). In part, this
was due to the high percentage of Boreal jurisdictions in Canada and Southeast
jurisdictions in the United States. The Boreal region had the widest buffers while
Southeastern jurisdictions had the narrowest buffers. Just under half (similar to44%) of
the jurisdictions investigated had three or more modifying factors in the guidelines. Of
these, waterbody type, shoreline slope, waterbody size, and presence of fish were the
most common. Boreal and Pacific jurisdictions tended to have a more diverse set of
waterbody size classes, waterbody types, and other modifying factors. Jurisdictions from
the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast maintained relatively simple `one-size-fits-all'
guidelines. Jurisdictions without modifying factors for slope or presence of fish applied
wider baseline buffers than jurisdictions with these factors. A large percentage of
jurisdictions (similar to80%) allowed some selective harvest in buffers. However, these
were often accompanied by relatively restrictive prescriptions. In comparison to the
ecological recommendations, buffer widths for most jurisdictions were adequate to
protect the aquatic biota and habitats but were, generally, less than recommended widths
for terrestrial communities. In the future, two management trends are likely to continue,
the shift towards more complicated guidelines and the expansion to larger-scale,
watershed planning of riparian areas. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lowrance R. and et al. 1997. Water Quality Functions of Riparian Forest Buffers in
Chesapeake Bay Watersheds. 21: 687-712pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA, have agreed to reduce nutrient
loadings to Chesapeake Bay by 40% by the year 2000. This requires control of nonpoint
sources of nutrients, much of which comes from agriculture. Riparian forest buffer
systems (RFBS) provide effective control of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in some
types of agricultural watersheds. Control of NPS pollution is dependent on the type of
pollutant and the hydrologic connection between pollution sources, the RFBS, and the
stream.Water quality improvements are most likely in areas of where most of the excess
precipitation moves across, in, or near the root zone of the RFBS. In areas such as the
Inner Coastal Plain and Piedmont watersheds with thin soils, RFBS should retain
50%90% of the total loading of nitrate in shallow groundwater, sediment in surface
runoff, and total N in both surface runoff and groundwater. Retention of phosphorus is
generally much less. In regions with deeper soils and/or greater regional groundwater
recharge (such as parts of the Piedmont and the Valley and Ridge), RFBS water quality
improvements are probably much less. The expected levels of pollutant control by RFBS
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are identified for each of nine physiographic provinces of the Chesapeake BayWatershed.
Issues related to of establishment, sustainability, and management are also discussed.
Lowrance, R., L.S. Altier, R.G. Williams, S.P. Inamdar, J.M. Sheridan, D.D. Bosch,
R.K. Hubbard, and D.L. Thomas. 2000. REMM: The Riparian Ecosystem
Management Model. 55: 27-34pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Riparian buffer zones are effective in mitigating nonpoint source pollution and
have been recommended as a best management practice (BMP). The Riparian Ecosystem
Management model (REMM) has been developed for researchers and natural resource
agencies as a modeling tool that can help quantify the water quality benefits of riparian
buffers under varying site conditions. Processes simulated in REMM include surface and
subsurface hydrology; sediment transport and deposition; carbon, nitrogen, and
phosphorus transport removal and cycling; and vegetation growth. Management options,
such as vegetation type size of the buffer zone, and biomass harvesting also can be
simulated. REMM can be used in conjunction with upland models, empirical data, or
estimated loadings to examine scenarios of buffer zone design for a hillslope. Evaluation
of REMM simulations with field observations shows generally good agreement between
simulated and observed data for groundwater nitrate concentrations and water table
depths in a mature riparian forest buffer. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes that
influenced the water balance ol soil moisture storage affected the streamflow output.
Parameter changes that influence either hydrology or rates of nutrient cycling affected
total N transport and plant N uptake.
Macdonald, E., C.J. Burgess, G.J. Scrimgeour, S. Boutin, S. Reedyk, and B. Kotak.
2004. Should riparian buffers be part of forest management based on emulation of natural
disturbance? 187: 185-196pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Riparian communities (those near open water) have often been shown to
display high structural and compositional diversity and they have been identified as
potentially serving a keystone role in the landscape. Thus, they are the focus of specific
management guidelines that attempt to protect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We
used a digital forest inventory database for a portion of the boreal mixed-wood forest in
Alberta, Canada, to examine whether proximity to a lake affects forest composition, age,
or configuration. Two analyses were employed: (1) forest composition (dominant canopy
species, proportional composition of different species) and age (decade-of-origin) in
bands of 50 m width and varying distance from small lakes were compared to forest in a
similar spatial configuration but away from open water and (2) forest composition,
dominant canopy species, age, and stand shape metrics were examined along transects
emanating out from lakes in two regions, which varied in topography and dominant forest
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cover. We found no effect of distance from lake on forest age. The proportion of the
landscape covered by forest of the predominant canopy species increased with distance
from lake, but this was largely due to a corresponding decline in cover of non-forest
vegetation rather than a change in forest canopy composition. At the spatial resolution of
forest management planning, riparian forests in this region are of similar age and
composition as those away from lakes. Since there is no natural analogue for riparian
buffer strips around lakes, they may not be justified in the context of ecosystem
management following the natural disturbance paradigm. Management of riparian forests
should focus on meeting defined management and conservation objectives through, for
example, protection of finer scale features of riparian zones and landscape-level planning
for allocation of uncut forest. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Machtans, C. S., M.A. Villard, and S.J. Hannon. 1996. Use of riparian buffer strips as
movement corridors by forest birds. 10: 1366-1379pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We conducted a 3-year field experiment to measure the frequency of bird
movements through riparian buffer strips before and after harvesting of adjacent forest.
Our study was conducted in the boreal mixed wood forest of Alberta and was designed to
determine empirically whether songbirds use riparian buffer strips of forest connecting
forest reserves as corridors and if they move along these buffer strips more frequently
than they cross adjacent clearcuts. We used mist nets to obtain an index of the frequency
of bird movement in the forest, and we observed bird movements across adjacent
clearcuts for comparison. We predicted that the frequency of movement would be greater
(1) in buffer strips after harvesting of adjacent forest than before harvesting, (2) in buffer
strips than across clearcuts and, (3) in buffer strips than at control sites (lakeshore forest
with no adjacent clearcuts). After adjusting for year-to-year variation in abundance, we
found that capture rates increased significantly from pre- to post-harvest, but only for
juveniles. Capture rates of adults decreased immediately after harvesting, probably
because of the removal of an adjacent source of birds that previously moved through the
lakeside forest. Movement rates of forest species in clearcuts were significantly lower
than capture rates in the forest. The number of adults captured was positively correlated
with the number of territories in the buffer strips, indicating that most birds captured were
probably residents. The number of local territories was a poor predictor of juvenile
captures, supporting the notion than juveniles were likely dispersing individuals. Our
results indicate that buffer strips enhanced movements of juveniles (i.e., acted as
corridors) and maintained movement rates of adults. Furthermore, there appeared to be a
threshold distance between reserved below which birds may be less reluctant to fly across
openings, making corridor use less important.
McGarigal, K. and W.C. McComb. 1992. Streamside versus upslope breeding bird
communities in the central Oregon coast range. 56: 10-23pp.
111
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Despite the perceived ecological and management significance of streamside
areas in the moist conifers and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests of the Pacific
Northwest, there is little empirical data on the relative importance of streamside habitat to
area avifauna. Consequently, we compared breeding bird species diversity, richness,
evenness, and individual species’ abundance between streamside and upslope areas in 6
mature, unmanaged forest stands in the central Oregon Coast Range, 1988-89. Bird
community composition and structure differed between streamside and upslope areas.
Species diversity, richness, total bird species were greater (P<0.078) along upslope
transects; 2 common species were more abundant (P<0.059) along streams. Upslope
areas contributed 61% of the total number of birds detected and exclusively contributed
33% of the species; whereas streamsides exclusively contributed only 9% of the species.
Vegetation structure and composition may have been responsible for observed bird
distributions. Management of riparian areas alone (e.g., riparian set-asides) may not meet
the needs of several bird species. A landscape-level approach that considers both upslope
and riparian habitat in conjunction may be more effective in meeting the needs of the
entire breeding bird community. Moreover, our results highlight the need to
reconceptualize streamside values for terrestrial birds in moist coniferous and mixed
coniferous-deciduous forests of western Oregon.
Meiklejohn, B. and J. Hughes. 1999. Bird communities in riparian buffer strips of
industrial forests. 141: 172-184pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Retention of riparian buffers is a common management practise used to protect
streams from the effects of upslope forest harvest. We compared bird use of riparian
buffers along main stem rivers, tributary streams, and reference riparian zones having
intact, upslope forests. Community composition differed considerably between buffers
and references, and also between main stems and tributaries. Density of the more
common species (those detected >20times) was significantly higher along main stems
than along tributaries. Four species (bay-breasted warbler, black throated green warbler,
blue jay, Cape May warbler) were more abundant along main stems than along
tributaries; no species was more abundant along tributaries. The overall density of less
common species was significantly higher in buffer strips that in reference sites, but four
of the more common species (bay-breasted, blackburnian, black throated green, and Cape
May warblers) were more abundant in reference sites than in buffer strips. We did not
detect differences in species diversity or richness among the different site types, but edgespecies were significantly more common in buffer strips than in reference sites. Interiorspecies, in contrast, were significantly more common in reference sites
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Meleason, M. A. and J.M. Quinn. 2004. Influence of riparian buffer width on air
temperature at Whangapoua Forest, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. 191: 365371pp.
Geographic location: New Zealand
Abstract: Air temperatures were measured mid-way within a 5- and a 30-m wide riparian
forest buffer and in an adjacent open clear-felled riparian area over an 11-month period.
Median reductions in maximum daily air temperatures were 3.2 degreesC in the 5-m wide
and 3.4 degreesC in the 30-m wide riparian forests as compared to maximum daily air
temperatures in an adjacent treeless riparian area. Both forested sites had slightly warmer
minimum daily air temperatures than those in the open site (median differences of 0.5
degreesC for the 5-m and 0.7 degreesC for the 30-m wide riparian forests). The 30-m
buffer was slightly cooler than the 5-m buffer during the day (median difference in
maximum daily air temperature of 0.3 degreesC) and slightly warmer during the night
(median difference in minimum daily air temperature of 0.4 degreesC). Buffer
performance in reducing the daily maximum temperature was most effective as the air
temperature increased at the open site, whereas performance in reducing the minimum
temperature increased as the air temperature declined. These results suggest forested
riparian buffers as narrow as 5-m wide can substantially moderate air temperatures as
compared to a treeless environment. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meng, F. and A. Paul . 2004. Mapping watersheds, all major and minor flow channels,
and depth to surface water...A decisive step toward better land management practices.
University of New Brunswick: Miramichi, NB. 12pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: NB/NS forest companies were looking for a planning tool to locate potentially
wet spots (unmapped streams, vernal pools, soft ground) for better planning and
landscape visualization. The final result was a tool to map likely depth of surface water,
at the high water mark.
Milton, G. R. and J. Towers . 1989. St. Mary'
s River Forestry Project: An initial
assessment of the impacts of forestry practices on riparian zones.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
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Water body: St. Mary'
s River
Abstract: Riparian zones are recognized by forestry and wildlife managers as being
particularly important for wildlife and fish. Moreover, guidelines affecting forestry
operations are accepted as necessary to prevent loss of fish habitat or otherways severely
limit the zone’s usefulness as wildlife habitat or travel corridors. This report deals with an
initial assessment of the impact of forestry operation on the habitat and use of riparian
zone by fish and wildlife. The study was conducted within the St. Mary’s River
watershed and surrounding area in eastern mainland Nova Scotia. The overall objective
of the St. Mary’s River Forestry-Wildlife Project is to develop practical, effective, and
economical procedures or guidelines that incorporate wildlife considerations into
intensive forestry practices.
Mooney, S. and L.M. Eisgruber. 2001. The influence of riparian protection measures
on residential property values: The case of the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds.
22: 273-286pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds encourages residential property
owners to plant riparian buffers in an effort to reduce stream temperature and thus
improve fish habitat. This study estimates the change in the value of streamside
residential properties in response to planting a treed riparian buffer. A hedonic pricing
analysis suggests that treed riparian buffers reduce the market value of stream-front
residential property in the study area.
Moore, R. D. and J.S. Richardson. 2003. Progress towards understanding the structure,
function, and ecological significance of small stream channels and their riparian zones.
33: 1349-1351pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: British Columbia
Abstract: Incomplete knowledge of the ecological functions of small streams and their
riparian zones, particularly their roles in larger watershed and landscape contexts,
contributes to confusion and debate about the levels of riparian vegetaion retention
required along small streams for the purpose of protecting aquatic ecosystems, riparian
wildlife, and water quality. As a consequence, there are marked differences in riparian
foresrty practices and managment among jurisdictions throughout North America. To aid
in resolving these issues, a symposium on small streams and their riparian zones was held
at the The University of BC from 19 to 21 Febuary 2002, which brought together
scientists, managers, and practioners and provided a forum for the presentation and
114
discussion of emerging research results. This special issue includes a selection of papers
presented at that symposium as well as one solicited paper.
National Research Council (NRC). 2002. Riparian Areas Functions and Strategies for
Management. National Academy Press: Washinton, D.C. 438pp.
Geographic location: USA
Nerbonne, B. A. and B. Vondracek. 2001. Effects of local land use on physical habitat,
benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in the Whitewater River, Minnesota, USA. 28: 8799pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Best management practices (BMPs) have been developed to address soil loss
and the resulting sedimentation of streams, but information is lacking regarding their
benefits to stream biota. We compared instream physical habitat and invertebrate and fish
assemblages from farms with BMP to those from farms with conventional agricultural
practices within the Whitewater River watershed of southeastern Minnesota, USA, in
1996 and 1997, Invertebrate assemblages were assessed using the US EPA'
s rapid
bioassessment protocol (RBP), and fish assemblages were assessed with two indices of
biotic integrity (IBIs), Sites were classified by upland land use (BMP or conventional
practices) and riparian management (grass, grazed, or wooded buffer). Physical habitat
characteristics differed across buffer types, but not upland land use, using an analysis of
covariance, with buffer width and stream as covariates. Percent fines and embeddedness
were negatively correlated with buffer width. Stream sites along grass buffers generally
had significantly lower percent fines, embeddedness, and exposed streambank soil, but
higher percent cover and overhanging vegetation when compared with sites that had
grazed or wooded buffers. REP and IBI scores were not significantly different across
upland land use or riparian buffer type but did show several correlations with instream
physical habitat variables. REP and IBI scores were both negatively correlated with
percent fines and embeddedness and positively correlated with width-to-depth ratio. The
lack of difference in REP or IBI scores across buffer types suggests that biotic indicators
may not respond to local changes, that other factors not measured may be important, or
that greater improvements in watershed condition are necessary for changes in biota to be
apparent. Grass buffers may be a viable alternative for riparian management, especially if
sedimentation and streambank stability are primary concerns.
Parkyn, S. M., R.J. Davies-Colley, N.J. Halliday, K.J. Costley, and G.F. Croker.
2003. Planted riparian buffer zones in New Zealand: Do they live up to expectations?
11: 436-447pp.
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115
Geographic location: New Zealand
Abstract: River and stream rehabilitation projects are increasing in number, but the
success or failure of these projects has rarely been evaluated, and the extent to which
buffers can restore riparian and stream function and species composition is not well
understood. In New Zealand the widespread conversion of forest to agricultural land has
caused degradation of streams and riparian ecosystems. We assessed nine riparian buffer
zone schemes in North Island, New Zealand that had been fenced and planted (age range
from 2 to 24 years) and compared them with unbuffered control reaches upstream or
nearby. Macroinvertebrate community composition was our prime indicator of water and
habitat quality and ecological functioning, but we also assessed a range of physical and
water quality variables within the stream and in the riparian zone. Generally, streams
within buffer zones showed rapid improvements in visual water clarity and channel
stability, but nutrient and fecal contamination responses were variable. Significant
changes in macroinvertebrate communities toward "clean water" or native forest
communities did not occur at most of the study sites. Improvement in invertebrate
communities appeared to be most strongly linked to decreases in water temperature,
suggesting that restoration of in-stream communities would only be achieved after
canopy closure, with long buffer lengths, and protection of headwater tributaries.
Expectations of riparian restoration efforts should be tempered by (1) time scales and (2)
spatial arrangement of planted reaches, either within a catchment or with consideration of
their proximity to source areas of recolonists.
Pearson, S. F. and D.A. Manuwal. 2001. Breeding bird response to riparian buffer
width in managed Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests. 11: 840-853pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: We examined the relative importance of riparian vs. upland habitats to breeding
birds by comparing species abundance, richness, and similarity of bird communities in
managed Douglas-fir forests in western Washington State, USA. We also examined
whether forested buffer strips along second- and third-order streams effectively maintain
the pre-logging riparian breeding bird community by comparing species abundance,
richness, and turnover among three treatments: (1) unharvested controls; (2) sites that
were clear-cut, leaving a narrow (similar to 14 m) forested buffer on both sides of the
stream; and (3) sites that were clear-cut, leaving a wide (similar to 31 m) forested buffer
along both sides of the stream. Deciduous trees, berry-producing shrubs, and other
deciduous shrubs less common in adjacent upland forest characterized streamside zones.
Despite different vegetation features, riparian and upland habitats did not differ in any
measures of bird species richness and composition. No species or species group was more
abundant in the upland. Neotropical migrants, resident species, and species associated
with deciduous trees and shrubs in forested habitats were more abundant in riparian
habitats than in adjacent uplands. Total bird abundance and abundance of four species
(American Robin [Turdus migratorius], Pacific-slope Flycatcher [Empinonax difficilis],
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Black-throated Gray Warbler [Dendroica nigrescens], and Winter Wren [Troglodytes
troglodytes]) were higher in riparian habitats. Abundance of these riparian associates was
correlated with percent cover of berry-producing shrubs and the number of deciduous
trees in the canopy. We found that the number of breeding bird species on sites with
narrow buffers increased from slightly fewer than controls before harvest to an average of
10 more species than controls after harvest, a change reflected in an average 20%
increase in species turnover on narrow-buffer sites relative to controls. Total bird
abundance did not differ between treatments and controls. Resident species, those species
associated with shrubs in forested habitats and conifer trees, declined on both buffer
treatments. Species associated with upland and riparian forests (Black-throated Gray
Warble;, Golden-crowned Kinglet [Regulus satrapa], and Brown Creeper [Certhia
americana]) decreased in abundance on riparian buffer treatments relative to controls,
whereas species associated with open, shrubby habitats (Dark-eyed Junco [Junco
hyemalis], Cedar Waxwing [Bombycilla cedrorum], and Song Sparrow [Melospiza
melodia]) increased in abundance on one or both riparian buffer treatments. High species
turnover on narrow-buffer treatments indicated that buffers < 14 m on each side of the
stream did not maintain the pre-logging bird community. There was little difference in
species turnover or species richness between the wide-buffer treatment and the control,
indicating that a 30-m buffer on both sides of second-order and third-order streams
maintains most of the pre-logging bird community in the first two years postharvest. The
Black-throated Gray Warbler was the only riparian associate to decline on both the
narrow- and wide-buffer treatments; its abundance was positively correlated with buffer
width, and a buffer greater than or equal to 45 m wide on each side of second- and thirdorder streams was needed to support populations at densities found on unharvested
controls. To maintain the entire breeding bird community associated with forested
riparian habitats in the coastal Northwest, we recommend a minimum buffer of 45 m
along both sides of second- and third-order streams. Habitat features such as deciduous
trees (Alnus rubra and Acer macrophyllum) and berry-producing shrubs (especially
Rubus spectabilis) appear to be important and should be maintained within forested
riparian buffer strips. This study documents short-term effects of riparian treatments on
the breeding bird community, which may take several years to respond to habitat
manipulations. Thus, we recommend continued monitoring to assess long-term effects of
buffer width reduction.
Pothier, D., M. Prevost, and I. Auger. 2003. Using the shelterwood method to mitigate
water table rise after forest harvesting . 179: 573-583pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: The groundwater level of conifer stand established on a lowland in eastern
Canada was periodically measured using water wells installed in an experimental design
composed of four completely randomized blocks and five levels of cutting (0,40,50,60
and 100% of basal area (BA) removed). The three partial cutting treatments were applied
117
following the principles of low thinning, but with the seed cutting objectives of the
shelterwood method. Before cutting, highly similar values for groundwater level were
recorded for plots targeted to receive the planned treatments. During the first growing
season after cutting, the water table rise was linearly related to the percentage of cutting,
and this effect was more apparent at the lower levels recorded for the control of water
table. This finding is partly explained by the leaf biomass of residual trees that
intercepted an increasing proportion of rainfall with decreasing cutting intensity. Five
years after cutting, although the water table of clearcut experimental units(EU) was still
higher than that of the controls, it was no longer related to cutting intensity. During the 5
years following the cutting, the slopes of the relationships between the water table depth
of the control plots and those of any treatment gradually approached the value calculated
before cutting. The water table recovery was related to the increasing leaf biomass of the
regeneration stratum over time, rather than to the crown expansion of residual trees. The
shelterwood method should be considered for forest management of wetlands, since it
mitigates water table rise after the first cut and promotes a vigorous regeneration stratum
which should also mitigate water table rise following the final cut.
Quinn, J. M., I.K.G. Boothroyd, and B.J. Smitha. 2004. Riparian buffers mitigate
effects of pine plantation logging on New Zealand streams. 2. Invertebrate communities.
191: 129-146pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: New Zealand
Abstract: The influences on forest stream invertebrate communities of riparian forest type
(native/exotic Pinus radiata) and logging, with or without native forest riparian buffers,
were investigated at 28 stream sites on Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Stream
reaches were surveyed under summer, baseflow conditions in six riparian/forest
vegetation types: native forest, mature pine plantations with pines planted to the stream
edge, mature pine plantations with native forest in the riparian area, clearcut pine
plantations, and logged pine plantations with patch buffers of native forest vegetation
(upstream areas clearcut) or continuous buffers along the perennially flowing stream
length. Multivariate analyses showed that clearcut reaches differed in invertebrate
community structure from pine and native forested reaches, and from logged reaches with
continuous riparian buffers. Communities at patch buffer sites were intermediate between
these groups. Amongst the common taxa, mayflies were the most sensitive to clearcut
logging, with three species less abundant at clear-cut and/or patch buffer sites; only the
algalpiercing caddis Oxyethira albiceps (Hydroptilidae) responded positively to logging.
Clearcut reaches had lowest diversity, taxon richness, relative abundance and numbers of
the sensitive mayfly, stonefly and caddisfly taxa, and index of biotic integrity. In contrast,
sites that had been logged leaving continuous buffers did not differ in these biometrics
from those in intact native or mature plantation forest, indicating that buffers greatly
reduced disturbance associated with logging. Logged sites with patch buffers had
biometric values intermediate between clearcut and forested/continuous buffered reaches,
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indicating less protection from logging impact. Correlation and multiple regression
analyses showed that logging impacts are strongly related to increases in periphyton
biomass and water temperature, associated with changes in stream lighting, and increased
channel instability/fine sediment. The findings indicate that late-rotation exotic pine
plantations can support very similar stream invertebrate communities to native forests,
and highlight the benefit of retaining forested buffers along stream riparian areas to avoid
harvesting impacts on stream habitat and invertebrate communities.
Ruel, J. C. 2000. Factors influencing windthrow in balsam fir forests: from landscape
studies to individual tree studies. 135: 169-178pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Windthrow hazard depends upon the interaction of numerous factors whose
relative importance has yet to be assessed in the specific context of Eastern Canadian
boreal forests. This paper presents results from three studies looking at their relative
importance at different scales in the context of balsam fir stands. First, factors involved in
a catastrophic windthrow are examined in order to assess their importance at a regional
and local scale. Wind speeds were estimated from a numerical model and overlaid with
windthrow, soil and stand maps. The two regions that were damaged presented many
predisposing factors: high occurrence of shallow soils, of vulnerable species and of
overmature stands. Moreover, both regions have been identified as high wind areas. No
consistent effect of wind speed on windthrow could be demonstrated, but the increasing
vulnerability of stands with increasing proportion of balsam fir in one region and
increasing age in balsam fir stands in both regions was significant. In one region, shallow
tills experienced more damage in comparison with deep tills but not in the other. The
second study looks at windthrow in riparian buffer strips at a local level. It includes st
wind tunnel study and a field monitoring in stands of similar species composition and
age. Results have shown that windthrow after 7 years was very variable and did not differ
with strip width or thinning in the strip. In fact, it was more closely related to locations
exposed to stronger winds stressing the importance of wind exposure estimation. It also
confirms the greater vulnerability of balsam fir. The last study addresses the
identification of external indicators of mechanical weaknesses on individual trees. It
involves dissections and winching of trees with and without defects. Results tend to
indicate a reduction in resistance when cracks are present on balsam fir. These three
studies provide some information to begin considering windthrow hazard in the
management of balsam fir forests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruel, J. C., D. Pin, and K. Cooper. 2001. Windthrow in riparian buffer strips: effect of
wind exposure, thinning and strip width. 143: 105-113pp.
Geographic location: Canada
119
Abstract: This paper discusses the effects of topography, riparian buffer strip width and
thinning on the amount of windthrow over 9 years in balsam fir (Abies balsamea) stands.
Monitoring of windthrow was conducted in 25 riparian areas representing five
treatments: uncut control, thinned 20 m strip, unthinned 20, 40 and 60 m strips. Wind
tunnel measurements were made on a topographical model of the study area to provide an
estimate of local wind behaviour. A cluster analysis performed on the wind speed data
led to the identification of four major topographic units of similar wind behaviour. Wind
speed in valleys varied greatly depending upon the direction of the approaching winds
and the presence of small topographic features. When the wind blows perpendicularly to
the valley, wind speed tends to be lower but more variable than when it blows parallel to
the valley. Windthrow was not related to strip width or thinning. The field study showed
that windthrow 5 years after cutting was found to be correlated with the speed of winds
blowing roughly perpendicular to the strips. Windthrow after 7 and 9 years, following an
unusual wind event that occurred between years 5 and 7, was no longer correlated with
this wind direction. High levels of damage were observed where the valley widened,
offering less shelter to the buffer strips. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
reserved.
Semlitsch, R. D. and J. R. Bodie. 2003. Biological Criteria for buffer zones around
wetlands and riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. 17: 1219-1228pp.
Copy location: 1
Abstract: Terrestrial habitats surrounding wetlands are critical to the management of
natural resources. Although the protection of water resources from human activities such
as agriculture, silviculture, and urban development is obvious, it is also apparent that
terrestrial areas surrounding wetland are core habitats for many semiaquatic species that
depend on mesic ecotones to complete their life cycle. For purposes of conservation and
management, it is important to define core habitats used by local breeding populations
surrounding wetlands. Our objective was to provide an estimate of the biologically
relevant size of core habitat surrounding wetlands for amphibians and reptiles. We
summarize data from the literature on the use of terrestrial habitats by amphibians and
reptiles associated with wetlands (19 frog and 13 salamander species representing 1363
individuals; 5 snake and 28 turtle species representing more that 2245 individuals). Core
terrestrial habitat ranged from 159 to 290 m for amphibians and from 127 to 289m for
reptiles from the edge of the aquatic site. Data from the studies also indicated the
importance of terrestrial habitats for feeding, overwintering, and nesting, and, thus, the
biological interdependence between aquatic and terrestrial habitats that is essential for the
persistence of populations. The minimum and maximum values for core habitats,
depending on the level of protection needed, can be used to set biologically meaningful
buffers for wetland and riparian habitats. These results indicate that large areas of
terrestrial habitat surrounding wetlands are critical for maintaining biodiversity.
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Shirley, S. 2004. The influence of habitat diversity and structure on bird use of riparian
buffer strips in coastal forests of British Columbia, Canada. 34: 1499-1510pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: I investigated the role of habitat structure in explaining bird species richness
and abundance in riparian buffer strips of old-growth coniferous forest on western
Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Using buffer strips of varying widths and a control
from undisturbed riparian forest, I tested the hypothesis that vegetation differs in buffer
strips of varying width. I selected 10 summary variables to represent broad-scale
vegetation attributes of riparian habitat. Deciduous tree density was higher, and shrub
richness was lower in wide buffers compared with narrow buffers. I then used Akaike
information criterion to examine whether vegetation structure or buffer width best
explained patterns of bird richness and abundance in riparian habitats. Species richness
and abundance in several foraging guilds were explained better by buffer width than by
vegetation. Abundances of three bird habitat guilds: riparian specialists, forest-interior,
and open-edge species, and 6 of 10 species were best explained by specific vegetation
features. Differences in vegetation, particularly deciduous tree density and shrub cover,
explained part of the variation in abundance of several riparian forest-dwelling species
and may be useful in evaluating specific forest management practices. Because deciduous
tree density is also positively correlated with buffer width, wide buffers (>100 m) may
benefit not only those species associated with coniferous upland forests and forest
generalists sensitive to buffer width, but also those species whose abundance is
associated with deciduous trees.
Story, A., R.D. Moore, and J S Macdonald. 2003. Stream temperatures in two shaded
reaches below cutblocks and logging roads: downstream cooling linked to subsurface
hydrology. 33: 1383-1396pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: British Columbia
Abstract: This study examined water termperature pattern and their physical controls for
two small, clearing-heated streams in shaded reaches downstream of all forestry activity.
Field observations were made during July-August 2000 in the central interior of British
Columbia, Canada. For both reaches, downstream cooling of up to 4C had been observed
during daytime distances of-200m. Radiative and convective exchanges of energy at
heavily shaded sites on both reaches represented a net input of heat during most
afternoons and therefore could not explain the observed cooling. In one stream, the
greates downstream cooling occurred when streamflow at the upstream site dropped
below about 5L'
s. At those times, temperatue at the downstream site were controlled
mainly by local inflow of groundwater, because the warmer water from upstream was lost
by filtration in the upper 150m of the reach. Warming often occured in the upper
subreach, where cool groundwater did not interact with the channel. At the second
121
stream, creek temperature patterns were compartively stable. Energy balance estimates
form one afternoon suggested that groundwater inflow caused about 40% of the 3C gross
cooling effects in the daily maximum temperature, whereas bed heat conduction and
hyporheic exchange caused about 60%.
Sweeney, B. W., T.L. Bott, J.K. Jackson, L.A. Kaplan, J.D. Newbold, L.J. Standley,
W. C. Hession, and R.J. Horwitz. 2004. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and
loss of stream ecosystem services. 101: 14132-14137pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian
deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat
and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of
pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing
of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow
deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation
regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide
degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more
natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity
of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both
current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best
management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation
for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint
source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing
of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on
downstream rivers and estuaries.
Thornton, K. W., S.P. Holbrook, K.L. Stolte, and R.B. Landy. 2000. Effects of forest
management practices on mid-Atlantic streams. 63: 31-41pp.
Geographic location: North America
Abstract: Agricultural and urban land use activities have affected stream ecosystems
throughout the mid-Atlantic region. However, over 60% of the mid-Atlantic region is
forested. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of management practices on
forested stream ecosystems throughout the mid-Atlantic region. The study consisted of
two phases: Phase 1 was a literature synthesis of information available on the effects of
forest management practices on stream hydrology, erosion and sedimentation, riparian
habitat alteration, chemical addition, and change in biotic diversity in the mid-Atlantic
region. In Phase 2, data from mid-Atlantic streams were analyzed to assess the effects of
forest land use on stream quality at the regional scale. Typically, it is the larger order
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streams in which monitoring and assessment occurs-3(rd) order or higher streams. The
impacts of forest management practices, particularly hydrologic modifications and
riparian buffer zone alteration, occur predominantly in first and second order streams
with cumulative impacts translating to higher order streams. Based on the literature
review and mid-Atlantic Highland streams analysis, there are short-term (e.g., 2 to 5
years) effects of forest management practices on stream quality at local scales. However,
signatures of cumulative effects from forest management practices are not apparent at
regional scales in the Highlands. In general, forested land use is associated with good
stream quality in the region compared with other land use practices.
VanderHaegen, W. M. and R.M. Degraaf. 1996. Predation on artificial nests in
forested riparian buffer strips. 60: 542-550pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: We used artificial nests to examine predation in riparian buffer strips created by
commercial clear-cutting and in unharvested control areas on industrial forestlands in
eastern Maine. Nests in riparian buffer strips were depredated more often than those in
intact riparian forests. This pattern was similar for both ground and shrub nests and for
both trials. Predation rate for nests in control stands was 15%, compared to 31% in 2040m wide buffer strips along tributary streams (P = 0.016) and 23% in 60-80m wide
buffer strips along mainstem streams (P = 0.045). Predation rates were similar (P = 0.41)
in mainstem and tributary buffer strips. Greater predation rates documented for nests in
riparian buffer strips likely resulted from an elevated number and diversity of predators
associated with the narrow, linear forest stands. Remotely-triggered cameras placed on a
subset of nests revealed 6 species of nest predators. Predators identified at nests were
mostly forest species and not species directly associated with riparian habitats. Red
squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) were responsible
for >50% of the identified depredations, Black bears (Ursus americanus) were
photographed only in tributary buffer strips and may have been using them to travel
between larger forested stands. increased predation of eggs and young probably reduces
the nesting success of birds in riparian buffer strips. Managers should leave wide (greater
than or equal to 150-m) buffer strips along riparian zones to reduce edge-related nest
predation, especially in landscapes where buffer strips are an important component of the
existing mature forest.
Verry, E. S., J.W. Hornbeck, and C.A. Dolloff. Riparian Management in Forests of the
Continental United States. Lewis Publishers: Washington, D.C. 23-42pp.
Geographic location: USA
Vesely, D. G. and W.C. McComb. 2002. Salamander abundance and amphibian species
richness in riparian buffer strips in the Oregon Coast Range. 48: 291-297pp.
123
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Logging and other forest practices are widely reported to be a threat to some
amphibian populations in the Pacific Northwest. Riparian buffer strips are one
conservation measure that may benefit amphibians in managed forests. However, few
amphibian surveys have been conducted in buffer strips. We compared total salamander
abundance, amphibian species richness, and sampling proportions for five species of
salamanders between 17 managed stands and 12 unlogged, streamside forests in the
Coast Range of western Oregon. We also identified relationships between buffer strip
width and salamander population indices. Surveys conducted on 20 x 40 m plots
demonstrated that torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton spp.), clouded salamanders (Aneides
ferreus), Dunn'
s salamanders (Plethodon dunni), western red-backed salamanders
(Plethodon vehiculum), total salamander abundance, and amphibian species richness
were sensitive to forest practices in riparian areas. We conclude that riparian buffer strips
are a useful habitat management strategy for several salamander species. However, buffer
strip widths currently required by state forest practices regulations may not be adequate
to prevent local declines in the diversity of amphibian communities.
Voller, J. Riparian Areas and Wetlands: Conservation Biology Principles for Forested
Landscapes . UBC Press: Vancouver . 99-129pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Definitions and Background of Riparian Areas and Wetlands.
Warkentin, I. G., A.L. Fisher, S.P. Flemming, and S.E. Roberts. 2003. Response to
clear-cut logging by northern waterthrushes. 33: 755-762pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: We examined the distribution and foraging behaviour of northern waterthrushes
(Seiurus noveboracensis) in recently harvested and intact landscapes of Newfoundland.
Data were collected along six 1-km segments of stream and adjoining upland habitat
resulting in four treatments (harvested or intact, upland or stream) with three replicates
each. Although known as a riparian specialist, we found waterthrush territories equally
distributed across intact upland and riparian habitats. However, few waterthrushes
occupied harvested uplands, while large numbers packed into riparian buffer strips
adjacent to these 5- to 10-year-old postharvest clearcuts. Arthropod abundance and
biomass were highly variable between years and across the four treatments, generating
significant year x treatment interaction effects. Riparian habitat (in both intact and
harvested areas) bad consistently greater numbers of arthropod prey and more biomass
than either upland habitat type. Northern waterthrushes foraging in riparian habitat
124
adjacent to harvested uplands had lower attack rates and more frequent long flights than
waterthrushes foraging in the intact treatment types. Prolonged packing of individuals
into riparian buffer strips, and apparent adverse affects on waterthrush foraging
efficiency, raise concerns about the effectiveness of buffer strips for sustaining viable
populations of terrestrial riparian habitat specialists.
Weston, D. G. 1995. The Effectiveness of Buffer Zones in Conifer-Afforested
Catchments. 9: 396-404pp.
Geographic location: UK
Abstract: This paper reports upon a study to determine whether buffer strips could
improve the quality of soil-water draining from conifer-afforested slopes. Three sites in
the Monachyle Glen catchment in the Trossachs (West Central Scotland) were sampled
and several chemical indices were determined. Buffer strips engendered some variable
and qualified improvements in soil-water concentrations of some ions, although the
improvement was accompanied by the anticipated loss of bases. Improvements in soilwater quality were related to soil characteristics - soils containing organic matter being
more effective than mineral soils.
Whitaker, D. M., A.L. Carroll, and W.A. Montevecchi. 2000. Elevated numbers of
flying insects and insectivorous birds in riparian buffer strips. 78: 740-747pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: We compared the abundances of flying insects along undisturbed lakeshores
and riparian buffer strips in balsam fir (Abies balsamea) forests in western
Newfoundland. Insects were collected in pan traps placed on the forest floor and
tanglefoot (sticky) traps suspended within the live canopy. Significantly greater numbers
of insects were captured in riparian buffer strips than in undisturbed shorelines for four of
five size classes in the canopy and two of five size classes in the understory. Collections
were dominated by adult Diptera and Hymenoptera. Mean capture rates along buffer
strips were 120-200% of the mean capture rates along undisturbed shorelines. This
increase was greatest for large-bodied insects. A likely explanation for our observations
is that buffer strips act as windbreaks, collecting airborne insects blown in from adjacent
clearcuts and lakes. This phenomenon has been widely documented in agricultural
landscapes. Understory wind speed was generally greater along buffer strips than
controls, which is a reflection of increased exposure caused by clear-cutting. A
concurrent parallel study conducted at the same sites investigated the effects of riparian
buffering on breeding bird assemblages. Ubiquitous insectivorous birds, including the
yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) and blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata),
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were more abundant along buffer strips than undisturbed shorelines, possibly in response
to increased prey availability. Increased food availability may in part explain the high
numbers of insectivorous birds typically observed in riparian buffer strips in boreal
forests.
Whitaker, D. M. and W.A. Montevecchi. 1999. Breeding bird assemblages
inhabitating riparian buffer strips in Newfoundland, Canada. 61: 167-179pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Throughout most of the North American boreal forest, riparian buffer strips are
left during clearing cutting. Although this practice is considered a means to reduce
adverse effects of timber harvesting on terrestrial fauna, little research has been
considered a means to quantify the extent to which buffer strips are used by wildlife. We
compared breeding bird assemblages (grouped in 5 habitat guilds) in undisturbed
shoreline habitats with those in 20-50-m-wide riparian buffer strips in balsalm fir(Abies
balsamea) forests on insular Newfoundland Canada. Total avian abundance was higher
along buffer strips than undisturbed shorelines because of a greater abundance of
ubiquitous species and species associated with clearcut edge habitats. Abundance of
forest heneralists, interior forests, and riparian species were similar between buffers and
controls. Riparian buffer strips provided habitats for a diverse avian assemblage and
maintained many riparian and woodland species in areas of intensive clearcutting. Counts
of riparian species did not increase in wider buffers, likely due to their association with
habitats adjacent to water, which do not increase in proportion to strip width. Total
numbers of interior forest birds, many species of which may be declining in northeastern
North America, may increase in wider buffers, but these species were rare even in the
widest strips sampled (40-50cm) when compared to local interior forest habitat.
Furthermore, 3 of 6 species in the interior forest guild were not observed in any buffer
strip. While riparian conservation is essential, separate but complementary conservation
strategies clearly are required to protect riparian and interior forest species.
Willson, J. D. and M.E. Dorcas. 2003. Effects of habitat disturbance on stream
salamanders: Implications for buffer zones and watershed management. 17: 763-771pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: With human populations increasing worldwide, habitat destruction and
degradation are among the greatest threats facing wildlife. To minimize the impacts of
development on aquatic habitats, numerous conservation measures have been
implemented, including the use of riparian buffer zones along streams and rivers. We
examined the effectiveness of current buffer-zone systems for management of small
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watersheds in conserving stream-dwelling salamander populations in 10 small streams
(draining <40.5 ha) in the western Piedmont of North Carolina. We captured salamanders
by means of funnel traps and systematic dipnetting and used a geographic information
system to calculate the percentage of disturbed habitat within the watershed of each
stream and within 10.7-, 30.5-, and 61.0-m buffer zones around each stream, upstream
from our sampling locations. Although the relative abundance of salamanders was
strongly inversely proportional to the percentage of disturbed habitat in the entire
watersheds (R-2=0.71 for Desmognathus fuscus and 0.48 for Eurycea cirrigera ), we
found little to no correlation between the relative abundance of salamanders and the
percentage of disturbed habitat present within buffer zones (R-2=0.06-0.27 for D. fuscus
and 0.01-0.07 for E. cirrigera ). Thus, conservation efforts aimed at preserving
salamander populations in headwater streams must consider land use throughout entire
watersheds, rather than just preserving small riparian buffer zones.
Wissmar, R. C., W.N. Beer, and R.K. Timm. 2004. Spatially explicit estimates of
erosion-risk indices and variable riparian buffer widths in watersheds. 66: 446-455pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Strategies for protecting and restoring riparian and stream ecosystems
commonly encounter uncertainties about natural processes and management practices
that contribute to environmental disturbances. Improvements in management plans
require landscape approaches that account for the explicit spatial distribution and
variability of different land cover types that can contribute to unstable conditions. We use
a spatially explicit procedure to determine erosion-risk indices and variable riparian
buffer widths in watersheds. The indices are based on land cover types that can contribute
to erosion either alone or collectively. Land cover information ( e. g., unstable soils,
immature forest stands, roads, critical slope for land failure and rain-on-snow areas) was
used to estimate erosion-risk indices. Erosion-risk indices increase with greater cooccurrences of contributing land covers. The procedure was used to identify erosionprone areas in tributary watersheds of the Beckler-Rapid River drainage (260 km2), in the
State of Washington, USA. A regression analysis of the relationship between mean
sediment inputs to streams and erosion-risk indices of sixteen different watersheds
indicated that erosion-risk indices explained 65% of the variation associated with
sediment inputs to channels. Landscape maps of erosion-risk categories, based on ranges
of erosion-risk indices, allowed spatially explicit definitions of stream reach lengths
susceptible to different levels of erosion. Low to high-risk categories, and reach lengths
vulnerable to erosion, also permitted the identification of the distribution of channels
requiring protection by variable riparian buffers widths. The applicability of the
procedure to other landscapes was demonstrated by estimating erosion risk-indices and
variable riparian buffer widths for watersheds in the upper Cedar River drainage near
Seattle, Washington. This approach allows watershed managers to use existing records
and published information to address environmental problems within highly variable
landscapes.
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Xiang, W. N. 1996. GIS-based riparian buffer analysis: Injecting geographic information
into landscape planning. 34: 1-10pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The establishment and maintenance of riparian buffer zones along shorelines or
streams is a common best management practice (BMP) in the United States. These
vegetated areas function as sinker, filter, and transformer to delay, absorb, or purify
contaminated runoff before it enters surface waters. Their effectiveness for nonpoint
source pollution control has been widely appreciated. Presented in this paper is a case
study in which a GIS-based (geographic information system based) buffer analysis was
conducted on a North Carolina watershed in support of landscape planners'planning
activities. By implementing scientifically tested models on generally available data sets in
a GIS framework, the study accomplished a series of tasks that would have been
extremely difficult if done in conventional ways. These tasks include (1) calculating and
mapping variable riparian buffer zones; (2) identifying inadequately regulated areas (i.e.
areas outside the currently regulated buffer zones but within the calculated buffer zones);
(3) estimating land acquisition costs associated with these inadequately regulated areas.
The analytical results were well received by the decision makers and advanced their
knowledge about landscape planning issues that they were facing.
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Water Quality
Allen, Y. 1992. Hydrogeochemistry and biophysical status of the Pine Marten Brook
study area, Kejimkujik National Park; a preliminary description. Conservation and
Protection, Water Resources Directorate 34pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 H94 1992
Grafton Field Office 574.8 ALL
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Pine Marten Brook
Abstract: The Pine Marten Brook watershed has been selected as the site for a long-term
calibrated basin bythe Water Resources Directorate of Environment Canada. The work at
the basin is being dedicated to understanding trends in freshwater and wetland
acidification, as well as for climate change studies. In order to provide background
information useful in setting up new studies and understanding ongoing work, we
summarise existing information in this document.
Allen, Y. 1993. Ecological monitoring and research at Kejimkujik National Park, 19781992. Kejimkujik National Park: Maitland Bridge. 57pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 541.15.M64 E35 1993 c. 1 (non-circ)
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: A national network for ecosystem monitoring and assessment has been
proposed to provide integrated ecological information for use in determining ecological
consequences of various environmental stresses. In the Atlantic Maritime Ecozone,
Kejimkujik National Park has been proposed as a candidate site for this network, since it
is protected from development which may endanger long-term monitoring and
assessment, is generally representative of the Ecozone, and has a key role in the acid
precipitation monitoring network. This report discusses past, current, and future
monitoring activity at the Park. The park site is described in terms of its spatial
representativeness, science partnerships, and other aspects which suit its inclusion as part
of a national ecosystem monitoring network. The appendix includes: a list of current
research projects in the Park area; a brief chronology of Park events; and an extensive
bibliography on the aquatic and terrestrial effects of acid precipitation.
Ambler, D. C. 1983. Surface water hydrology, Kejimkujik calibrated catchment
program, on the aquatic and terrestrial affects of the long range transport of air pollutants.
Inland Waters Directorate: Dartmouth. 39pp.
129
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 A63 1983
Grafton Field Office 574.8 AMB
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Beaverskin Lake
Abstract: The Kejimkujik Calibrated Lake Catchment Program is one of five national
study areas to support research into the LRTAP. The study area and Kejimkujik National
Park are within the Mersey River watershed. This report summarizes the history of
surface water data collection by the Water Survey of Canada Division of the Water
Resources Branch, Environment Canada. The collected data are interpreted to find
annual and monthly extremes, means and their variability. A monthly flow estimate is
made for one of the study sites within the park area.
Bastarache, D., N. El-Jabi, N. Turkkan, and T.A. Clair. 1997. Predicting conductivity
and acidity for small streams using neural networks. Kejimkujik. 24: 1030-1039pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Moose Pit Brook and Pine Marten Brook
Abstract: Acidity and conductivity are parameters which must be studied to assist in the
management and understanding of watercourses. Studies of these parameters can require
continuous series of some length which can be difficult to obtain. For instance, data series
may have gaps because of problems with data acquisition. These gaps, which can
interfere with analysis, can be filled in with model-generated data. The purpose of this
study is to model Moose Pit Brook and Pine Marten Brook pH and conductivity with
neural networks. These streams are in the region of Kejimkujik National Park in Nova
Scotia, Canada. Daily flow values and the time of year were used as inputs for the
networks. The coefficients of determination for the networks chosen to predict the output
variables varied from 0.802 to 0.976 for the training series and from 0.716 to 0.967 for
the evaluation series.
Beauchamp, S., G. Brun, N. Burgess, J. Carter, A. D'Entremont, and C. Drysdale.
2001. Mercury concentrations in yellow perch (perca flavescens) from 24 lakes at
Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia. Parks Canada Atlantic Region
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD 196 .M38 2001
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: 24 lakes in Kejimkujik National Park
130
Abstract: As part of a larger study on the bioaccumulation and ecological effects of
mercury in freshwater fish and wildlife in Atlantic Canada, we measured total mercury in
yellow perch from 24 lakes in Kejimkujik National Park. The objectives of the study
were to assess mercury concentrations in prey of common loons, which themselves have
high mercury levels, and to determine which environmental factors were associated with
differences in fish mercury concentrations from lake to lake.
Beauchamp, S. T. 1994. Plankton primary production in three acid stressed lakes in
Nova Scotia.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 91.8 .P5 B42 1983
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: Beaverskin Lake, Kejimkujik Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: On 28 occasions distributed throughout two water years (May 1979-April
1981) planktonic primary production and thirty selected physical, chemical and
biological parameters were measured simultaneously in three acidic lakes in central NS.
Benjamin, N. and J.J. Kerekes. 1993. Grouping dynamics of common loon on Grafton
Lake (Cecumcega Gowick), Kejimkujik National Park (27 July-1 October 1993).
Canadian Wildlife Service: Dartmouth. 23pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL 696.P6 .B46 1993
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake
Abstract: A study of the grouping behaviour of Common Loons was conducted on
Grafton Lake in Kejimkujik National Park from 27 July to 1 October, 1993. The
purposes of the study were to determine the following: total number of loons using the
lake each day; sizes and dynamics of loon groups; territories of resident loon pairs and to
what degree they were defended.
Blouin, A. C. 1984. Comparative patterns of plankton communities under different
regimes of pH in Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University 276pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 911.8 .P5 B64 1985
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
131
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake, Beaverskin Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: A field program was conducted on three lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, to
study plankton-water chemistry relationships in a region of potential acid precipitation
stress. Comparisons were made among lakes and between years. The three study sites
represent two different types of lakes; brownwater and clear water. A biogeographic
study of twenty lakes in NS showed that many acidic lakes retain diverse and abundant
plankton communities.
Boudala, F. S., I. Folkins, S. Beauchamp, R. Tordon, J. Neima, and B. Johnson.
2000. Mercury Flux Measurements over Air and Water in Kejimkujik National Park,
Nova Scotia. Kejimkujik. 122: 183-202pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Mercury flux measurements were conducted at two lakes and three soil sites in
Kejimkujik National Park, located in the eastern Canadian province of Nova Scotia. One
of the lakes had high levels of both mercury and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Two
of the soil sites were located under the forest canopy, while the other was in a small
clearing surrounded by forest. Flux measurements were performed using the dynamic
chamber method. Mercury concentrations in the air were measured with a TEKRAN
mercury analyzer. Mercury fluxes over the two lakes were most strongly correlated with
solar radiation, although the flux was also significantly correlated with water
temperature, air temperature, and negatively correlated with relative humidity. The flux
from the high DOC lake (Big Dam West) was especially high when the conditions were
both sunny and windy (wind speed greater than 1.3 m s-1) and the average flux measured
was 5.4 ng m-2 h-1. The mercury flux from this lake was well parameterized in terms of
a simple expression involving solar radiation and a nonlinear dependence on wind speed.
The flux measured from the low DOC lake (North Cranberry) tended to be lower than
from the high DOC lake. The average flux measured was 1.1 ng m-2 h-1, but was again
strongly correlated with solar radiation. The flux was low during windy conditions in the
absence of sunlight, suggesting that wind enhances mercury evasion from lakes only in
the presence of solar radiation. Mercury fluxes measured over the soil sites tended to be
smaller than those over water (a range of –1.4–4.3 ng m-2 h-1). At one of the forest sites,
mercury flux was very strongly correlated with 0.5 cm soil temperature, and this
dependence was well described by an Arrhenius-type expression with an activation
energy of 14.6 kcal-1 mole, quite close to the heat of vaporization of mercury (14.5 kcal1 mol-1 at 20 °C). At the clearing, where there was direct exposure to the sun, the
mercury flux was most strongly correlated with solar radiation.
Bowman, K. M., K.M. Somers, and R.A. Reid. 2003. A simple method to evaluate
whether a biological community has been influenced by anthropogenic activity. Ottawa,
ON. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Aquatic Toxicology Workshop : September 28 to
October 1, 2003: 62-72pp.
132
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: To illustrate the TSA approach, we compared the benthic macroinvertebrate
community from a test stream that was historically impacted by acid precipitation with
benthic communities from a set of minimally impacted reference streams. Using
calculations in a simple spreadsheet, we evaluated the biological condition of the test
stream based on a number of summary biological indices, both individually and
simultaneously. We also illustrated how to evaluate the contribution of each summary
index to the assesment. Our use of a variety of summary indices to obtain a single
statistical test of significance within the context of the reference-condition approach
provides a simple and unambiguous framework for evaluating the biological condition of
a test site.
Brimley, W. A. 1984. Runoff Model Upper Mersey River Nova Scotia. Inland Waters
Directorate: Dartmouth.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 .B75 1984
Geographic location: Mersey
Abstract: The calibration of a parametric model on the Mersey River Watershed, above
the Water Survey of Canada hydrometric gauging station, Mersey River below Mill Falls,
was done. The main purpose was the simulation of the runoff characteristics of the
snowpack. The Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR) program was
used for modeling the watershed. The output from the model, which is essentially a
discharge hydrograph, is to be used with water quality parameters, such as pH of the
snowpack, in an effort to estimate the acid shock entering the Mersey River System from
the upper watershed areas. The model could then be used to predict many scenarios due
to various snowmelt events. This information may be used in studies on acid rain under
the Long Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants program.
Brun, G. L. 1983-1984. Data summary report for trace organic contaminants in
precipitation collected at Kejimkujik National Park, N.S. and Ellerslie, P.E.I. during 1982
and 1983. Canada. Inland Waters Directorate. Water Quality Branch: Moncton. 61,
13pp.
Copy location: Grafton Field Office 574.8 BRU
KEJ Call Number TD885.5 O73 B75
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
133
Abstract: Twenty-four wet precipitation samples collected during 1982 were analyzed for
organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes and
polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The ubiquitous compounds, a-BHC, Lindane, PCB'
s and
Fluoranthene were observed in most samples with mean annual concentrations in the low
part per trillion range. An unusually high annual mean PCB concentration of 0.18 ug/L is
attributed to local unknown source(s). Other contaminants in addition to the above were
detected on an infrequent basis at levels near the limits of detection.
Brun, G. L. 1985. Data summary report on trace organic contaminants in Atlantic
Region precipitation during 1984. Canada. Inland Waters Directorate. Water Quality
Branch: Moncton. 12pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD885.5 .O73 B75 1985
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: A total of 28 wet precipitation samples were collected during 1984 from three
locations in the Atlantic Region. They were analysed for organochlorine pesticides,
polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This
report summarizes the data obtained from these samples.
Brylinsky, M. 1995. Grafton watershed ecological restoration monitoring project,
Kejimkujik National Park : phase 1 final report and year one progress report. Centre for
Wildlife and Conservation Biology: Wolfville. 125, 17pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 541.5.L3 B89 1995, QH541.5.L3 .G73 1994
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake
Abstract: During 1993, the Centre for Wildlife and Conservation Biology of Acadia
University, in partnership with a number of other agencies, carried out studies to
determine the physical, chemical, and biological changes occurring in Grafton Lake as a
result of removal of the dam. Monitoring activities were conducted to provide and
empirical database of conditions prior to dam removal. In addition, discussions were
held to plan a programme to facilitate participation of students and the general public in
various monitoring activities. This report summarizes progress to 31 March, 1993.
Brylinsky, M. 2001. An evaluation of changes in selected limnological parameters of
Grafton Lake, Kejimkujik National Park after dam removal. Acadia University, Centre
for Estuarine Research: Wolfville.
134
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 541.5.L3 .B89 2001
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake
Brylinsky, M. 2002. Nova Scotia Lake Hypolimnion Project. Nova Scotia Department
of Agriculture and Fisheries 53pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: A major limiting factor for brook trout in Nova Scotia is the presence of
suitable cold-water habitat during summer. In an attempt to develop a model that could
be used to predict the type of lake most likely to contain cold-water fish habitat during
summer, 20 lakes distributed over a wide geographic area within Nova Scotia were
surveyed during July and August, 2001. The two lakes that contained suitable cold-water
habitat during 2001 were the deepest lakes surveyed. This suggests that an important
factor in determining the presence of cold-water habitat is the relative proportions of the
epilinmnetic and hyolimnetic volumes, a factor that was not fully appreciated when this
study was initiated.
Burgess, N. and K. Hobson. Bioaccumulation of mercury in yellow perch and common
loons in relation to lake chemistry in Atlantic Canada.
Copy location: KNPNHS
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Canada, Environment. 1980. Water Quality Branch, Atlantic Region : Report : LRTAP
(Acid Rain) projects ; résumé 1980/81, forecast 1981/82. Canada. Inland Waters
Directorate. Atlantic Region. Water Quality Branch: Moncton. 67pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH545.A17 .W37 1980
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Catling, P. M. 1986. Aquatic plants of acid lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, N.S. :
floristic composition and relation to water chemistry. 6pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QK 203 N68 .A68 1986
135
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: 20 lakes in Kejimkujik National Park
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a more complete documentation and
analysis of the aquatic flora of the park and to determine whether there is a relationship
between aquatic vegetative and water chemistry in low pH lakes. To document the
aquatic flora of acid lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, the presence and abundance of
aquatic macrophytes growing in water deeper than 3dm were recorded in 20 lakes.
Clair, T., J. Pomeroy, and J. Ion. 1995. The role of national parks in Environment
Canada'
s Atlantic acid precipitation monitoring network. Science and Management of
Protected Areas Association
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: SNBR
Water body: 19 Lakes in KNP and 6 in SNBR
Abstract: Since 1983, Environment Canada has been operating a lake-monitoring
network in two of Canada’s Atlantic Provinces, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. The
network was designed to see if changes in water chemistry related to acid precipitation
could be measured in the region’s surface water. Approximately half the sampling sites
are located in national parks, and we attempted to see if these sites were representation of
the network as a whole. Our results show that the lake chemistry of national park sites
was not representative of the network as a whole. Despite the differences, the water
chemistry trends we measured at park sites, tended to mirror those of the entire network.
We therefore conclude that if funding restraints force a radical change in sampling effort,
retrenchment to park sites only, should provide the same type of information as from the
original network.
Clair, T. and Whitfield, P. 1983. Trends in pH, calcium, and sulphate of rivers in
Atlantic Canada. 28: 160-165pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: SNBR
Abstract: Models to understand the effects of acid precipitation on water chemistry did
not adequately explain the observed changes.
136
Clair, T. A. 1984. Aluminum speciation in waters of Nova Scotia and their impact on
WQB analytical and field methods. Canada. Inland Waters Directorate. Atlantic Region.
water Quality Branch 28pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD227 .C5 K6 1984
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: This study was designed to assess the use of a speciation method, the Chelex100 method under field conditions, to measure the labile Al levels in representative
waters of Nova Scotia and to make recommendations on future directions in speciation
work in the region. The major findings of this study were that in the organic acid-rich
waters of Nova Scotia, extractable Al concentrations correlated very well with dissolved
organic carbon levels, and that there seems to be little labile Al in brown waters.
Clair, T. A. and B. Freedman. 1986. Patterns and importance of dissolved organic
carbon in four acidic brownwater streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. Inland Waters
Directorate, Atlantic Region, water Quality Branch: Moncton. 18pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QD169.C62 1986
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: The temporal variation and importance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was
investigated in four brownwater streams in NS. The problems being addressed include:
1) the contribution of organic anions to total anion equivalents; 2) the correlation within
each stream of variations of DOC with other ions, especially hydrogen and metals, and 3)
the temporal variations of concentration and flux of DOC.
Clair, T. A., F. Dennis , and B. J. Cosby . Probable changes in lake chemistry in
Canada’s Atlantic Provinces under proposed North American emission reductions . 7:
574-582pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Provinces
Clair, T. A., I. F. Dennis, P. G. Amiro, and B.J. Cosby. 2004. Past and future
chemistry changes in acidified Nova Scotian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rivers:
a dynamic modeling approach.61: 1965-1975pp.
Copy location: 2
137
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations have been extirpated from a number
of rivers in Nova Scotia, Canada, as a result of acid rain. We applied the model of
acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC) to 35 regional rivers to estimate
pre-industrial water chemistry conditions and the potential future changes in water
chemistry under three acid deposition scenarios for the region. Our model results indicate
that water chemistry in the study streams remained relatively unchanged until the 1950s
and reached their maximum effects on pH in the mid-1970s. The main effects of acid
deposition have been a decrease in pH and an increase in base cations to surface waters,
as the ion-exchange processes in soils release soil cations into surface waters. We
forecast future water chemistry in the rivers using three deposition scenarios: no change
in sulfate deposition from year 2000 and 10% and 20% sulfate reductions per decade. We
show that the more rapid the reduction in acid deposition, the faster the recovery. We
alsoshow that although stream water acidity will recover within a few decades, in most
streams, base cations will not recover to pre-industrial levels within the next 100 years.
Clair, T. A. and J. M. Ehrman. 1995. Acid precipitation-related chemical trends in 18
rivers of Atlantic Canada - 1983 to 1992. 35: 165-179pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Water body: Mersey and Medway Rivers
Abstract: Water chemistry changes from 1983 to 1992 in 18 rivers in northeastern
Atlantic including Mersey and Medway. While sulfate production/pollution decreased,
nitrate production and deposition increased. Acidity at most sites decreased.
Clair, T. A., J. M. Ehrman , and C.U. Ro . Freshwater chemistry acidification trends in
sensitive Nova Scotia lakes: 1983-1997 . Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat,
Fisheries and Oceans Science 1-16pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Nova Scotia lakes have been sampled at least twice yearly since the spring of
1983 for a number of water chemistry parameters. Statistical analysis of a number of the
water chemistry variables was done in 1998 to see if trends could be detected in the main
ions which caused acid precipitation or which could be dependant on changes in
acidification. The data show consistent results. We could detect no long-term trends pH,
acid neutralization capacity (ANC) or dissolved organic carbon. We show a decrease in
138
long-term sulfate and in total sum of cations. The latter two parameters trends suggest
two things: a) hat the main acidifying ion seems to be decreasing. Our results thus
suggest, and b) that the weathering caused by the sulfuric acid is also decreasing. Our
results this suggest that long term-chronic acidification is decreasing, but not enough to
change pH and ANC. We also compare the results of this trend analysis to previous ones,
which were done on 1983-91, and 1983-1994 data series.
Clair, T. A, J. P. Witteman, and S. H. Whitlow. 1982. Acid Precipitation Sensitivity of
Canada’s Atlantic Provinces . Inland Waters Directorate Atlantic Canada: Moncton NB .
1-12pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Average pH and acid sensitivity sonyours were estimated from water quality
data collected at over 1100 sites in the Atlantic Provinces. Results indicate very high
sensitivity to acid precipitation in southwest Nova Scotia, parts of Cape Breton, and most
of Newfoundland and Labrador. Surface water pH results show that acid sensitive areas
in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland have generally low pH levels whereas those in
Labrador retain high levels.
Clair, T. A., P. Arp, C. E. Gabriel , C. Staicer, G. L. Brun, J. Holmes, and D. R.
Lean . 2005. Surface water mercury budgets from a clear and a brownwater lake in
Kejimkujik National Park. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1-15
pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The purpose of this study was therefore to calculate the surface water Hg
budgets of both Hgt and CH3Hg+ in 2 Kejimkujik catchments with different TOC
concentrations. We studied annual patterns of inflows and exports from the catchments
and calculated the retention or loss of Hg that occurred in the lakes.We hypothesized that
Hgt fluxes into and out of lakes in undisturbed wet temperate regions were greater in
those with higher TOC concentrations than in those with lower values. Because a number
of studies have shown that Hg losses occur from lake waters through a mixture of
photochemical (Sellers et al. 1996), geochemical (Jackson 1989), and biochemical
processes (Siciliano et al. 2002), we also thought it important to know whether these
removal processes were large enough to influence the overall Hg mass balance of the
catchments in which they are found.This work therefore provides a small piece of the Hg
cycling picture for theKejimkujik Project. Our contribution is to measure the loss of Hg
139
from the terrestrial component into the aquatic, its loss or gain in lake systems, and
export.
Clair, T. A., P. Arp, T.R. Moore, M. Dalva, and F.R. Meng. 2002. Gaseous carbon
dioxide and methane, as well as dissolved organic carbon losses from a small temperate
wetland under a changing climate. Kejimkujik. 116: S143-S148pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Temperate forests can contain large numbers of wetlands located in areas of
low relief and poor drainage. These wetlands can make a large contribution to the
dissolved organic carbon (DOC) load of streams and rivers draining the forests, as well as
the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the atmosphere. We
studied the carbon budget of a small wetland, located in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova
Scotia, Canada. The study wetland was the Pine Marten Brook site, a poor fen draining a
mixed hardwood-softwood forest. We studied the loss of DOC from the wetland via the
outlet stream from 1990 to 1999 and related this to climatic and hydrologic variables. We
added the DOC export information to information from a previously published model
describing CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the wetland as a function of precipitation and
temperature, and generated a new synthesis of the major C losses from the wetland. We
show that current annual C losses from this wetland amount to 0.6% of its total C mass.
We then predicted that under climate changes caused by a doubling of atmospheric CO2
expected between 2040 and 2050, total C loss from the wetland will almost double to
1.1% of total biomass. This may convert this wetland from what we assume is currently a
passive C storage area to an active source of greenhouse gases, Crown Copyright (C)
2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clair, T. A, P. J. Dillon, J. Ion , D. S. Jeffries, M. Papineau, and R. J. Vet . 1995.
Regional precipitation and surface water chemistry trends in southeastern Canada (19831991) . 52: 197-212pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We analyzed for trends of acidification related variables from 1983 to 1992 in
precipitation concentrations and deposition at six sites and surface water concentration at
111 sites located from central Ontairo to eastern Newfoundland. Precipitain showed
significantly decreasing H+ and (S04)2- concentration and deposition in central and
eatern Ontario and at one of two sites in Quebec (deposition only). For Ontario surface
water sites, only increasing or stable (S04)2- trends were observed, and these had both
concomitant increasing and decreasing trends for pH and (or) acid-neutralizing capacity
(ANC). Despite a considerable number of lakes showing decreasing (S04)2- trends in
Quebec, pH and ANC also decreased. Quebec was the only region showing extensive
140
evidence of increasing NO3-. The opposite situation was observed in Atlantic Canada
lakes where despite increasing (S04)2-, the dominant trend observed for pH and ANC
was increasing. Trends observed for pH and ANC were used to classify the acidification
status of our continuing to acidify and 34 were improving.
Clair, T. A. and S. Roussel. 1987. Chemical and physical characteristics of snow in the
Kejimkujik National Park area IN 1985-86. Inland Waters Directorate, Atlantic Region,
water Quality Branch: Moncton. 59pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QC 929 .S7 C53 1987
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: From December 16th, 1985 to March 21st, 1986, fifteen snow samples were
collected weekly along each of two 150m long transects. They were also collected once
along a third transect in the upper Mersey River basin in south-western Nova Scotia. The
first transect was situated at the CAPMon atmospheric sampling site, the second was 35
km upstream at the headwaters area of the basin, and the third was approximately 1km
north of the second site.
Clair, T. A., T. Pollock, G. Brun, A. Ouellet , and D. Lockerbie. 2001. Environment
Canada'
s Acid Precipitation Monitoring Networks in Atlantic Canada, Occasional Report
#16. Environment Canada
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The electronic document was designed to assemble in one place, all available
information collected under Environment Canada'
s acid precipitation lake monitoring
program in Atlantic Canada. The reason for producing the document is that much of the
information exists in scattered databases and out-of-print technical reports, and is not
easily available in one place. Moreover, there is a constant request for the information for
a large number of uses, and we therefore felt that a summary document would be useful
for a number of users. The report contains a number of components. First, there is a
listing of all sites being or which have been monitored in the regional acid precipitation
network. There is a description of the lakes themselves, their locations, basins,
bathymetry, and if available, a picture of the site. Then we list the data collected at the
sites, along with the chemical methods used in their analysis. To place the lake chemistry
into context, we also present results from precipitation chemistry sampling at two sites in
the region. These are part of Environment Canada'
s, Meteorological Service of Canada'
s
CAPMoN (Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network) program and are located
at the two extreme ends of the region, in Nova Scotia'
s Kejimkujik National Park, and in
Newfoundland'
s Bay d'
Espoir region. Data for three other CAPMoN stations located in
141
Labrador, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are also included for additional information.
We also provide references to the documentation which has been produced from the
monitoring network. A number of papers describing data trends have been included, as
well as a bibliography of other reports used to set up the program. Finally, we identify
and credit all those responsible for producing the information which is included in this
document. Traditional paper reports simply do not provide the space to include the names
of all those involved in its production, as well as their contribution. We will remedy this
by identifying all those participating in the production of the data, as well as providing
their pictures, if they are available.
Craig B., H. Vaughan , and M. Doyle. EMAN: Delivering information to improve
resource decisions in communities, parks and protected areas. Ecological Monitoring and
Assessment Network Coordinating Office 6pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network’s (EMAN) focus is the
fostering of a scientifically sound, policy relevant ecosystem monitoring and research
network based on a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and the
development of a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives. These
partnerships and initiatives deliver unique and needed goods and services which include
efficient and cost-effective timely reporting of status and trends to meet the requirements
of adaptive management and responsive priority setting. EMAN is developing a set of
standardized measurements which can be carried out by interested sites, networks and
communities to establish whether and how local ecosystems are changing while at the
same time contributing to timely status and trends reporting. These can serve as a basis
for developing partnerships with a variety of protected areas. EMAN proposes
cooperative development and implementation of a standard approach to ecosystem
monitoring within such areas which includes cost-effective strategies, protocols, data
management, interpretation and communication and which fills the information needs of
local managers, associated communities, relevant supporting agencies and Environment
Canada.
Dale, J. M., B. Freedman, and J.J. Kerekes. 1984. Acidity and associated water
chemistry of amphibian habitats in Nova Scotia. Dalhousie University: Halifax.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 .D35 1984
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
142
Dalva, M., T.R. Moore, P. Arp, and T.A. Clair. 2001. Methane and soil and plant
community respiration from wetlands, Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia:
Measurements, predictions, and climatic change. Kejimkujik. 106: 2955-2962pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: A static, dark chamber technique was used weekly from mid-July to midNovember in 1995 and biweekly from mid-May to late November in 1996, to measure
methane (CH4) flux and soil and plant community respiration of CO2 from 36 sites in
two wetlands In Kejimkujik National Park in south-central Nova Scotia, Canada. Overall
mean fluxes of CH4 were 43 mg m(-2) d(-1) in 1995 and 20 mg m(-2) d-1 in 1996.
Respiration rates were 5.1 g CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in 1995 and 3.2 g CO2 m(-2) d(-1) in 1996.
Fluxes of CH4 and CO2 were related to microtopography and ecological grouping, depth
to water table, and air and peat temperatures. Edge and hummock sites showed the lowest
CH4 flux and the highest respiration rate, while pools showed the highest CH4 and
lowest respiration rate. Gas emissions displayed a strong seasonal pattern with highest
values occurring during the summer (June to August) and with a marked reduction in late
fall. Depth to water table and air temperature explained 34 to 43% of the variance in CH4
flux and respiration from the sites over the 2 years (n = 666 to 824). We developed
algorithms relating the daily mean flux of CH4 and respiration from the wetlands to an
aspatial soil moisture, water table, and temperature model (ForHyM2) applied to the
wetland basins. We then applied this model to calculated May to October fluxes of CH4
and CO2 from 1966 to 1998. We estimated that CH4 fluxes ranged from 2.8 to 7.4 g m(2) with a mean of 3.7 g m(-2) and a standard deviation of 1.2 g m(-2) over the 1966-1998
period. Respiration estimates ranged from 0.60 to 1.16 kg CO2 m(-2) with a mean of 0.74
kg CO2 m(-2) and a standard deviation of 0.11 kg CO2 m(-2). Application of a 2xCO(2)
General Circulation Model scenario to temperature and precipitation for this part of
eastern Canada resulted in increases of growing season CH4 emissions from 4.7 to 11.4 g
m(-2) and respiration from 0.77 to 1.32 kg CO2 m(-2).
Davis, J. 2002. Mitigating Acid Rock Drainage: An Evaluation of the Method Used at
East Kemptville Mine.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: SNBR
Abstract: The objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of using coarse
tailings to mitigate the generation of Acid Rock drainage (ARD) in the tailings
management facility of the East Kemptville Mine. The East Kemptville Mine opened in
October 1985, and utilized an open pit mine and mill facility to recover tin, copper, and
zinc in the form of concentrates, until the permanent closure at the end of 1991. The
initial projection in 1984 was for little acidity production due to the low sulfur content
and the combination of a high neutralization potential and low acid producing minerals.
Monitoring data since startup indicates all the waste material are acid producers. Based
143
on the most recent estimate of the tonnes of acidity and zinc to be released, and the
associated treatment time, an effective long-term collection and treatment program had to
be devised for the tailings area. A soil and aqueous cover combination was installed over
the fine tailings area. Additional mitigation measures are as follows: (1) North Dam
seepage collection and pumping facilities, (2) surface drainage ditches, (3) coarse and
fine tailings reclamation, (4) water treatment systems, (5) open pit and rock piles
reclamation, and (6) tailings dam stability. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Daye, P. G. 1980. Effects of ambient pH on fish : an annotated bibliography. Biological
Station, Canada Fisheries and Oceans: St. Andrews.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number GB1631.D39 1980
Geographic location: Canada
Delorme, L. D. 1982. Prehistoric trends in pH for Kejimkujic Lake, Nova Scotia.
National water Research Institute: Ottawa. 35pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545 A17 D44 1982
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake
Abstract: Kejimkujik Lake has an average pH of 4.8 and receives a wet precipitation with
a weighted mean pH of 4.62. The lake is situated in a drainage basin where organic-rich
soils and bogs rest upon poorly buffered igneous and metamorphic rocks. Fossil diatoms
from a sediment core reveal that since 21.7 cm the pH trend has been to a lower pH. The
flora of the lake and area between 13.0 and 10.7 cm indicate a climatic change to a dryer
period followed by a return to a more moist climate. European colonization drastically
altered the pH of Kejimkujik Lake through deforestation and burning of lumber refuse.
The effect of potassium hydroxide, by leaching potassium from wood ash, on the lake
continued to 1950 when acidity began to drop to lower more normal levels. The
overriding effect on the lake appears to be the presence of organic soils and bogs which
have contributed organic acids to the system since at least 21.7 cm.
Doka, S. E., D.K. McNicol, M.L. Mallory, I. Wong, C.K. Minns, and N.D. Yan.
2003. Assessing potential for recovery of biotic richness and indicator species due to
changes in acidic deposition and lake pH in five areas of southeastern Canada.
Kejimkujik. 88: 53-101pp.
Geographic location: Canada
144
Abstract: Biological damage to sensitive aquatic ecosystems is among the most
recognisable, deleterious effects of acidic deposition. We compiled a large spatial
database of over 2000 waterbodies across southeastern Canada from various federal,
provincial and academic sources. Data for zooplankton, fish, macroinvertebrate (benthos)
and loon species richness and occurrence were used to construct statistical models for
lakes with varying pH, dissolved organic carbon content and lake size. pH changes, as
described and predicted using the Integrated Assessment Model ( Lam et al., 1998;
Jeffries et al., 2000), were based on the range of emission reductions set forth in the
Canada/US Air Quality Agreement (AQA). The scenarios tested include 1983, 1990,
1994 and 2010 sulphate deposition levels. Biotic models were developed for five regions
in southeastern Canada (Algoma, Muskoka, and Sudbury, Ontario, southcentral Quebec,
and Kejimkujik, Nova Scotia) using regression tree, multiple linear regression and
logistic regression analyses to make predictions about recovery after emission reductions.
The analyses produced different indicator species in different regions, although some
species showed consistent trends across regions. Generally, the greatest predicted
recovery occurred during the final phase of emission reductions between 1994 and 2010
across all taxonomic groups and regions. The Ontario regions, on average, were predicted
to recover to a greater extent than either southcentral Quebec or the Kejimkujik area of
Nova Scotia. Our results reconfirm that pH 5.5 - 6.0 is an important threshold below
which damage to aquatic biota will remain a major local and regional environmental
problem. This damage to biodiversity across trophic levels will persist well into the future
if no further reductions in sulphate deposition are implemented.
Drysdale, C. 1990. Long range transport of air pollutants and management of aquatic
natural resources in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. Parks Canada
20pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A1 D79 1990
Grafton Field Office 574.8 DRY
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Various lakes in Kejimkujik National Park
Abstract: This paper describes elements of Environment Canada'
s Long Range Transport
of Air Pollutants (LRTAP) research and aquatic resource management in Kejimkujik
National Park since 1977. Following description of the Park, specific elements of the
LRTAP research program are discussed, including acid rain, gamefish management, and
Loon and Blandings Turtle research..
Duggan, M. J., C. Staicer, and J. J. Kerekes. 1993. Proceedings of the workshop on
the Kejimkujik Watershed Studies : monitoring and research five years after "Kejimkujik
'
88". Environment Canada: Dartmouth. 276pp.
145
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 540 K45 1993
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The Kejimkujik Watershed Study (KWS) was initiated in 1978 in response to a
growing concern about the possible harmful effects on the environment of long range
transport of air pollutants, particularly acid rain. To respond to this new initiative and to
facilitate communication among investigators of the KWS, the workshop reported in this
document was held in Kejimkujik National Park in October, 1993. Summary reports on
other watershed studies are also included in these Proceedings.
Duthie, H. C. 1989. Diatom-Inferred Ph History of Kejimkujik Lake, Nova-Scotia - a
Reinterpretation. Kejimkujik. 46: 317-322pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake
Ehrman, J. M., Sylvie C. Roussel, G. Howell, and T.A. Clair. 1993. Summary of
biophysical and water chemistry for 100 lakes in the Environment Canada Atlantic
Region Acid Deposition Network: 1993 Progress Report. Environment Canada,
Conservation and Protection 217pp.
Copy location: Grafton Field Office 574.8 EHR
KEJ TD 195.54.C32 A74 1993
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Water body: Mersey Watershed
Abstract: The environmental conditions of lakes which are part of the Conservation and
Protection Service - Atlantic Region Long Range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants
(LRTAP)monitoring network are described in this report. The information provided
includes: lake and basin sizes, vegetation, geology, soils and aquatic biota.
Ehrman, J. M and T. A. Clair . 1995. Step-Wise Analysis of Precipitation and River
Chemistry Trends in Atlantic Canada. Environment Canada 1-6pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Water body: Mersey, Medway
146
Abstract: Monotonic trends in hydrogen (H+), sulfate (SO4) and nitrate (NO3) were
calculated using non-parametric techniques at four Canadian Air and Precipitation
Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) sites and six nearby river systems in Atlantic Canada
for the period 1983-1991. Over the whole interval, there were increasing nitrate
concentrations and deposition. We found that SO4 concentrations increased at three of
our six river site, No3 increased at one site and H+ decreased at one site. River exports
showed no trends in the entire study interval. The series were also analysed in five year
time windows, incremented by six months, to see if changes in trend presence or
direction would occur, compared to trend analysis over the entire interval. We show that
while trends in river chemistry do not contradict deposition patterns, the changes that
occurred were not necessarily in step. We also found that the trends which we measured
were the result of short-term changes as opposed to long term continuous monotonic
trends. The time lag between precipitation and chemistry trends changes seemed longer
in basins dominated by softwoods than by hardwoods.
Ehrman, J. M, T.A. Clair, and A. Bouchard. 1996. Using Neural Networks to Predict
pH Changes in Acidified Eastern Canadian Lakes . 10: 1-8pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Predicting changes in the pH of lakes with changes in acid precipitation is a
difficult endeavor, especially in areas with high concentration of natural dissolved
organic acids, such as are found in much of eastern Canada. Statistical techniques have
been used in a number of studies to try to predict changes in large areas, but cannot be
used with confidence because of autocorrelation between variables. Because of the
difficulties encountered with chemical and statistical techniques, we used a neural netwok
approach to see if patterns could be detected in water chemistry data. We produced a
model that was able to accurately predict the current pH of 164 lakes within 2% of
measured value. We then varied lake sulphate concentrations, the main acidification input
to this region, to see how the lake pH would change. The neural net approach seemed
more sensitive than statistical approached in making predictions.
Elder, F. C. and H.C. Martin. 1989. Kejimkujik-Park - One in a Family of Integrated
Watershed Studies. Kejimkujik. 46: 1-12pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Environment Canada. 2000. TSRI Mercury Research Project. Dartmouth.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
147
Water body: Many inside and outside the Park
Abstract: Toxic substance Research Initiative (TSRI) has compiled this integrated data
set of earth and natural sciences undertaken prior to 1999. Data are included for fish,
loons, atmosphere, Hg modeling, Hg cycling, aquatics, land cover and watershed
boundaries. There are numerous maps, graphs, photos, and text to describe projects
undertaken by EC, NRC, NSDNR, universities, and others.
Environment Canada. 2005. National Water Data Archive.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: HYDEX and HYDAT are a relational database that contains invetory
information on the various streamflow, water level, and sediment stations in Canada. This
database contains information about the stations themselves such as location, equipment,
and type of data collected. Also includes daily and monthly means of flow, water levels,
andsediment concentrations (for sediment sites). For some sites peaks and extremes are
also recorded. The data are collected and updated once per year. IncludesMersey River,
LaHave River, Shelburne River, and Roseway River in soutwestern Nova Scotia.
Esterby, S. R., A.H. El-Shaarawi , G.D. Howeli, and T. A. Clair . 1989. Spatial
Characterization of Acidification Related Parameters in Sensitive Regions of Atlantic
Canada. 1-15pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Many lakes in eastern Canada are sensitive to long range transport of
atmospheric pollutants because of their low buffering capacity. This, it is important to
assess long term changes in water quality. Due to the large number of lakes, a method
was needed for choosing a subset of lakes to monitor regularly. Preliminary surveys were
conducted in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in which water quality parameters
connected with acidification were measured in a set of lakes in each region. This paper
describes the division of each set of lakes into several groups, with lakes in a group
having similar water quality parameters values, by means of cluster analysis and principal
component ordination. The characteristics of the groups are shown by graphical
procedures and summary statistics, and this characterization is used to both determine the
number of groups and describe the final choice. The membership of the groups was
subsequently assessed in terms of the influences of terrestrial weathering, marine
aerosols, anthropogenically derived mineral acids and natural organic acids.
148
Farmer, G. J. 1980. Some effects of the acidification of Atlantic salmon rivers in Nova
Scotia. Government of Canada, Fisheries and Oceans: Halifax. 13pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number SH223 .F37 1980
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: Mersey River
Abstract: Mortality (19%-38%) of Atlantic Salmon parr cultured at the Mersey Fish
Hatchery, NS, has annually occurred during the third and fourth weeks after first feeding.
The mortalities were attributed to the soft, acidic water of the Mersey River. Treatment
of the hatchery water with calcium carbonate altered its chemical characteristics and
enhanced the survival of salmon parr. The chemical characteristics of a number of other
rivers which empty on the Atlantic side of mainland Nova Scotia were determined and
related to their characteristics 25 years earlier and to the presence or absence of salmon
populations.
Freedman, B. 1986. Ion mass balances and seasonal fluxes from four acidic brownwater
streams in Nova Scotia. Inland Waters Directorate, Atlantic Region, Water Quality
Branch: Moncton. 35pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD370.C52 1986
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Precipitation and four streams in southwestern Nova Scotia with waters high in
dissolved organic carbon were sampled at least weekly for 3-5 years. The goals of this
study were to evaluate the water chemistry of four gauged brownwater streams in SW
Nova Scotia, and to compare it to that of incoming precipitation.
Freedman, B. and C.H. Stewart. 1985. Patterns of water chemistry of four drainage
basins in central N.S. Dalhousie University: Halifax. 247pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD 196 .A25 F73 1985
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: This report describes changes and variable interrelationships of waters draining
four of the Kejimkujik basins which contain organic acids in various amounts, but receive
the same acid deposition levels. The data presented here are still in raw form and are
being further interpreted. However, they are being presented to aid water quality
modellers and other interested scientists in better understanding the water chemistry of
brown water streams.
149
Freedman, B., J.J. Kerekes, and G. Howell. 1989. Patterns of Water Chemistry among
27 Oligotrophic Lakes in Kejimkujik-National-Park, Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 46:
119-130pp.
Copy location: Web of Science
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Gabriel, C. 1998. The accumulation of mercury in aquatic ecosystems at Kejimkujik
National Park, NS. Dalhousie University: Halifax. 66pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD 196.M38 .G33 1998
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Big Dam Lake, North Cranberry Lake
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of organic carbon in the
accumulation of mercury in freshwater ecosystems. It was hypothesized that organic
matter in the lake would complex with the mercury, resulting in a longer retention time.
It was predicted that higher concentrations of organic carbon would be associated with
higher amounts of total mercury.
Garroway, K. 2005. Saint Mary'
s University Community-based Environmental
Monitoring Newtwork: Environmental Monitoring Tool-kit. Saint Mary'
s University:
Halifax.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: This tool-kit will serve as a useful resource for stewardship groups that would
like to investigate opportunities for undertaking environmental monitoring.
Garside, E. T. 1974. Aquatic inventory and hydrologic processes of KNP. Dalhousie
University: Halifax.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number GB 1631 N85 G19
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: All lakes in Kejimkujik National Park
150
Abstract: Geomorphologic description, pedologic description, meterologic description,
water quality, water temperature, drainage areas, contour maps for all lakes in KNP.
Hilsenhoff, W. L. 1982. Using a biotic index to evaluate water quality in streams.
Department of Natural Resources: Wisconsin. 132: 1-22pp.
Copy location: KEJ (D. Ure)
Geographic location: USA
Hirtle, H. and A. Rencz. 2003. The relation between spectral reflectance and dissolved
organic carbon in lake water: Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Kejimkujik. 24: 953-967pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The ability to predict dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations based on
spectral reflectance of lake water was examined in Kejimkujik National Park. Spectral
reflectance from both ground and satellite remote sensing platforms were used to create
regression models for the prediction of DOC with r(2) values of 0.94 and 0.72
respectively. The location of the peak wavelength of the ground spectral measurements
and a Cluster analysis of the satellite measurements both separated the lakes into two
distinct groups with different DOC concentrations. An analysis of the potential sources of
DOC identified three variables important for the prediction of DOC concentrations within
the lake, flushing rate and the area of both deciduous forest and open area within the
watershed (r(2) = 0.41). As DOC concentration,; are related to mercury concentrations
(r(2) = 0.86) these models could be used to assist in the identification of lakes that are
sensitive to mercury pollution.
Ho, S. 1999. Watershed Stewardship Boards: A Partnership Between Community and
Government for Watershed Management in Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Hope, P. Six years of monitoring the Common Loon (Gavia immer), population on 16
lakes in Kejumkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejumkujik
151
Howell, G. 1986. Water quality characterization of 78 acid precipitation monitoring
lakes in Atlantic Canada. The Branch: Moncton. 119pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD427 A4 H8 1986
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: This report documents the current water quality conditions of 44 Nova Scotian
and 34 Newfoundland lakes which comprise the Water Quality Branch, Atlantic Region
LRTAP monitoring network.
Howell, G. 1989. Major ion dynamics of surface waters of varying hydrologic order.
Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Inland Waters Directorate, Atlantic
Region, Water Quality Branch: Moncton. 132pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number GB665.H68 1989
Grafton Field Office 574.8 HOW
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Looks at Moose Pit Brook, Rogers Brook, Atkins Brook, West River, Mount
Tom Brook, Whiteburn Brook, Mersey River (at Mill Falls), Pebbleloggitch Lake, and
Beaverskin Lake
Abstract: The seasonal patterns of major ion chemistry for eight streams and two lakes
situated in the vicinity of Kejimkujik National Park are considered.
Innes, W. 2004. Implementing CABIN Protocols: using benthic invertebrates to assess
water quality. Applied Geomatics Research Group: Middleton. 24pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: Study sites in KNPNHS: Butler Meadow Brook and Black Rattle, Mersey
River near Loon Lake; Peskowesk Brook, Grafton Brook, Heber Brook, Torment Brook
Abstract: The problem of assessing pollution in several rivers and streams in South
Western Nova Scotia, Canada, was addressed by using benthic macroinvertebrates to
develop a Biomonitoring program. This project implemented the Canadian Aquatic
Biomonitoring Network (CABIN) protocols in three different areas of South Western
Nova Scotia. Each study area was to constitute its own “mini” project separate from the
others. The three areas that were studied were: 1) Kejimkujik National Park and National
Historic Site, within the Mersey River watershed; 2) Leonard Brook and Shearer Brook,
152
sub-watersheds of the Annapolis River; and 3) Thomas Brook, a sub-watershed of the
Cornwallis River. The CABIN protocols that were used in this project were developed by
Environment Canada to establish a network of reference sites available to all users
interested in assessing the biological health of fresh water in Canada. The data collected
in this project was added to the national online database and will be used as base data for
future studies.
J.J. Kerekes. 1993. Bibliography for: Kejimkujik calibrated catchments program (Nova
Scotia) on the aquatic and terrestrial effects of the long-range transport of air pollutants.
Canadian Wildlife Service: Halifax. 25pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Jacks, G. and A-C. Norrstrom. 2004. Hydrochemistry and hydrology of forest riparian
wetlands . 196: 187-197pp.
Copy location: 1
Abstract: Forest stream riparian wetlands have a number of important features. This
investigates one aspect, the nitrogen retention after upland clear-cutting which leads to
elevated nitrate leaching, and the importance of the flow pathways in this connection.
The runoff occurs mainly via the upper permeable section of the peat while the lower
peat act as an aquitard, restricting the flow from the underlying till. The till groundwater
is progressively artesian towards the discharging stream. Water analyses from
piezometers show that the water chemistry in the peat is rather variable, indicating the
presence of channeling. Channeling is also indicated by spring discharges from the peat
that have elevated nitrate contents pointing to bypass flow. Redox bars indicating
sulphate reduction display the same picture of irregular distribution. However, a general
observation is that volumes with sulphate reduction increase towards the stream and that
sulphate reduction occurs preferably in the surface peat, indicating the importance of a
degradable substrate for the sulphate reducers. Nitrate reduction during the growth season
occurs predominantly close to the upland till areas. The riparian tress stand is dominated
by spruces which are likely to be disfavoured by the rising groundwater level after clearcutting. The riparian tree stand does not extend far enough towards the upland to be
benefited by the elevated nitrate flux. Buffer stands should be broader, extended into the
till upland where they can utilize the leached nitrate and, more important, thanks to their
deeper rooting depth protect the peatland trees against wind felling.
Jacques, W. and and Associates. 1982. Report to Environment Canada water Planning
and Management on Phase I Kejimkujik groundwater characterization study. Jacques,
Whitford and Associates
153
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD 427.A27 .J33 1982
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Beaverskin Lake
Abstract: The Water Planning and Management Branch and the Water Quality
Jones, M. L. 1986. Brown waters : relative importance of external and internal sources
of acidification on catchment bioata : review of existing knowledge. ESSA
Environmental and Social Systems Analysis: Toronto. LRTAP Workshop No. 5: 85pp.
Copy location: Grafton Field Office 574.8 ESS
KEJ Call Number QH545.A17 .E58 1986
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Acid rain - its sources, distribution and effects, continues to be an issue
surrounded by a great deal of controversy, both scientific and political. The review
presented in this document is based on an assessment of past and current literature and a
3-day workshop involving 38 scientists, including hydrologists, soil and water chemists,
and biologists. The review concentrates on questions concerning the contribution to
surface water acidity of local, catchment derived sources relative to more distant,
atmospheric sources.
Kaczmarska, I., T.A. Clair, J.M. Ehrman, S.L. MacDonald, D. Lean, and K.E. Day.
2000. The effect of ultraviolet B on phytoplankton populations in clear and brown
temperate Canadian lakes. Kejimkujik. 45: 651-663pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Beaverskin and Pebbleloggitch lakes are located 2 km apart in Kejimkujik
National Park (KNP) and share many limnetic characteristics: pH 5.0, shallow depth, and
low nutrient concentrations. The lakes differ mainly in DOC concentrations, as
Pebbleloggitch has 13 mg L-1 and Beaverskin 3.5 mg L-1. Consequently, 95% ultraviolet
B (UVB) extinction occurs in relatively clear water at 50 cm, whereas in brown water it
occurs at 4 cm below surface. Two treatments (UV-B excluded with Mylar and W-B
exposed) were used with experimental enclosures in the two lakes. In each lake, nine
replicates of both treatments were sampled every 2 weeks from 2 July to 14 August 1996.
Beaverskin lake phytoplankton differed fundamentally from that of the brown-water
Pebbleloggitch. The community in Beaverskin was relatively simple, consisting of few
taxa, mainly cyanobacteria, dominated by Merismopedia tenuissima. Pebbleloggitch, in
contrast, hosted many tars, from all major algal divisions, e.g., Chlamydomonas
angulosa, Mougeotia spp., Cryptomonas czosnowskii, Spherocystis sp., and Tabellaria
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quadriseptata. Phytoplankton species composition and cell densities in Beaverskin Lake
did not differ significantly between the exposed and Mylar covered enclosures, except in
the final week of collection. In contrast, phytoplankton populations in covered enclosures
in Pebbleloggitch Lake were sharply different from those that were not covered. We
attribute differences in response to the influence of the brown waters of Pebbleloggitch
where the higher rates of absorbance of light by the brown waters results in slower
mixing and greater damage by UV-B radiation. This conclusion is in contrast to the
generally accepted view that brown waters provide protection for phytoplankton.
Kerekes, J. and B. Freedman. 1989. Characteristics of three acidic lakes in Kejimkujik
National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. Kejimkujik. 18: 183-200pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: This report summarizes a study of the chemical and biological characteristics of
three oligotrophic lakes located in a region that receives a moderately acidic precipitation
(mean annual pH 4.5-4.6), and a sulfate deposition of about 20 kg/ha/yr. The two
brownwater lakes are relatively acidic (pH 4.5 and 4.8), and much of their acidity is
attributable to organic anions. The brownwater lakes also have a large concentration of
aluminum and iron, but these are bound to dissolved organic matter and are relatively
non-toxic to biota. Average phytoplankton production was largest in the clearwater lake.
This was due to its relatively deep euphotic zone, since the average unit-volume
productivity did not differ much among the lakes. In fact, productivity at light optimum
was largest in the most acidic brownwater lake, probably because of its larger phosphorus
concentration. The clearwater lake had extensive macrophyte vegetation, which covered
its bottom to a depth of 6.5 m. In the brownwater lakes, macrophytes were confined to
shallow nearshore water because of the limited water transparency. Zooplankton density
and biomass were largest in the most acidic brownwater lake, probably because of
allochthonous organic particulates and little fish predation. Benthic invertebrates were
abundant in all three lakes, and were dominated by insects, especially Chironomids.
Lakes in the study area appear to be sustaining fish populations at more acidic pHs than
elsewhere. This may be due to the large concentration of dissolved organic matter in
many lakes, which complexes and partially detoxifies metals such as aluminum.
Kerekes, J., B. Freedman, S. Beauchamp, and R. Tordon. 1989. Physical and
Chemical Characteristics of 3 Acidic, Oligotrophic Lakes and Their Watersheds in
Kejimkujik-National-Park, Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 46: 99-117pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Kerekes, J., R. Tordon, A. Nieuwburg, and L. Risk. 1994. Fish-Eating Bird
Abundance in Oligotrophic Lakes in Kejimkujik-National-Park, Nova-Scotia, Canada.
Kejimkujik. 280: 57-61pp.
155
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Aquatic bird population data in 40 oligotrophic lakes and ponds in Nova Scotia,
Canada indicates that only lakes > 20 ha support territorial pairs of Common Loon (Gavia
immer) and only lakes greater-than-or-equal-to 40 ha produce their young. Broods of
Common Merganser (Mergus merganser americanus) occurred in lakes > 25 ha and loon
and merganser broods together occurred only in lakes greater-than-or-equal-to 80 ha. The
fish production in the lakes was estimated from the total phosphorus vs fish yield
relationship obtained in similar, oligotrophic lakes in Ontario. Considering the fish
consumption and mergansers until fledging along with the maintenance of the adults
during the same period (about 200 and 130 kg fish respectively) and the estimated fish
production in these lakes, there is a close balance between the size of water body and its
fish production to the occupancy and production of piscivorous birds.
Kerekes, J., S. Beauchamp, R. Tordon, C. Tremblay, and T. Pollock. 1986. Organic
Versus Anthropogenic Acidity in Tributaries of the Kejimkujik Watersheds in Western
Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 31: 165-173pp.
Geographic location: SNBR
Kerekes, J. J. 1968. The chemical composition of lake waters in Kejimkujik National
Park, N.S. Canadian Wildlife Service 9pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 98 .K47 1968
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake, Kejimkujik Lake, Jake'
s Landing
Abstract: The aim of this report is to summarize the results of water analyses completed
in 1966 and provide guidelines for further studies. Surface waters examined in
Kejimkujik National Park are very low in dissolved constituents. They are all acidic and
presumably unproductive.
Kerekes, J. J. 1973. Drainage basin catalogue for Kejimkujik National Park, Nova
Scotia, and a proposed drainage, reference numbering system, applicable for all national
parks with reference to the National Park Aquatic Resource Inventories. Canadian
Wildlife Service, Limnology Section: Halifax.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 98.K47 1973
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
156
Water body: Various lakes in Kejimkujik National Park
Kerekes, J. J. 1982. Characterization of three lake basins sensitive to acid precipitation
in central Nova Scotia, June 1979 to May 1980. 16pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 .K47 1982
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake, Beaverskin Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: Three dilute lakes with extremely low calcium concentrations (among the
lowest in the world) are showing signs of acidification under existing relatively low
levels of atmospheric acid loading. The sensitivity to atmospheric deposition of acids is
supported by the highly negative calcite saturation indices and the lakes'relative
positions on the Henriksen nomograph. The one clear water lake responds to the
atmospheric loading as predicted by the Henriksen nomograph. The two coloured lakes
apparently receive additional SO4 from the accumulated organic matter in the watershed
and are considerably more acidic than would be predicted from the Henriksen
relationship.
Kerekes, J. J. 1983. Comment on evidence of acidification on some Nova Scotia Rivers
and its impact on Atlantic salmon, salmo salar. 2260-2261pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 W34 K45
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Kerekes, J. J. 1986. Workshop Proceedings: Kejimkujik calibrated catchments program
on the aquatic and terrestrial effects of the long-range transport of air pollutants .
Dalhousie University: Halifax. 142pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 .K44 1983
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: This report summarizes the presentations given at the fourth of a series of
Workshops on Kejimkujik calibrated catchments program on the aquatic and terrestrial
effects of the long-range transport of air pollutants. This workshop was held in October
1986 at the Visitor Centre to provide an overview of the work being done in the Keji
catchments.
157
Kerekes, J. J. 1989. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Acidification of Organic
Waters in Kejimkujik-National-Park, Nova-Scotia, Canada, Held in Wolfville, NovaScotia, October 25-27, 1988 - Preface. Kejimkujik. 46: R9-R11pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Kerekes, J. J., G. Howell, and T.L. Pollock. 1983. Problems associated with sulphate
determination in colored, humic waters in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia
(Canada). 9pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 K26 1983
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake and Beaverskin Lake
Abstract: Recent studies in Nova Scotia and in the Adirondacks (N.Y.), indicate that
highly coloured humic waters have higher sulphate concentrations than that of clear or
slightly coloured waters. This led to the interpretation that peaty soils release hydrogen
sulphates adding to that received from precipitation. Since November, 1981 we have
measured sulphate concentrations with both the methyl thymol blue (MTB) method used
previously, and that of ion-chromatography (IC). It soon became obvious that the latter
method gave consistently lower sulphate values in coloured humic waters, which led to
an overabundance of cations. This suggested the presence of organic anions, previously
masked by the apparently high sulphate concentrations obtained by the MTB method.
However, when the estimated anion concentrations are included in the charge balance
with the IC sulphate determinations, good balances are obtained.
Kerekes, J. J. and J. Dale. 1985. Bibliography: Kejimkujik calibrated catchments
program on the aquatic and terrestrial effects of the long-range transport of air pollutants .
Dalhousie University: Halifax. 12pp.
Copy location: Grafton Field Office 574.8
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: This bibliography was compiled based on the holdings of the library of
Kejimkujik National Park.
Klauda, R., P. Kazyak, S. Stranko, M. Southerland, N. Roth, and J. Chaillou. 1998.
Maryland Biological Stream Survey: A state agency program to assess the impact of
anthropogenic stresses on stream habitat quality and biota. 51: 299-316pp.
158
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Maryland Department of Natural Resources is conducting the Maryland
Biological Stream Survey, a probability-based sampling program, stratified by river basin
and stream order, to assess water quality, physical habitat, and biological conditions in
first through third order, non-tidal streams. These streams comprise about 90% of all lotic
water miles in the state. About 300 sites (75 m segments) are being sampled during
spring and summer each year. All basins in the stare will be sampled over a three-year
period, 1995-97. MESS developments in 1995-96 included (1) an electrofishing capture
efficiency correction method to improve the accuracy of fish population estimates, (2)
two indices of biotic integrity (IBI) for fish assemblages to identify degraded streams,
and (3) land use information for catchments upstream of sampled sites to investigate
associations between stream condition and anthropogenic stresses. Based on fish IBI
scores at 270 stream sites in six basins sampled in 1995, 11% of non-tidal stream miles in
Maryland were classified as very poor, 15% as poor, 24% as fair, and 27% as good. IBIs
have not yet been developed for stream sites with catchment areas less than 120 hectares
(23% of non-tidal stream miles). IBI scores declined with stream acid neutralizing
capacity (ANC) and pH, an association that was also evident for fish species richness,
biomass, and density. Low IBI scores were associated with several measures of degraded
stream habitat, but not with local riparian buffer width. There was a significant negative
association between IBI scores and urban land use upstream of sampled sites in the only
extensively urbanized basin assessed in 1995. Future plans for the MESS include (I)
identifying all benthic macroinvertebrate samples to genus, (2) developing benthic
macroinvertebrate, herpetofaunal, and physical habitat indicators, and (3) enhancing the
analysis of stream condition-stressor associations by refining landscape metrics and using
multi-variate techniques.
Klemm, D. J., K.A. Blocksom, W.T. Thoeny, F.A. Fulk, A.T. Herlihy, P.R.
Kaufmann, and S.M. Cormier. 2002. Methods of development and use of
macroinvertebrates as indicators of ecological conditions for streams in the mid-atlantic
highlands region. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Netherlands. 78: 169-212pp.
Copy location: KEJ
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The Mid-Atlantic Highlands Assesment (MAHA) included the sampling of
macroinvertebrates from 424 wadeable stream sites to determine status and trends,
biological conditions, and water quality in first through third order streams in the MidAtlantic Highlands Region (MAHR) of the United-States in 1993-1995. We identified
reference and impaired sites using water chemistry and habitat criteria and evaluated a set
of candidate macroinvertebrate metrics using a stepwise process. This process examined
several metric characteristics, including ability of metrics to disciminate indicators of
stream disturbance, redundancy with other metrics, and within-year variability. Metrics
159
that performed well were compared with metrics currently being used by three states in
the region: Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. Some of the metrics used by all
three states in some form, specifically number of taxa, number of EPT taxa, and
Hilsenhoff Biotic Index, performed well overall. Reasons for discrepancies between state
and regional evaluations of metrics are explored. We also provide a set of metrics that,
when used in combination, may provide a useful assessment of stream conditions in the
MAHR.
Lukasik, L. 1993. Volunteer Environmental Monitoring Groups: Community-based
Water Quality Monitoring in the Gulf of Maine Watershed.
Geographic location: USA
MacMillan, J. L., D. Caissie, J.E. LeBlanc, and T. Crandlemere. 2005.
Characterization of summer water temperatures for 312 selected sites in Nova Scotia.
Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Science #2582. 43pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Water temperatures temperature plays and important role in the overall heath
of aquatic ecosystems. For instance, it influences most physical, chemical and biological
processes of the river environment including the distribution of fishes and the growth
rates of many aquatic organisms. Therefore, a good understanding of the thermal regime
of rivers is essential for the management of fish habitat. In the present study, 312 sites
across the province of Nova Scotia were instrumented with water temperature sensors
during the summer of 2000, 2002 and 2003. Water temperature sites were selected in
each of the six Recreational Fishing Areas (RFAs) to best represent thermal habitat
conditions in each fishing area of the province. Water temperatures were collected at 30
minutes intervals and sites were divided in stationary of non-stationary sites. Stationary
sites were instrumented during the whole summer period (June 15 to September 5),
whereas data were collected for a shorter period of time at non-stationary sites. At nonstationary sites, loggers were systematically moved to different sites to cover as many
sites as possible. Thereafter, water temperatures at non-stationary sites were extended for
the whole summer period using regression analysis. This method permitted the coverage
of a wide range of river sizes as well as different meteorological and thermal conditions
within the province. A classification of water temperature sites was conducted into cool
(< 16.5°C), intermediate (16.5-18.9°C) and warm temperature sites (> 18.9°C). Results
showed that both cool and intermediate temperature sites had 95 sites (30.5%) for a total
of 61% of the sties whereas 122 (39%) sites were classified as warm temperature sites. A
good relationship was observed between the mean summer water temperature and the
maximum daily summer water temperature for most sites. Also, the number of days that
the water temperature exceeded 20°C was also highly correlated with the mean summer
160
water temperature for intermediate and warm temperature sites. Cool water temperature
sites in most cases did not exceed the 20°C. It was estimated that under climate change
and with an increase in water temperature of +2°C, the distribution of cool, intermediate
and warm temperature sites would change significantly. As such, cool water temperature
sites would decrease to 15% (47 sites) followed by 23% (72 sites) intermediate water
temperature sites and 62% (193 sites) warm temperature sites. A discussion was
provided on the importance of cool water temperature sites for salmonid habitat as well
as potential climate change impacts.
MacMillan, J. L. and T. Crandlemere. 2004. Thermal classification of salmonid
streams and summer distribution of fishes in Nova Scotia with potential implication of
climate change, Interim report 2002-04. NS Department of Agriculture and Fisheries
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Many Nova Scotia streams are warmed to stressful levels for brook trout and
Atlantic Salmon. Seventy-seven streams were electrofished to determine is salmonoids
were influenced by thermal conditions in the summer. The results of the survey clearly
indicated that cool water streams are vital to brook trout during warm summer conditions
in Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotia salmonid stream classification system worked very
well to describe brook trout habitat. The salmonid steam classification of watercourses
will be used to assess the potential success of future trout fishery enhancement strategies
in Nova Scotia.
Mayer, T., W.J. Snodgrass, and D. Morin. 1999. Spatial characterization of the
occurrence of road salts and their environmental concentrations as chlorides in Canadian
surface waters and benthic sediments. Kejimkujik. 34: 545-574pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Increased concern over the contamination of surface waters by road salts and
their adverse effects on the freshwater organisms led to the inclusion of "road salts" on
the second Priority Substances List (PSL2) under the Canadian Environmental Protection
Act. The list identifies substances that must be assessed on a priority basis to characterize
the nature and extent of the risk they pose to the environment or human health. This
paper adds tea the collection of several reports which constitute "supporting
documentation" for the environmental risk assessment of the priority substance "road
salts". It reviews the physical-chemical properties of inorganic salts commonly used for
road maintenance and their fate and transport in surface waters and sediments, together
with the environmental concentrations of:road salt constituents in the context of
watershed geology and other environmental factors governing their concentrations. The
paper also provides a spatial map of chloride concentrations as a basis for developing an
161
understanding of a spatially based, ecological risk assessment for surface water systems
and I elates the spatial risk map to observed concentrations of chlorides. The data suggest
that the surface waters most sensitive to road salts impacts are small ponds and streams
draining large urbanized areas. Environment Canada is presently considering several
alternatives for dealing with road salts.
Melville, G. E., D. Wieder, and M. Fitzsimmons. 1999. Bugged about Dams:
Kingsmere Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration. 7: 9, 17-18pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Water body: Kingsmere River
Abstract: The Kingsmere River in Prince Albert National Park (PANP) has been
impounded, diverted and cleared of large woody debris for more than 50 years to
improve the passage of recreational motor boats. In 1993, PANP and the Saskatchewan
Research Council began a multiyear ecosystem-based project to: systematically
document ecology conditions along the Kingsmere River, forecast the changes possible
with restoration, develop long-term monitoring approaches, and recommend restoration
actions. Melville (1995) identified the ecological components to be investigated in the
Kingsmere project, including the effects of impoundment and the other alterations on fish
and stream edge plant communities. Study components compare the Kingsmere River to
the MacLennan River, a natural reference ecosystem located in the northeast corner of the
park. The objectives of this component of the study are to identify the composition of the
benthic macroinvertbrate communities by feeding groups, and associated habitat
characteristics, particularly current velocity and surficial substrate particle sizes, in the
two streams. Invertebrate-habitat associations can provide quantitative benchmarks of
ecological conditions, which can be used to help monitor restoration actions on the
Kingsmere River. The study investigates the hypothesis that restoration would increase
the relative abundance of invertebrates dependant on currents carrying food particles, and
decrease the proportion of those feeding on particles that have settled out of the water
column.
Melville, G. E. and Melville, J. K. 2004. Assessing Historical Bathymetry: Kinsmere
Lake Revisited. 20: 141-147pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Water body: Kingmere Lake
162
Abstract: Surveys carried out prior to 1950 still constitute our knowledge base for many
lakes, particularly those without road access in more remote locations. We assess the
accuracy of historical bathymetric data using Kingsmere Lake (Rawson 1936), Prince
Albert National Park of Canada, as an example. Rawson presented depth-specific
attributes as percents only, which have since formed the basis for managements for the
lake. In this study, new depths, all spatially referenced, were acquired by sounders along
transects. In comparison to Rawson’s work, the new areas differ by up to fifty percent
because the methods used previously were much less accurate. Volumetric indices are
much more similar; the depth-percent volumes curves are the same. In using historical
data, numerical correction factors for lake areas would probably yield accurate subsurface
indices for most lakes. The updated bathymetry for Kingsmere Lake will aid in the
determination of Total Allowable Catch for exploited Fish Species. The bathymetry will
also help with watershed activities such as fire management, which affect nutrient
loading and ultimately oxygen conditions in the lake. Modern surveys represent the ideal
approach, especially for lake like the MacKenzie Great Lakes. When such studies might
occur is uncertain.
Meng, F. and et al. 2005. Modeling dissolved organic carbon, total and methyl mercury
in Kejimkujik freshwaters. SETAC.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: We now hypothesize that physiographically derivable attributes such as slope
and drainage, size of water body, and source of water (groundwater versus surface water)
can be used to predict DOC in surface waters and that these concentrations, in turn, can
then be used to predict Hgt and CH3Hg+ in aquatic environments in and near the park
and elsewhere. In this, we suggest that openness of water bodies to incoming solar
radiation plays a role, by gradually decreasing the surface water concentrations of DOC,
and therefore possibly of Hgt and CH3Hg+ as well, because of photochemical
degradation. In this chapter, we explore this by examining the data of 2 studies that have
been conducted to produce information about pH, DOC, Hgt, and CH3Hg+ at various
sampling locations in and around the park.
Naiman, R. J., Décamps, H., and McClain, M. E. 2005. Riparia:
Ecology,Conservation, and Management of Streamside Communities. Elsevier Academic
Press: New York, N.Y. 430pp.
Geographic location: USA
Nilson, P. 2004. The Role of Social Science in Parks Canada'
s National Monitoring
Program In Making Ecosystem Based Management Work: Connecting managers and
163
researchers. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and
Management of Protected Areas May 11-16 2003. Editors: N. Munro, P. Dearden, T.
Herman, K. Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson. Science and Management of Protected Areas
Association: Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Parks Canada is in the process of establishing a national ecological integrity
monitoring program. The paper examines the existing and potential contribution of social
science to the implementation of the national ecological integrity monitoring program.
Key issues addressed from a social science perspective include: humans as part of the
ecosystem; scales for monitoring; identifying priority stressors; defining management
goals and objectives; and selecting indicators and targets that relate human use stressors
to ecological integrity. These key issues are also considered within the broader context of
the link between monitoring, planning and reporting.
Nova Scotia Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2005. FINS database.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Mersey, Medway
Water body: Approximately 40 lakes in Queens/Annapolis Counties
Abstract: Excel spreadsheet with dissolved surface and bottom oxygen, surface and
bottom temperature, fish species composition, volume, flush, and drainage.
Nova Scotia Power. 1999. Mersey Hydro System: Report for Renewal of Operating
Approval. Nova Scotia Power Inc.: Queens County. 86pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Mersey
Water body: Lake Rossignol, Jordan Lake
Abstract: This report presents the results of the Mersey Hydro System Operating
Approval Renewal Process and serves as the primary support document for the
application by Nova Scotia Power for the renewal of this Operating Approval.
NSDFA. 1987-2004. Water quality data for lakes stocked with speckled trout.
Geographic location: SNBR
164
Water body: McGowan Lake, Sandy Bottom Lake, Cameron Lake, First and Second
Christopher Lake, Hidden Hills Lake, Hog Lake, Little Ponhook Lake, Medway River at
Westfield, Medway River at Lake Pool, Medway River at South Brookfield, Medway
River at Pleasant River, Mill Lake, Jordan River at Four Mile Brook, Canada Hill Lake,
Canada Hill Bog, Dexter Mill Pond
Abstract: Raw data (non-digitized ) are available for pH, temp, and in some cases
dissolved oxygen for weekly or daily at McGowan Lake, and annually at:
Annapolis County: Pretty Mary Lake, Sandy Bottom Lake -Queens County: Cameron
Lake, First and Second Christopher Lake, Hidden Hills Lake, Hog Lake, Little Ponhook
Lake, Medway River at Westfield, Medway River at Lake Pool, Medway River at South
Brookfield, Medway River at Pleasant River, Mill Lake-Shelburne County: Jordan River
at Four Mile Brook, Canada Hill Lake, Canada Hill Bog, Dexter Mill Pond.
O'Driscoll, N., T. A. Clair, and A. Renez. 2001. Cycling of Metals in Kejimkujik
National Prak: Toxic Substance Research Initiative Project #124 Summary. Authority of
the Minister of Environment 1-92pp.
Copy location: 1,2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The objective of this report is mainly for communication of results between the
researchers (to intiate dicussion of results and future directions). To date the results
presented in this report have not been technically reviewed. Questions and comments are
appreicated.
O'Driscoll, N. J., S. Beauchamp, S.D. Siciliano, A.N. Rencz, and D.R.S. Lean. 2003.
Continuous analysis of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and mercury flux in two
freshwater lakes in Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia: Evaluating mercury flux models with
quantitative data. Kejimkujik. 37: 2226-2235pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Diurnal patterns for dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration, mercury
flux, several water variables (pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), water
temperature), and meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, % relative
humidity, solar radiation) were measured in two lakes with contrasting dissolved organic
carbon (DOC) concentrations in Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia. A continuous analysis
system made it possible to measure quick changes in DGM over time. Consistently
higher DGM concentrations were found in the high DOC lake as compared to the low
DOC lake. An examination of current mercury flux models using this quantitative data
indicated some good correlations between the data and predicted flux (r ranging from
165
0.27 to 0.83) but generally poor fit (standard deviation of residuals ranging from 0.97 to
3.38). Cross-correlation analysis indicated that DGM dynamics changed in response to
solar radiation with lag-times of 65 and 90 min. This relationship with solar radiation was
used to develop new predictive models of DGM and mercury flux dynamics for each
lake. We suggest that a generalized approach using time-shifted solar radiation data to
predict DGM can be incorporated into existing mercury flux models. It is clear from the
work presented that DOC and wind speed may also play important roles in DGM and
mercury flux dynamics, and these roles have not been adequately accounted for in current
predictive models.
O'Neill, H. J. 1994. Monitoring surface water quality :a guide for citizens, students, and
communities in Atlantic Canada. Environment Canada 101pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD 227.N4 .M66 1994
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: This document is a guide and compilation of relevant Canadian and American
information on community-based water quality monitoring. It is intended that sufficient
information be presented so that a volunteer group can make an organized and wellprepared start on a monitoring project. To do this, appendices have been included that
describe five regional case studies, a list of vendors of monitoring equipment, and a list
of funding agencies. While the focus of this document is on water quality monitoring,
the principals outlined are general enough so that groups interested in habitat inventory,
wildlife monitoring, land-use inventories and other environmental monitoring projects
will find sections relevant.
Papineau, M. and J. Haemmerli. 1992. Changes in Water-Quality in the Laflamme
Lake Watershed Area, Canada. Kejimkujik. 61: 95-105pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Water body: Laflamme Lake Watershed
Abstract: The Laflamme Lake Watershed Area is located in a sensitive region on the
Canadian Shield and is subjected to wet atmospheric loading between 17 and 25 kg ha-1
yr-1. From 1981 to 1988, the level and fluctuations of the atmospheric deposition of
acidifying substances has led to various responses in the water chemistry of headwater
lakes in the area. The general trend in atmospheric inputs is a gradual increase of
acidifying substances from 1981 to 1985 followed by a 2 yr decrease then a return to
previous values. In the two lakes with almost no alkalinity acidification has occurred
throughout the 1983 to 1988 period. In the four lakes with slightly higher alkalinity
values, a reversal in acidification is seen when atmospheric loading decreased in 1986.
Along with the interannual trends, seasonal variability to acidification occurs with
166
sensitivity of surface waters being highest during spring melt. Sensitivity to acidification
can also be altered by watershed processes and in the Laflamme Lake Watershed, soil
processes are effective in altering the acidity of precipitation before it reached the lake. In
this watershed, wet atmospheric inputs of H+ and NO3- are larger than surface water
outputs while the reverse occurs for Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl- and SO42-.
Percy, K. E. and J.J. Kerekes. 1981. Kejimkujik calibrated program on the aquatic and
terrestrial effects of the long range transport of air pollutants for 1980-81. 48pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 .P47 1981
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake, Beaverskin Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: The Kejimkujik Calibrated Lake Catchments Program described in this report
is on of five lake catchment studies established to study the effects of acid rain in
sensitive receptor ecosystems in Canada. This report compiles and outlines the various
studies on-going in 1980-81.
Percy, K. E. and J.J. Kerekes. 1982. Kejimkujik watershed study on the aquatic and
terrestrial effects on the long-range transport of air pollutants for 1982-83. Canadian
Forestry Service: Fredericton. 29pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH545.A17 .P47 1983
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: This miscellaneous report is a collection of study outlines comprising the
1982/83 study activities of the various agencies involved in the Kejimkujik Watershed
Study on Aquatic and Terrestrial Effects of the Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants.
Pomeroy, J., J. Kerekes, and T. Pollock. 1998. Pre-harvest characterizations of water
chemistry and discharge for the Hayward - Holmes watershed study in New Brunswick’s
Fundy Model Forest. FMF Technical Notes. 1: 20pp.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The Hayward Brook Watershed Study (HBWS) is an ecosystem-based research
project investigating the impacts from forest management practices on terrestrial and
aquatic systems. Seven stations on six streams in the HBWS were monitored from July
167
1993 - June 1995. This pre-harvest data indicates that the base flow discharge is similar
in all streams but the lag time during storms differs as a result of the landscape. The
chemistry of water varies between sites because of three different forest soil units. The
concentrations of extractable zinc in one stream did increase four times the analytical
detection limit as a result of the placement of a galvanized steel culvert. Concentrations
dropped to less than detection limit five months later. Nitrate concentrations are low and
the streams can be classified as oligotrophic based on the total phosphorus
concentrations. Turbidity increases during major storms as a result of run off from new
and old roads.
Prepas, E. E., B. Pinel-Alloul , D. Planas , G. Methot, S. Paquet, and S. Reedyk.
2001. Forest harvest impacts on water quality and aquatic biota on the Boreal Plain:
introduction to the TROLS lake program. 58: 421-436pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Eleven headwater lakes in Alberta Boreal Plain were monitored for nutrients
and plankton 2 years before and 2 years after variable watershed harvesting (harvesting
mean 15%, range 0-35%). After harvesting, variations in annual precipitation resulted in
lake water residence times that differed by an order of magnitude from one year to the
next. During the first posttreatment year, total phosphorus concentrations increased
(overall 40%) in most lakes; however, response was most consistent in lakes that were
shallow and the water column mixed or weakly thermally stratified. Chlorophyll a,
cyanobacteria (Amphanizomenon-Anabaena), and cyanotoxins (microcystin-LR)
increased after harvesting, primarily in shallow lakes. Zooplankton abundance and
biomass decreased after harvesting, particularly in stratified lakes where edible
phytoplankton biomass declined. In the weakly or nonstratified lakes, declines in
zooplankton biomass were associated with higher cyanobacteria biomass and
cyanotoxins. Posttreatment change in total phosphorus concentration was strongly related
to weather (greatest response in a wet year) and relative drainage basin size (drainage
basin area to lake volume, r2=0.78, p<<0.01) There was no evidence that buffer strip
width (20,100, and 200m) influenced lake response. These results suggest that activities
within the entire watershed should be the focus of catchment-lake interactions.
Randhir, T. O., R. O'Connor, P.R. Penner, and D.W. Goodwin. 2001. A watershedbased land prioritization model for water supply protection. 143: 47-56pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Water quality management at a watershed scale is important for water supply
protection. Escalating costs of water treatment, along with the need for cooperative
solutions among various water users in a watershed, reinforce the need for such approach.
168
In a watershed approach, optimum water quality benefits can be achieved by targeting
practices to those areas that have the maximum marginal value of water quality
protection. To accomplish this, prioritization based on marginal benefits and costs is
essential. The information that is crucial for developing an effective prioritization method
includes geographic information, relationship between land criteria and effects, and
travel-time of runoff water. By integrating these three types of information, a watershed
level prioritization model was developed and applied to the Ware River watershed in
Massachusetts, USA. It was observed that the time of travel of surface runoff followed a
complex spatial distribution. Use of zones based on distance from the outlet or drainage
zones may not accurately reflect the spatially explicit nature of travel path and traveltimes. The area under each category of travel-time as a function of travel-time followed a
nonlinear trend in the Ware River watershed. The distribution of the prioritization index
showed that sensitive areas do not clearly fall within the boundaries of any single land
characteristic (e.g, riparian buffer, steep slopes, sensitive soils, etc.). Low priority areas
covered the highest percent of the watershed and this percentage decreased with increase
in land sensitivity, Focusing on fewer areas in the watershed can maximize benefits to
water quality and result in lower expenditures. By adjusting criteria and weights, this
approach can be adapted to prioritize a wide variety of land-protection and land-use
decisions such as preserving prime forestland, protecting critical wildlife habitats,
recreational and open space planning, and ecological-economic planning. (C) 2001
Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Rao, S. S. 1982. Microbiological studies of some watersheds receiving acid precipitation
in Canada. National water Research Institute: Ottawa. 67pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH541.5 W3 R62 1982
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: This report summarizes bacteriological data collected during the 1981/82
surveys conducted in the Turkey Lake watershed area near Sault St. Marie, Ontario and
the Kejimkujik calibrated watershed. Water and sediment samples collected and
submitted from these watersheds were analysed for total bacteria, respiring bacteria,
aerobic heterotrophs, nitrogen cycle, and sulfur cycle bacteria. In addition, lab studies
were performed using acid stressed lake water and large batch type fermenter to study the
effects of low pH stress on bacterial populations and the associated chemical changes in
the water and the sediments.
Rempel, L. L., J.S. Richardson, and M.C. Healey. 2000. Macroinvertebrate
community structure along gradients of hydraulic and sedimentary conditions in a large
gravel-bed river. 45: 57-73pp.
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169
Geographic location: Canada
Water body: Fraser River
Abstract: 1. The spatial distribution of macroinvertebrate species was examined in
relation to hydraulic and sedimentary conditions in a large gravel-bed river, the Fraser
River, Canada. Mean annual discharge in the Fraser River is 2900 m3 s_1 and annual
flood discharge, due to snowmelt in May and June, averages 8760 m3 s_1.
2. Invertebrates were sampled from four water depths (0.2, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 m) at various
levels of discharge that together captured the spatial and temporal variability of the
physical habitat. Several hydraulic (near-bed shear velocity, Boundary Reynolds number,
turbulence intensity, depth-averaged velocity, Froude number, Reynolds number)
and substratum variables (mean grain size, Trask’s sorting coefficient, Nikuradse’s
roughness, percentage of fine sediment, and Shields entrainment function) were measured
for each sample of macroinvertebrates. Concentrations of fine and coarse particulate
organic matter were also assessed.3. The physical habitat was characterized by a major
gradient of hydraulic conditions that corresponded positively with increasing water depth
and accounted for 52% of the total variation in the habitat data. Substratum conditions
and the concentration of organic matter explained 24% of the total variation in the habitat
data.4. The distribution of invertebrates was correlated significantly with hydraulic
variables and suggests that hydraulic conditions represent a major physical gradient along
which the benthic community is organized. The distribution of organic matter and
substratum texture were also important for some species. The spatial distribution of most
species reflected morphological and trophic suitability to particular habitat conditions.
5. Hydraulic stress associated with foraging and maintaining position, as well as organic
matter retention in coarse substrata, are probable mechanisms affecting the spatial
distribution of macroinvertebrates.
Rencz, A. N., N.J. O'Driscoll, G.E.M. Hall, T. Peron, K. Telmer, and N.M. Burgess.
2003. Spatial variation and correlations of mercury levels in the terrestrial and aquatic
components of a wetland dominated ecosystem: Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Kejimkujik. 143: 271-288pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: This study investigates the ranges and spatial variation of mercury in various
media in the wetland ecosystems of Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia. Mercury
concentrations in five-year-old yellow perch (age based on regression analyses of
existing data) ranged from 0.12-0.72 mug g(-1) (wet weight basis) in 24 lakes. Mercury
concentrations in red maple ranged from 5 to 41 ng g(-1) and levels in white pine ranged
from 5 to 58 ng g(-1), dry weight. Concentrations of total mercury were found to be
significantly higher in epiphytic lichens (maximum of 660 ng g(-1)) and in feather
mosses (maximum of 395 ng g(-1)) compared to vascular species. The soil Ah horizon
exhibits the highest concentrations for both mercury and gold, with maximum values of
466 and 42.8 ng g(-1) respectively; whereas the C-horizon appears to host the most Zn
(maximum 209.9 mug g(-1)). Lake water pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were
170
the variables most highly correlated with mercury in lake waters and yellow perch. No
correlations were observed between mercury in terrestrial components and mercury in
yellow perch; however, mercury in yellow perch was correlated with P in leaf tissues of
both red maple and white pine. The importance of understanding linkages between
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is emphasized through this study.
Reynoldson, T. B., C. Logan, T. Pascoe, and S. Thompson. CABIN Invertebrate
Biomonitoring Field and Laboratory Manual. National Water Research Institute 47pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Acritical part of the Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network (CABIN) is the
establishment of a standard set of protocols and methods for the various phases of data
collection and processing.This manual describes the methods recommended by the
National Water Research Institute for collection of both biological and habitat data, in
running water habitats. In addition, we have provided a set of tables and forms used by
the programme. In laying out the manual we have attempted to provide a rationale for
the measurement of many of the variables and the layout of the field sections of the
manual that follows that on the field sheets.
Siciliano, S. D., A. Sangster, C.J. Daughney, L. Loseto, J.J. Germida, A.N. Rencz,
N.J. O'Driscoll, and D.R.S. Lean. 2003. Are methylmercury concentrations in the
wetlands of Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, dependent on geology?
Kejimkujik. 32: 2085-2094pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: In the relatively pristine ecosystem in Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia,
methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in loons, Gavia immer, are among the highest
recorded anywhere in the world. This study investigated the influence of bedrock
lithology on MeHg concentrations in wetlands. Twenty-five different wetland field sites
were sampled over four different bedrock lithologies; Kejimkujik monzogranite, black
sulfidic slate, gray slate, and greywacke. Soil samples were analyzed for ethylmercury
(EtHg), MeHg, total Hg, acid-volatile sulfides (AVS), organic matter, and water content
as well as the biological parameters, mercury methyltransferase (HgMT) activity, sulfate
reduction rates, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition, and acidity. Methylmercury
concentrations in the wetlands were highly dependent (P < 0.08) on lithology with no
significant difference between bogs, fens, and swamps. Methylmercury concentrations in
wetland soils developed on Kejimkujik monzogranite averaged 900 ng kg(-1) compared
with only 300 ng kg(-1) in wetland soils developed on black sulfidic slate. Fatty acid
171
methyl ester composition was also lithologically dependent (P < 0.001) with biomarkers
for Desulfobulbus spp. discriminating between sites containing high and low MeHg
concentrations. Levels of MeHg in wetlands were predicted mainly (41% of the sum of
squares) by HgMT activity that differed (P < 0.009) between wetlands, with activity in
bogs almost three times that present in swamps. Wetland MeHg concentrations are highly
dependent on the lithology on which they have developed for largely biological reasons.
Srivastava, D. S., C.A. Staicer, and B. Freedman. 1995. Aquatic vegetation of Nova
Scotian lakes differing in acidity and trophic status. Kejimkujik. 51: 181-196pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Aquatic macrophytes of the littoral zone were surveyed in 21 Nova Scotian
lakes, and macrophyte composition was interpreted in relation to chemical and physical
characteristics. The lake set included both nutrient-enriched and acidified lakes, and
consequently had a wide range of water chemistry variables, notably pH (3.7-8.3) and
total phosphorus (0.003-6.0 mg l(-1)). Using canonical correspondence analysis, we
related differences in vegetation among lakes to 14 water chemistry and three physical
variables. Alkalinity, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen were most strongly correlated
with differences in vegetation between heavily enriched, moderately enriched and nonenriched lakes. Interestingly, macrophyte composition was not strongly correlated with
pH. Even in a subset of lakes consisting of moderately enriched and non-enriched lakes,
alkalinity, total phosphorus and total nitrogen remained strongly correlated with
vegetation differences. By contrast, vegetation differences among non-enriched lakes
correlated most strongly with substrate slope, lake area, calcium, and alkalinity.
Staicer, C. A., B. Freedman, D. Srivastava, N. Dowd, J. Kilgar, J. Hayden, F. Payne
, and T. Pollock. 1994. Use of Lakes by Black Duck Broods in Relation to Biological,
Chemical, and Physical Features. Kejimkujik. 280: 185-199pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Characteristics of 32 freshwater lakes in central and western Nova Scotia were
quantified to determine the relative influence of various biological, chemical, and
physical factors on habitat selection by black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster) during
brood-rearing. Acidity and trophic status varied greatly among the waterbodies, of which
20 were used by black ducks for rearing their young. Duck brood density was positively
related to lake trophic status. The highest brood densities occurred on hypertrophic
waterbodies with a large anthropogenic input of nutrients. Lakes with black duck broods
had significantly higher concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen, darker water with
more dissolved organic carbon, and within the littoral zone, greater macrophyte cover,
greater density and biomass of pelagic invertebrates, gentler slopes, and a softer, more
organic substrate. Similar trends were observed within a subset of 17 acidic lakes (pH
less-than-or-equal-to 5.5), 8 of which supported black ducks. The density of black duck
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broods was significantly correlated with 17 of 20 variables, most notably total
phosphorus (r = +0.81). Partial correlation (removing the effect of total phosphorus)
revealed that brood density was significantly correlated with the abundances of pelagic (r
= +0.77) and benthic (r = +0.68) invertebrates, macrophyte cover (r = +0.52), and
substrate score (r = +0.57), but not with other chemical variables, including pH. Our
results suggest that quality brood-rearing habitat is distinguished by a combination of
factors, especially available nutrients, macrophyte cover, and invertebrates, subject to
constraints imposed by physical characteristics of the littoral zone of the lake. The
abundance of invertebrates, the primary food of young black ducks, emerged as the most
important biological factor influencing the density of black duck broods.
Steedman, R. J. and R.L. France. 2000. Origin and transport of aeolian sediment from
new clearcuts into boreal lakes, northwestern Ontario, Canada. 122: 139-152pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: Movement of acolian (wind-blown) inorganic sediment was indexed in and
around new riparian and upland clearcuts in northwestern Ontario, Canada with bucketstyle terrestrial litterfall traps. Aeolian sediment originated primarily from clearcuts,
roads, and skid trails, where soil disturbance was high and forest litterfall was low.
Relatively small amounts of aeolian sediment were recovered from riparian buffer strips
and upland forest. Aeolian sediment was observed to reach lakes adjacent to the clearcuts
and may be responsible for elevated levels of littoral sedimentation measured in one
study lake. However, the amounts of sediment deposition observed are not likely to cause
important changes in water quality or benthic habitat For algae, invertebrates, or fish in
these lakes.
Stephens, A. Mary Lake, Queens County. Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve
Geographic location: Medway
Stewart, C., J. Dale, Bill Freedman, and J.J. Kerekes. 1980. A survey of aquatic
macrophytes in three lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia : 1980 progress
report. Dalhousie University and Canadian Wildlife Service: Halifax, N.S. 37pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QK 98 .S73 1980
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake, Beaverskin Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
Abstract: This report presents a description of field wok done in the summer of 1980
relevant to species composition and net productivity of aquatic macrophytes in three
173
lakes in Kejimkujik National Park. These lakes differ significantly with respect to
morphometry, hydrology, and water chemistry, all of which contribute to differences in
their macrophyte communities.
Stewart, L. 2004. Recent surface-water acidification and reproducibility of sediment
cores from Kejimkujik Lake, NS. BSc. thesis. Queen'
s University: Kingston, Ontario.
48pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake
Abstract: Paleolimnological techniques were used to assess the impact of acidic
deposition on Kejimkujik Lake and to determine the reproducibility of sediment cores
from a large lake in terms of changes in diatom species assemblages as well as inferred
environmental trends.
Struk, R. 2003. Biological Effects Related to the Exposure to Mercury and Acidification
Stress of Streams in Kejimkujik National Park. 26pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: By measuring the concentration of mercury in aquatic intvertebrates and noting
shifts in community structure, this study will be used as a preliminary assessment of
potential biological effects related to the exposure of mercury and acidification.
Thexton, B. 1980. Record of surface water samples from Kejimkujik National Park.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD 427.A27 .T44 1980
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Records of date, time, water temp., water level, bottles, and collector for the
Upper Mersey River, Lower Mersey River, West River, and Little River, for the year
1980.
174
Thomas, A. C., I. F. Dennis, P G. Amiro, and B.J. Cosby. 2004. Past and future
chemistry changes in acidified Nova Scotian Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar) rivers: a
dynamic modelling approach. 61: 1965-1975pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations have been extirpated from a number
of rivers in Nova Scotia,Canada, as a result of acid rain. We applied the model of
acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC) to 35 regional rivers to estimate
pre-industrial water chemistry conditions and the potential future changes in water
chemistry under three acid deposition scenarios for the region. Our model results indicate
that water chemistry in the study streams remained relatively unchanged until the 1950s
and reached their maximum effects on pH in the mid-1970s. The main effects of acid
deposition have been a decrease in pH and an increase in base cations to surface waters,
as the ion-exchange processes in soils release soil cations into surface waters. We
forecast future water chemistry in the rivers using three deposition scenarios: no change
in sulfate deposition from year 2000 and 10% and 20% sulfate reductions per decade. We
show that the more rapid the reduction in acid deposition, the faster the recovery. We also
show that although stream water acidity will recover within a few decades, in most
streams, base cations will not recover to pre-industrial levels within the next 100 years.
Thompson, M. E. 1982. The Mersey River, Nova Scotia, 1954/55 and 1971 : A critical
evaluation of the earlier data. National water Research Institute: Burlington.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number TD182.4.N68 .T56 1982
Geographic location: Mersey
Abstract: The 1954/55 chemical data for the Mersey River, Nova Scotia, were critically
evaluated and revised, using as controls charge balance, calculated conductances, and
1971 data for cation after seasalt correction.
Tordon, R. 1980. The collection of limnological and heavy metal samples in three lakes
in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia. Kejimkujik National Park of Canada: Nova
Scotia. 26pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QH 545.A17 K26 1980
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Kejimkujik Lake, Beaverskin Lake, Pebbleloggitch Lake
175
Abstract: Total and partial acidity, alkalinity, colour, turbidity, and specific conductance
from various sites in three lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, as well as measurement of
pH, for a 24-hour sampling period are presented.
Ure, D. and K. Beazley. 2004. Selecting indicators for monitoring aquatic ecological
integrity at Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site In Making Ecosystem
Based Management Work: Connecting managers and researchers. Proceedings of the
Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas May 1116 2003. Editors: N. Munro, P. Dearden, T. Herman, K. Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson.
Science and Management of Protected Areas Association: Wolfville.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Upper Mersey Watershed
Abstract: Transboundary impacts, from adjacent land use and regional activities, have
been identified as significant stressors to the ecological integrity of Kejimkujik National
Park and National Historic Site. This study focuses on the primary Mersey watershed
surrounding Kejimkujik to develop a suite of indicators for monitoring aquatic integrity
and assessing transboundary impacts. The conceptual approach of this study is to identify
a suite of potential indicators using the Framework for Assessing Ecological Integrity
adopted by Parks Canada. The framework’s broad categories of stressors, biodiversity
and ecosystem function, are used to develop specific indicators relative to the priorities at
Kejimkujik. Potential aquatic indicators are identified, assessed and evaluated through an
in-depth literature review, a series of expert consultations, and a focus workshop. The
preliminary results of the selection process identify 35 aquatic indicators, including seven
that are representative of more than one aspect of ecosystem structure and function
(aquatic birds, brook trout spawning success, water nutrients, water temperature, ice
phenology, macroinvertebrates, and exotic species). Research is ongoing to: (i) refine and
prioritize the suite of indicators; and (ii) provide recommendations for the development
of a monitoring program for transboundary watersheds at Kejimkujik, with potential
application to other national parks and protected areas.
Vaidya, O. C. and G.D. Howell. 2002. Interpretation of mercury concentrations in eight
headwater lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, (Nova Scotia, Canada) by use of a
geographic information system and statistical techniques. Kejimkujik. 134: 165-188pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The concentration of mercury in eight headwater lakes in Kejimkujik National
Park correlated positively with total organic carbon, total nitrogens, aluminum, iron and
sodium and negatively with pH and alkalinity (Gran). Annual average mercury yield of
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the lakes correlated positively with basin area to lake surface area ratio, and watershed
areas underlain by granite bedrock and glacial deposits and negatively with greywacke
bedrock. Principal component analysis indicated that first three components account for
80% of the total variance in the data. The components were related to physiography and
geology of the watershed, hardness of water, and atmospheric washouts of long range
transported acidic pollutants and dust particles. Mercury in the lake waters was associated
with the physiography and geology of the watershed. Total organic carbon, aluminum
and iron were good predictors of mercury concentration in the lake waters as were the
basin area to lake surface area ratio, and basin areas underlain by granite bedrock, and
Halifax slate for the lake mercury yield. The results showed that transport of mercury
from the watershed is a major source of mercury in the study lakes.
Vaidya, O. C., G.D. Howell., and D.A. Leger. 2000. Evaluation of the distribution of
mercury in lakes in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland (Canada). Kejimkujik. 117: 353369pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Distribution and sources of total mercury were evaluated in sixty lakes in Nova
Scotia and Newfoundland. The concentration of total mercury in the lake water samples
was similar to those observed in other natural water systems. Mercury concentration in
the lakes correlated positively with aluminum, total organic carbon, color, iron, and total
nitrogens and inversely with pH and sulfate. The lake water quality parameters were
placed in three distinct groups using principal component and cluster analyses. The
chemical constituents in the groups were identified as being associated with lake
watershed geology, atmospheric washouts of long range transported acidic pollutants and
dust particles, and a marine source. Stepwise multiple regression applied to the variables
in the same principal component and strongly correlating with mercury identified total
organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, aluminum and iron as the best predictors for total
mercury concentrations in the study lakes.
Veith, F. N. D. 1884. Report Upon the Condition of the Rivers in Nova Scotia in
Connection with the Fisheries in that Province. Maclean, Roger & CO.: Ottawa.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: An officer of the Department of Marine and Fisheries was appointed to inspect
and report upon the condition of the rivers in Nova Scotia, and to perform other duties in
connection with the fisheries in N.S.
177
Vowell, J. L. 2001. Using stream bioassessment to monitor best management practice
effectiveness. 143: 237-244pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Florida
Abstract: A best management practices (BMPs) effectiveness study was conducted to
evaluate Florida'
s BMPs for protecting aquatic ecosystems during intensive forestry
operations. Sites were selected in major ecoregions of the state and each site was
associated with a stream adjacent to intensive silviculture treatments. A stream
bioassessment was conducted at each site before silviculture treatments, to determine a
pre-treatment stream condition index (SCI). Sampling for the bioassessment was
conducted at points along each stream, above and below the treatment area, to establish
reference and test conditions. Silviculture treatments of clearcut harvesting, intensive
mechanical site preparation and machine planting were then completed, during which all
applicable BMPs were adhered to. One year after the Ærst bioassessment and following
the treatments, the sites were re-sampled at the same points. No signiÆcant difference in
the SCI was observed between the reference and test portions of the streams that could be
attributed to the treatments using BMPs. Hence, the results of the study support the
hypothesis that proper application of BMPs provides protection to adjacent stream
ecosystems.
Vuori, K.-M., I. Joensuu, J. Latvala, E. Jutila, and A. Ahvonen. 1998. Forest
drainage : a threat to benthic biodiversity of boreal headwater streams ? 8: 745-759pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Finland
Abstract: 1. Forest drainage, including mainly ditching of waterlogged peatlands in order
to increase wood growth, has caused substantial changes in the hydrology and water
quality of Finnish streams. However, knowledge on the ecological impact of these
changes is poor. This paper studies the potential impact of forest drainage, catchment
characteristics and habitat factors on the water quality and benthic macroinvertebrates in
headwater streams of the River Isojoki, western Finland. An intensive programme of
water sampling was carried out at nine study sites, while zoobenthic samples covered a
total of 18 streams. 2. According to multivariate regression models concentrations of
aluminium and suspended solids in stream water at nine study sites increased
significantly with increasing forest drainage of the catchment area. Further, drainage
intensity contributed significantly to the decrease in minimum values of alkalinity.
3. In a Canonical Correspondence Analysis, the variation in macroinvertebrate species
distribution and abundance was largely explained by drainage intensity, moss coverage
and the concentrations of aluminium and iron in stream water. A significant positive
correlation was established between the species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates
178
and the proportional cover of vegetation on the stream bed, whereas a significant negative
correlation was found between species richness and sand cover. 4. The results suggest
that drainage has significantly contributed to the deterioration of water quality and habitat
structure, and impoverishment of benthic communities in the headwater streams of the
River Isojoki. In order to protect the ecological integrity of such boreal headwater
streams, more effective protection schemes in forestry practices and rehabilitation of the
adversely affected streams and their catchment areas are needed.
Water Survey Of Canada. 1990. Surface water data : Atlantic Provinces 1989. Inland
Waters Directorate, water Resources Branch, water Survey of Canada: Ottawa. 139pp.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number GB70.C220 1989
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Wildlife Habitat Canada. The Annapolis Watershed:Annapolis Watershed
Environment Quality Assessment Project . Wildlife Habitat Canada 22pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Clean Annaplois River Project
Wong, H. K. T., J.O. Nriagu, and K.J. McCabe. 1989. Aluminum Species in
Porewaters of Kejimkujik and Mountain Lakes, Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 46: 155164pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Wood, J. A. and C.D.A. Rubec. 1989. Chemical Characterization of Several Wetlands
in Kejimkujik-National-Park, Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 46: 177-186pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Wynn, T. M., S. Mostaghimi, J.W. Frazee, P.W. McClellan , R.M. Shaffer, and
W.M. Aust . 2000. Effects of forest harvesting best management practices on surface
water quality in the Virginia Coastal Plain. 43: 927-936pp.
Geographic location: USA
179
Abstract: Three small watersheds located in Westmoreland County, Virginia, were
monitored to evaluate the impact of forest clearcutting on surface water quality and to
evaluate the effectiveness of forestry best management practices (BMPs) for minimizing
hydrologic and water quality impacts associated with timber harvesting. One watershed
(7.9 ha) was clearcut without implementation of BMPs, one watershed (8.5 ha) was
clearcut with the implementation of BMPs and a third watershed (9.8 ha) was left
undisturbed as a control. Forest clearcutting without BMP implementation reduced storm
runoff volume and did not significantly change peak flow rates. Following site
preparation, both storm flow volumes and peak flow rates decreased significantly. For the
watershed with BMP implementation, storm flow volume decreased significantly
following harvest, while peak flow increased. Site preparation did not change storm flow
volumes over post-harvest conditions, but did significantly reduce storm peak flow rates.
Disruptions in subsurface flow pathways during harvest or rapid growth of understory
vegetation following harvest could have caused these hydrologic changes. Harvest and
site preparation activities significantly increased the loss of sediment and nutrients during
storm events. Storm event concentrations and loadings of sediment, nitrogen, and
phosphorus increased significantly following forest clearcutting and site preparation of
the No-BMP watershed. Both the BMP watershed and the Control watershed showed few
changes in pollutant storm concentrations or loadings throughout the study. Results of
this study indicate forest clearcutting and site preparation without BMPs can cause
significant increases in sediment and nutrient concentrations and loadings in the Virginia
Coastal Plain. However, these impacts can be greatly reduced by implementing a system
of BMPs on the watershed during harvesting activities.
Yanni, S., K. Keys, F.R. Meng, X.W. Yin, T.A. Clair, and P.A. Arp. 2000. Modelling
hydrological conditions in the maritime forest region of south-western Nova Scotia.
Kejimkujik. 14: 195-214pp.
Geographic location: Mersey
Water body: Mill Falls, George Lake, Roger'
s Brook, Moosepit Brook
Abstract: Hydrological processes and conditions were quantified for the Mersey River
Basin (two basins: one exiting below Mill Falls, and one exiting below George Lake), the
Roger'
s Brook Basin, Moosepit Brook, and for other selected locations at and near
Kejimkujik National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1967 to 1990. Addressed
variables included precipitation train, snow, fog), air temperature, stream discharge,
snowpack accumulations, throughfall, soil and subsoil moisture, soil temperature and soil
frost, at a monthly resolution. it was found that monthly per hectare stream discharge was
essentially independent of catchment area from <20 km(2) to more than 1000 km(2). The
forest hydrology model ForHyM2 was used to simulate monthly rates of stream
discharge, throughfall and snowpack water equivalents for mature forest conditions.
These simulations were in good agreement with the historical records once the
contributions of fog and mist to the area-wide water budget were taken into account, each
on a monthly basis. The resulting simulations establish a hydrologically consistent,
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continuous, comprehensive and partially verified record for basin-wide outcomes for all
major hydrological processes and conditions, be these related to stream discharge, soil
moisture, soil temperature, snowpack accumulations, soil frost, throughfall, interception
and soil percolation. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley ge Sons, Ltd.
Ye, K. and E.P. Smith. A Bayesian Approach to Evaluating Site Impairment.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: In the United States, each state is required to list water resources that are
declared to be impaired under guidelines set by the Clean Water Act. Measurements are
typically collected on a number of chemical constituents and compared with a standard. If
there are too many measurements exceeding the standard, then the site is declared
impaired. The approach is non-statistical but similar to a Binomial test. The Binomial
approach would convert the measurements to binary data then test if the proportion
exceeding the standard is excessive. Both methods convert measurements to binary
values hence exclude potentially important information in the data. We present a
statistical approach using a Bayesian model that uses the raw data instead of the binary
transformed data. The population distribution of a family of location-scale parameter
models is studied under the model. Posterior distributions from the Bayesian analysis are
used in the decision-making process and error probabilities for the Bayesian and the
Binomial approaches are compared for a normal population.)
181
Wildlife
Ballantyne, K., M. Filiatrault, and C. Staicer. 2004. Forest vegetation and salamander
sampling. Dalhousie University: Halifax. 62pp.
Copy location: KNPNHS
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Salamanders monitored under artificial cover objects with EMAN protocols in
hemlock and hardwood-dominated stands at Big Dam, Canning Field, North Cranberry
Lake, Channel Lake trail, Pebbleloggitch, and Cobrielle. This data report summarizes the
plethodontid salamander monitoring and the establishment of vegetation monitoring plots
that occurred during the summer, 2004. There is a second report comparing 2003 and
2004 data
Bednarczuk, E. and S. Stephens. 2004. Fourth Biennial Census of the Southern Flying
Squirrel Population in Point Pelee National Park-2003.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: The fourth biennial census of the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomysvolans)
population in Point Pelee National Park, occurred on the 10-year anniversary of the
species’ reintroduction. Four trapping grids established in 2001 were reused during the
population census allowing for comparisons of abundance, body mass, reproductive
status and behaviour. Also, a new 6-km Abundance Index trap line was established along
the park road in an attempt to develop a less labour intensive monitoring method.A total
of 68 individuals were marked (58 on four grids and 10 on the Abundance Index line)
compared to 155 squirrels in 2001. About 17% of marked squirrels included recaptures
from 2001. Flying squirrel density was estimated between 0.26 0.37 squirrels/ha
compared to 1.66 2.23 squirrels/ha for 2001. The total mean population size was
estimated between 61 - 98 individuals, a decrease from 437 591 squirrels in 2001.The
population decline may be attributed to a drought in the preceding year as well as
unusually cold winter temperatures. There were obvious trapping success variations
between and within grids throughout the trapping season likely attributed to the increased
mobility of the squirrels. Some 36% of the marked squirrels, most of which were adult
males, were captured on at least two girds compared to 15% in 2001. Mobility may have
increased under conditions of low flying squirrel densities if reproductively receptive
mates were more difficult to locate. The reproductive schedule of adult males did not
differ from that of 2001, however, that of adult females did. Only one pregnant female
was observed and no estrus females were identified. This indicates that a second seasonal
litter would probably not be produced in 2003. Again, these observations may be
attributed to a drought in the preceding year as well as unusually cold winter
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temperatures which may have delayed the onset of reproductive activities. Increased body
mass of adults observed in 2003 suggest differential mortality during extreme weather
conditions; whereby larger animals may have had a higher probability of survival.
Preliminary findings suggest that an Abundance Index line may be a promising time and
cost effective alternative to monitoring flying squirrel abundance in the future. More
analyses are required to test potential design strategies using existing data.
Bell, S. 2003. Ecology of the northern ribbon snake in KNP, Nova Scotia. BSc. thesis.
Dalhousie: Halifax. 113pp.
Copy location: 1
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake
Abstract: Radio-telemetry was used to identify summer activity sites, movement patterns,
and hibernacula for the northern ribbon snake in Nova Scotia. A total of 105 snakes were
individually marked and a subsample of 14 free-ranging adults was equipped with
surgically implanted radio transmitters. From May until mid-November 2001, daily
locations of snakes were recorded as well as the meteorological conditions under which
snakes were most active. Age, sex, temperature preference, and habitat preference were
examined in relation to distribution, movement, and activity levels of this species. On
hibernaculum was found within Kejimkujik National Park.
Blaustein A.R and J.M. Kiesecker. 2002. Complexity in conservation: lessons from the
global decline of amphibian populations. 5: 597pp.
Abstract: As part of an overall "biodiversity crisis" many amphibian populations are in
decline throughout the world. Numerous causes have been invoked to explain these
declines. These include habitat destruction, climate change, increasing levels of
ultraviolet radiation, environmental contamination, disease, and the introduction of nonnative species. In this paper, we argue that amphibian population declines are caused by
different abiotic and biotic factors acting together in a context-dependent fashion.
Moreover, different species and different populations of the same species may react in
different ways to the same environmental insult. Thus, the causes of amphibian
population declines will vary spatially and temporally. Although some generalizations
(e.g. those concerning environmental stress and disease outbreaks) can be made about
amphibian population declines, we suggest that these generalizations take into account
the context-dependent dynamics of ecological systems.
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Broders, H. G., D. F. McAlpine , and G.J. Forbes. 2001. Status of the Eastern
Pipistrelle ( Pipistrellus sublavus) ( Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in New Brunswick . 8:
331-336pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: Five new specimens and 49 echolocation records (<0.2% of all echolocation
sequences recorded) identified as eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus ( F. Cuvier)
are documented in New Brunswick. Previously this bat was known in New Brunswick
from a single specimen discovered over-wintering in a natural limestone cave. New
recored show the eastern pipistrelle confined to the Fundy coast of New Brunswick, but
over-wintering in both natural caves and an abandoned graphite mine. In New
Brunswick, where they have been recorded hibernating with congregations of Myotis
species, eastern pipestrelles comprised less than 1.5% of the bats present. Pipistrelle
echolocation sequences that are the first reports for the species outside wintering roosting
habitat in New Brunswick indicate a strong preference for feeding over water. Both
echolocation sequences and specimen records suggest that the eastern pipistrelle is of
very rare but regular occurrence in southern coastal New Brunswick. The species’
provincial distribution may be influenced by the availability of caves and mines suitable
for over-wintering.
Broders, H. G., G.M. Quinn, and G.J. Forbes. 2001. Chiropteran species diversity and
their spatial and temporal patterns of activity in Nova Scotia. University of New
Brunswick: Fredericton.
Copy location: KEJ Call Number QL 737.B76 2001
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: An important gap exists in the knowledge of chiropteran diversity and ecology
in Nova Scotia. Although seven bat species have been recorded in the province, little is
known about their relative abundance or ecology. This project is an attempt to fill this
gap. In the summer of 2001 we utilized echolocation surveys, using automated bat
detectors, and trapping surveys, using harp traps and mist nets to gain knowledge on
species diversity and basic ecology of bats in the region. Our main study areas were
Kejimkujik National Park and Brier Island, but some sampling was done on Bon Portage
Island in September.
Cameron, R. 2005. Ecological research metadata database, Nova Scotia, Canada. Nova
Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and Natural Areas Management
Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
184
Copy location: NSDEL
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Ecological Research Metadata Database is in developmental stages. It contains
information that describes the type of data that exists for each protected area in Nova
Scotia. Additional information includes: location of data, contact person, and
accessibility. MS Excel software. Ecological Research Metadata Database will be used to
track research activities in Protected Areas.
Cameron, R. 2005. Protected areas ecological field data (19902), Nova Scotia, Canada
hardcopy reports. Nova Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and Natural
Areas Management Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
Copy location: NSDEL
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Protected Areas ecological field data is series of paper reports containing field
data collected in the early 1990s to assess attributes of candidate protected areas. This
database is used to assess attributes of candidate protected areas. This is now in
MSAccess with a GIS layer of plot locations.
Cameron, R. 2005. Library of Ecological Research and Scientific Papers on Protected
Areas, Nova Scotia, Canada . Nova Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and
Natural Areas Management Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
Copy location: NSDEL
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Library of Ecological Research and Scientific Papers on Protected Areas
contains copies of peer-reviewed and published ecological research and scientific papers
about protected areas. The Database index requires MS Access software. Intended to
provide up to date, relevant information to aid in decision making, policy development,
and management of protected areas in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Cameron, R. 2005. Protected areas research metadata database, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Nova Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and Natural Areas Management
Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
Copy location: NSDEL
185
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Protected Areas Research Data is a collection of reports, papers, miscellaneous
data, and a descriptive database for field data collected by researchers licensed to conduct
research in Nova Scotia Protected Areas. MS Excel software is required to view the
descriptive element. Protected Areas Research Data is used to track data collected in
Nova Scotia Protected Areas.
Cameron, R. P. 2004. Resource Guide and Ecological Atlas: for Conducting Research
in Nova Scotia’s Wilderness Areas and Nature Reserves: Environment and Labour
Technical Report 0401. Environment and Labour, Protected Areas Branch: Nova Scotia.
120pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: This guide provides information for researchers who are considering
conducting research in Nova Scotia’s Wilderness Areas and Nature Reserves. The
document contains ecological information as well as a summary of ecological data
available on each Protected Area. The Guide is divided in two sections: Wilderness Areas
and Nature Reserves. Each of the two sections has a summary of ecological information
by Protected Area followed by specific information for each Protected Area.
How to apply for a Research Licence to conduct research in a protected area is outlined in
Appendix I.
Carey, A. B. Effects of new forest management strategies on squirrel populations.
Pacific Northwest Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, Olympia, Washington 98512
USA. 10: 248-257pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Two strategies for managing forests for multiple values have achieved
prominence in debates in the Pacific Northwest: (1) legacy retention with passive
management and long rotations, and (2) intensive management for timber with
commercial thinnings and long rotations. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus),
Townsend’s chipmunks (Tamias townsendii), and Douglas’ squirrels (Tamiasciurus
douglasii) were studied retrospectively in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests
managed under the alternative strategies in the Puget Trough of Washington. Flying
squirrels were twice as abundant under legacy retention as under intensive management
for timber, almost as abundant as in old-growth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)
forests on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, but <50% as abundant as in old-growth
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Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon. Chipmunks were four times as abundant under
intensive timber management, as under legacy retention, but less abundant than in oldgrowth forests. Abundance of Douglas’ squirrels did not differ between strategies.
Neither strategy produced the increased abundance of all three species that is an emergent
property of late-seral forests. A third strategy holds promise: active, intentional
ecosystem management that incorporates legacy retention, variable-density thinning, and
management for decadence.
Carey, A. B. 1995. Sciurids in Pacific Northwest managed and old-growth forests. 5:
648-661pp.
Abstract: An understanding of the factors governing sciurid abundance in the Pacific
Northwest is essential for prescribing forest management practices for second-growth
forests where recovery of Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) populations and enhancement
of biodiversity are objectives. We compared results of companion studies of sciurids in
western Washington and Oregon and examined patterns of abundance in relation to
habitat elements on the Olympic Peninsula to elucidate governing factors and make
recommendations for forest management. Regional contrasts show that Glaucomys
sabrinus and Tamias townsendii in Douglas-fir forests in Oregon are 4 times more
abundant than in western hemlock forests in Washington, and dietaries of Glaucomys,
and the fungal communities that provide its food, are more diverse in Oregon than in
Washington. Glaucomys sabrinus in old forests are 2 times more abundant than in young,
managed forests without old -forest legacies (large live trees, large snags and large,
decaying fallen trees); populations in young forests with old-forest legacies and with
understory development may equal those in old growth. On the Olympic Peninsula,
Glaucomys sabrinus abundance can be predicted by density of large snags and
abundance of ericaceous shrubs. At least seven large snags/ha and well-distributed
patches of dense shrubs (cover within patches gt 24% and patches covering 40% of the
total area) are necessary for high densities of Glaucomys sabrinus. Abundance of Tamias
townsendii reflects size of dominant tree and well-developed understories. Abundance
of Tami asciurus douglasii seems to reflect territoriality in concordance with food
supply and was greatest where Glaucomys and Tamias were low in abundance. Patterns
of abundance of the sciurids in old- and managed forests suggests that silvicultural
manipulation of vegetation and creative snag or dentree management could be used in a
management strategy to accelerate the development of Spotted Owl habitat in areas
where old growth is lacking.
Carey, A. B, J. Kershner, B. Biswell, D. Dominguez, and L. Toledo. 1999. Ecological
scale and forest development: Squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed
and unmanaged forests. 0: 1-71pp.
187
Abstract: Understanding ecological processes and their spatial scales is key to managing
ecosystems for biodiversity, especially for species associated with late-seral forest. We
focused on 2 species of squirrel (Sciuridae: northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus,
and Townsend'
s chipmunk, Tamias townsendii) in a cross-sectional survey of managed
and natural stands in southwestern Oregon during 1985-89. We measured vegetation and
abundances of squirrels at >2,000 points in 19 stands in 3 seral stages. We described the
diets of the squirrels in the stands. We analyzed data at point, stand, and stage scales to
identify key processes contributing to biodiversity and scales at which emergent
properties (synergistic effects) appeared. Four factors (crown-class differentiation,
decadence, canopy stratification, and understory development) accounted for 63% of
variance in vegetation structure. Decadence contributed to variation mostly in late -seral
forest. Within stands, most habitat variables were poorly correlated. Across stands many
variables were highly correlated, suggesting forests developed emergent properties above
the point level but at or below stand level (16 ha). Plant species composition was
summarized by 21 vegetation site types. Stands had 7-19 site types arrayed in fine
scale (point and groups of points 40 m apart). Site types were used to measure habitat
breadth (within-stand heterogeneity resulting from disturbance and forest development).
Vegetation structure varied on a 0.5 -ha scale. Stand-level characteristics were more
influential than nominal seral stage for a variety of organisms. Late-seral forests were
more moist and complex with greater habitat breadth than 40-70-year-old managed
stands. Structural factors, moisture-temperature gradient values (MGV), and habitat
breadth were used to describe the habitat space potentially available to squirrels.
Correlations between squirrels and habitat variables within stands were low. Linear
regressions explained <20% of the within-stand variance in squirrel captures, but logistic
regressions correctly classified 74 and 88% of the points according to usage (used,
not used) by flying squirrels and chipmunks, respectively Compared to available habitat
space, the realized habitat of flying squirrels had high decadence and complex canopies.
The realized habitat of chipmunks had complex canopies and large, dominant trees.
Overall, chipmunks were less selective than flying squirrels and used 83% of the habitat
space compared to 59% by flying squirrels. Among stands, variance in carrying capacity
of flying squirrels was best explained (70%) by decadence, habitat breadth, and MGV
For chipmunks, decadence and canopy stratification provided the best model (72% of
variance explained). Both squirrels had mycologically diverse diets; richness was
correlated with decadence and canopy stratification. Major dietary fungi were associated
with woody debris. Flying squirrels had higher carrying capacities and overlap among
foraging patches of individuals, but smaller foraging patches, in late-seral forest than in
managed stands. Squirrels were more abundant in late-seral forest than in managed
forests. Abundance in some stands deviated markedly from the stage mean-stand
character was more influential than nominal seral stage. The 4 structural factors each
represented an important ecological process; decadence and canopy stratification
apparently had profound influences on other life forms. Carefully timed variable-density
thinnings could accelerate crown-class differentiation, canopy stratification, and
understory development and increase habitat breadth. Management of decadence is more
problematic and may require various interventions, including inducing decay in live trees,
conserving biological legacies from previous stands, and ensuring recruitment of coarse
woody debris.
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Carey, A. B. and M. L. Johnson. 1995. Small mammals in managed, naturally young,
and old-growth forests. 5: 336-352pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Forest managers in the Pacific Northwest are faced with new challenges of
providing for all wildlife in managed forests. Our objective was to elucidate the factors
governing the composition and biomass of forest floor mammal communities that are
amenable to management. We sampled small mammal communities in forests of various
management histories on the Olympic Peninsula and contrasted our results with those of
other large studies in the Pacific Northwest. Forest floor mammal communities in forests
gt 35 yr old in the Western Hemlock Zone of Washington and Oregon are composed of 58 characteristic species. These include Sorex trowbridgii (numerically the most
dominant); one species each of Clethrionomys vs, the Sorex vagrans complex, and
Peromyscus; and Neurotrichus gibbsii. Species composition changes from south to north,
and the communities on the Olympic Peninsula contain two or three additional species
compared to communities to the south. Communities in naturally regenerated and
clearcutting regenerated (managed) young forests are similar in composition to those in
old growth; old growth, however, supports 1.5 times more individuals and biomass than
managed forest. Community diversity seems related to the south-north moisturetemperature gradient that is reflected in increased diversity of canopy conifers,
development of forest floor litter layers, accumulation of coarse woody debris, and
abundance of herbs, deciduous shrubs, and shade-tolerant seedlings (as opposed to
understories dominated by evergreen shrubs). Previous work found few habitat variables
that were good predictors of species abundance in natural young and old-growth stands.
Naturally regenerated young stands had higher levels of coarse woody debris than old
growth. Managed stands had much lower abundance of coarse woody debris and tall
shrubs than old growth. Understory vegetation (herbs and shrubs) and coarse woody
debris accounted for a major part of the variation in abundance of six of eight species in
managed stands, but only two species in old growth. Management of Western Hemlock
Zone forest for conservation of biodiversity and restoration of old-growth conditions
should concentrate on providing multispecies canopies, coarse woody debris, and welldeveloped understories.
Cotterill, S. E. and S.J. Hannon. 1999. No evidence of short-term effects of clearcutting on artificial nest predation in boreal mixedwood forests. 29: 1900-1910pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We examined whether nest predation in unharvested blocks of trembling aspen
(Populus tremuloides Michx.) would increase when adjacent stands were clearcut in the
boreal mixedwood forest of Alberta, in 1993, 1994, and 1998. Artificial nests placed on
the ground and in shrubs were baited with Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis L.)
and plasticine eggs, which along with cameras, were used to identify nest predators.
Fragmented sites were isolated from continuous forest by clear-cutting in 1994, while
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control sites remained unfragmented. Overall, predation on ground and shrub nests did
not increase in isolated forest patches post-harvest (p = 0.056 and p = 0.085,
respectively), nor was there a consistent effect of distance from a clearcut edge (p greater
than or equal to 0.050). Predation on ground nests was higher in 1994 and 1998
compared with 1993 levels (p < 0.001), while predation on shrub nests remained
relatively constant over the 3 years (p greater than or equal to 0.073). Mice, voles, and
red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) were the main identified predators of
ground and shrub nests, respectively. Probability of nest predation could not be
consistently predicted by nest site vegetation or adjacent land cover, but was related to
predator abundance. However, neither predators nor songbirds congregate at recent
clearcut-forest edges, and we conclude that elevated nest predation caused by clearcutting may not occur in the boreal mixedwood, at least not at current levels of harvest
and within 5 years of clear-cutting.
Dolan, B. and L. Frith. 2004. The Waterton Biosphere Reserve - FACT OR FICTION?
In Making Ecosystem Based Managament Work: Connecting managers and researchers.
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of
Protected Areas May 11-16 2003. Editors: N. Munro, P. Dearden, T. Herman, K.
Beazley, S. Bondrup-Nielson. Science and Management of Protected Areas Association:
Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: The Waterton Biosphere Reserve (WBR) is located in south western Alberta
and borders on British Columbia and Montana, USA. Waterton Lakes National Park
constitutes the protected core of the Reserve and has been recognized for its exceptional
biodiversity and scenic qualities, where the prairies meet the mountains. Waterton Lakes
is the only park or protected area in Canada to receive three international designations -part of the world’s first International Peace Park (1932), a Biosphere Reserve (1976) and
part of a World Heritage Site (1995). However, the park is relatively small and unable to
sustain wide ranging wildlife, most notably large carnivores. Additional challenges arise
in maintaining ecological processes like wildfire within the context of variable social and
economic realities. In this context, an ecosystem-based management approach has
historically been an important element of the park’s program.Waterton Lakes National
Park was the first national park in Canada to be included in a biosphere reserve. To
advance the concept, the Waterton Biosphere Association (WBA) was established in the
early 1980s, although it has been relatively inactive in recent years. As such, there has
been a perception that the Waterton Biosphere Reserve is not a functioning biosphere.
The purpose of this paper is to challenge this perception and demonstrate that an
administrative structure (i.e., WBA) is only one element of a successful biosphere
reserve.This paper presents numerous examples of how the park and various
organizations and individuals have participated in an ecosystem-based management
approach. Tangible benefits to both the park and the larger regional ecosystem,
commonly referred to as the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, are presented.
190
Dollin, P. 2004. Saproxylic Beetle Communities in Coniferous Forests of Southwest
Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: SNBR
Erickson J. L and S. D. West . 2003. Associations of bats with local structure and
landscape features of forested stands in western Oregon and Washington. 109: 95102pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Understanding the processes that underlie bat distribution and activity patterns
requires examination of habitat associations at multiple scales. We examined the
association of both local structure and landscape context with bat activity in forested
stands using ultrasonic detectors. Forty-eight stands in western Oregon and Washington
were monitored for bat activity on at least six occasions for each of two field seasons. At
the stand level, bat activity was negatively associated with tree density. The standard
deviation of tree density and the density of newly created snags were positively
associated with bat activity. In combination, these three variables explained 46% of the
total variance in bat activity among stands. Landscape-level variables did not explain any
significant variation among a subset of stands (n=22). Our study suggests that
management of forest-dwelling bats should focus primarily on structural attributes at the
stand level and the effects of these features on feeding and roosting opportunities.
Fenton, M. B. 97. Science and the conservation of bats. 78: 1-14pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: The conservation implications of some recent advances in our knowledge about
the ecology and behavior of bats are presented. A central question facing bat biologists is
the relative importances of roosts and food as limiting factors in the population biology of
bats. There is no reason to presume that the answer is the same for all species and
available data suggest intraspecific variation. This question is important for either
conservation or behavior and ecology. Eavesdropping on the species-specific
echolocation calls of bats has allowed documentation of distribution and habitat use by
some bats although variability of calls complicated this picture. Radiotracking and
surveys have produced data on use of space by bats. Although foraging areas and roosts
are vital resources for bats the association between species of bats and habitats are not
always clear. The mobility of bats and the low cost of flight together blur the link
between bats and particular habitats. Radiotracking demonstrates how mobility gives bats
access to mosaics of habitats, partly reflecting their sizes and flight characteristics, and
the scale of habitats availability. For some species, access to mosaics of habitats for
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foraging is critical. Activities by humans influence the habitats available to bats and can
generate feeding and roosting opportunities. The use that roosting bats make of buildings
is an obvious example of bats benefiting from activities of humans. Another is bats
feeding in concentrations of insects at lights. In promoting the conservation of bats, it is
important to consider people’s perceptions of these animals, which are colored by the
impact of bats on public health. Public interest in bats has vastly outstripped scientific
research about them, presenting interesting challenges and opportunities for bat biologists
Fenton, M. B, L. Acharya, D. Audet, M.B.C Hickey , C. Merriman, M.K. Obrist ,
D.M. Syme, and B. Adkins . 1992. Phyllostomid Bats (Chiroptera :Phyllostomidae) as
Indicators of Habitats Disruptions in the Neotropics . 24: 440-446pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Mist netting bats at 11 sites in the vicinity of Akumal, Mexico between 7 and
19 January 1991 produced 363 bats representing 20 species. A comparison of captures
revealed significant differences in species diversity between disturbed and undisturbed
sites (as reflected by deforestation). Species in the subfamily Phyllostominae (family
Phyllostomidae) were captured significantly more often at forested than deforested sites
and thus appeared to be useful indicators of habitat disruption. The low intensity
echolocation calls of phyllostomid bats make it unfeasible to monitor their distribution
and abundance with bat detectors.
Ferron, J. and M. Cote. 2001. Short-term use of different residual forest structures by
three sciurid species in a clear-cut boreal landscape. 31: 1805-1815pp.
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: We compared the abundance of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
Erxleben), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus Shaw), and eastern chipmunk
(Tamias striatus L.) in three types of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) residual
forest 3 to 5 years after logging (upland strips, riparian strips, and forest blocks) in central
Quebec, Canada. Controls consisted of mature forest undisturbed by forestry practices.
Despite their sporadic occurrence, northern flying squirrels and eastern chipmunks were
captured in the three residual forest types as well as in control sites. Red squirrels
inhabited all types of residual forest and no differences in densities were found between
residual forest treatments and controls. Juvenile recruitment, return rate (survival), and
body mass were also similar for red squirrels in all treatments. However, midden
abundance was higher in controls and blocks than in strips. In the short term, red squirrel
populations maintain themselves in all types of residual black spruce forests after
logging. The northern flying squirrel and the eastern chipmunk appear to tolerate the
presence of logging disturbances and are present at low density in the different types of
residual forests.
192
Freedman, B. 1991. Bibliography on Impacts of Forestry on Wildlife, with Special
Reference to the Integrity of Ecological Reserves, Submitted to Environment Canada and
ParksCanada. Dalhousie University: Department of Biology and School for Resource and
Environmental Studies. 103 .pp.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Freedman, B., A. Poirier, R. Morash, and F. Scott. 1988. Effects of the herbicide
2,4,5-T on the habitat and abundance of breeding birds and small mammals of a conifer
clearcut in Nova Scotia. 6-11pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Gomer, T. 1999. Species sensitivity to climate change in the Kejimkujik National Park
region . National Library of Canada: Ottawa. 176pp.
Copy location: 2, http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape8/PQDD_0019/MQ
49359.pdf
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: Scientists have now accepted that the effects of human induced climate change
will be realized in the next century, and may have already begun. The main objective of
this research was to identify which species in the Kejimkujik National Park region
experts believe could be most sensitive to climate change. The climate change scenario
utilized was for an average of 2°C warming and generally drier conditions. This thesis
also provides some preliminary discussion of management strategies to mitigate the
impacts of climate change on populations of these species and on natural communities
generally. The thesis explores species sensitivity to climate change through an expert
opinion survey. Opinions were gathered on which species might be sensitive (positively
or negatively) to climate change. Suggestions for potential indicator species for
monitoring ecosystem responses to climate change, and potential management strategies
for mitigating the negative effects of climate change, were also collected.
Harwood, B. N. 2005. Microsatellite Primers For Studying Structure Of The Eastern
Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis Sauritus): A Species At Risk In Nova Scotia. Acadia
University . 41pp.
Copy location: 2
193
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: The Eastern Ribbonsnake, Thamnophis sauritus is one of a suite of disjunct
species that reach the limit of their ranges in southwest Nova Scotia. As a population
found on the periphery, T. sauritus may face selective pressures that its main range
counterparts do not. Such populations are of conservation interest because of their
vulnerability and because of their potential adaptability to rapid environmental change. In
2002, the Atlantic population of Eastern Ribbonsnake was designated as “Threatened” by
COSEWIC. As a result, the Eastern Ribbonsnake presents an opportunity to study a
disjunct and peripheral population while concurrently developing a conservation plan.
To date, little is known about the ecology or population genetic structure of this species.
Prior to this study no population genetics work has been done on T. sauritus, anywhere.
Examining the genetic structure of this snake in Nova Scotia will allow us to measure the
variability and its past and present distribution. It will also help to establish the species’
susceptibility to fragmentation and isolation, and determine the appropriate scale for
management. In summer 2004 tail clippings were taken from 44 snakes in three locations
in and around Kejimkujik National Park and Historic Site. A standard phenol/chloroform
DNA extraction was used to obtain genomic DNA from these individuals. As no primers
have been developed for the Eastern Ribbonsnake, nine pairs of microsatellite primers
designed for the common garter snake, T. siritalis were tested. To date three loci have
been successfully amplified and analyzed, one of which exhibited polymorphism with
four alleles. Initial analysis of two loci, Te1Ca29 and Ts1Ca4 indicates no genetic
structure between two known populations.
Hoving, C. L., R.A. Joseph , and W. B Krohn . 2003. Recent and Historical
Distributions of Canada Lynx in Maine and the Northeast . 10: 363pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: The contiguous United States population of Canada lynx (Lynx Canadensis
Kerr) is listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. However, the
historical distribution of lynx in Northeast is poorly understood. We sued museum
records, bibliographic records, and interviews to reconstruct the past distribution of lynx
in Maine, which is at the current southern limit of species’ distribution in the eastern
United States. We found a total of 118 records, representing at least 509 lynx in Maine.
Lynx were observed throughout Maine, 1833-1912, with the exception of coastal areas.
After 1913, lynx were most common in the forests of western and northern Maine by
1999. Thirty-nine kitten representing at least 21 litters were distributed throughout
northern and western Maine, 1864-1999. Populations apparently fluctuated, and in some
years 200-300 lynx were harvested in Maine. Prior to the 1900s, lynx were much more
widely distributed in the Northeast, ranging from Pennsylvania north into Quebec.
Because Canada lynx have had a ling presence in northern New England, and at times
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were relatively common, this species merits serious consideration in conservation
planning in this region.
Johnson W. E. , A. Antunes, S. Luo, P. Austin-Smith, M.O'Brien, and S. J O’Brien .
2004. Genetic Distinctiveness of the Nova Scotia Populations of American marten,
Martes americana. 29pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: North America
Abstract: The American pine marten (Martes americana) is broadly distributed across
northern North America, but relatively little is known about patterns of genetic variation
in the maritime regions south of the St. Lawrence River. Patterns of sequence variation
in 1140 bp of the cytochrome b mitorchondrial gene and in size variation at nine
microsatellite loci were assessed in 214 American marten (Martes americana) samples
with the objective of describing the evolutionary relationship of the Nova Scotia
American marten populations, characterizing the extent and patterns of marten genetic
variation across the region, and estimating levels of gene flow between the important
marten populations. Assessment of the uniqueness of the Cape Breton population is of
special importance given its legal status as endangered under the Nova Scotia
Endangered Species Act in 2001. Cape Breton Island had severely reduced levels of both
mtDNA variation and microsatellite size variation relative to other marten populations,
consistent with either a founder event and/or recent inbreeding. The low level of
differentiation between Cape Breton and samples from Ontario and Quebec suggest that
these populations have been isolated for a relatively short time. By contrast, populations
from mainland Nova Scotia and New Brunswick showed greater genetic differentiation
and reduced levels of gene flow.
Kats, L. B. and R.P. Ferrer . 2003. Alien predators and amphibian declines: review of
two decades of science and the transition to conservation. 9: 99pp.
Abstract: Over the last two decades, numerous studies have shown that alien predators
contributed to amphibian population declines. Both experimental studies and correlative
field surveys implicated alien species of fish, bullfrogs and crayfish as major contributors
to amphibian population decline, and in some instances local extinction. Additional
studies have demonstrated that alien predators also caused long-term changes in aquatic
communities. Recent studies have examined the feasibility of removing alien predators,
and provide some evidence that amphibian populations can recover. Applying
information gained from past studies to the recovery of amphibian populations will be the
challenge of future studies. International, national and local policies that regulate alien
predators should be based largely on the body of scientific evidence already in the
literature. Scientists need to be more involved with policy-makers to most effectively
change laws that regulate alien predators.
195
MacKinnon, D. 2005. Significant Natural Areas Database, Nova Scotia, Canada - MS
Access Database. Nova Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and Natural
Areas Management Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
Copy location: NSDEL
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Significant Natural Areas Database, Nova Scotia, Canada - MS Access
Database tracks information regarding significant natural areas, including nature reserves,
wilderness areas, sites of ecological significance, and candidates, and properties
contributing to protection objectives. The database consists of several tables in which
different types of protected areas, candidates, and contributing properties are described.
To identify areas that have outstanding ecological value in Nova Scotia, and to track and
report on Nova Scotia'
s progress in land protection.
Marlin, A. 2003. Exploring Values and Attitudes Toward Wildlife and Conservation in
Central Nova Scotia: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Canadians, including Nova Scotians, claim to value wildlife and support
conservation (Filion et al., 1993; Sanderson et al., 2000; Beazley, 2000). However, once
habitat protection is proposed, conflicts arise in terms of property rights, jobs,
compensation, etc. (Boardman et al., 2000). It is necessary to obtain the cooperation of
local people if wildlife conservation initiatives are to be successful. This is especially true
in Nova Scotia where approximately 75% of the land is privately owned (Beazley, 2000).
Three-phase, in-depth, face-to-face interviews were used to explore public values and
attitudes toward wildlife and conservation in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the study
explored participants'opinions about focusing conservation efforts on the needs of
particular species, and whether they consider certain species as more motivating than
others for protection. The goal, objectives, and methods were pre-determined and
designed as part of a larger Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)funded project (Beazley, 2000). Thirty-seven members of the public from Halifax,
Avondale and Middle Musquodoboit were interviewed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Martin, K. J. and R.G. Anthony. 1999. Movements of northern flying squirrels in
different-aged forest stands on western Oregon. 63: 291-297pp.
Geographic location: USA
196
Abstract: In western Oregon, northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) are the
primary prey species for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), an old-growth
associated species. To assess differences between old-growth and second-growth habitat,
we livetrapped and radiotagged 39 northern flying squirrels to estimate their home range
sizes and describe movements in 2 old-growth and 2 second-growth conifer forest stands
in the Cascade Mountains of central Oregon. Sampling periods were summer and fall of
1991-92. Home range sizes averaged 4.9 ha and did not differ (P > 0.30) between the 2
stand types. Male northern flying squirrels had larger (P ltoreq 0.03) mean home ranges
(5.9 + 0.8 ha; x + SE; n = 20) than females (3.9 + 0.4 ha; n = 19). Northern flying squirrel
movement distances between successive, noncorrelated telemetry locations averaged 71
m (n = 1,090). No correlation was found between distances moved and stand type or sex.
Northern flying squirrel'
s home range sizes, movements, and densities were similar
between the 2 stand types. We suggest abundance and movements of northern flying
squirrels are not influencing the preferential selection of old-growth forests by northern
spotted owls.
Medellin, R. A., M. Equihua, and M. A. Amin . 2000. Bat diversity and abundance as
Indicators of Disturbance in Neotropical Rainforest . 14: 1666-1675pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Evaluating the degree of disturbance of any region to determine its relative
importance for conservation purposes required procedures that are relatively inexpensive
and that yield accurate results fast. Because bats are abundant, diverse and easy to
sample, especially in the Neotropical rainforest, they fulfill several of the requirements of
indicator species as identified in the literature. For 10 months we sampled bat
communities in the Selva Lacandona in Chiapas, Mexico, at 15 sites representing five
habitats. We also measured 10 variables representing vegetation structure and diversity at
each site. With fuzzy-set techniques we produced a gradient classification of disturbance
for the 15 sites based on the vegetation data. We explored the relationship between
vegetation condition, described as the membership degrees in the construct “fuzzy forest
set” (the complementary fuzzy set of “disturbance”), and for bat community variables.
Bat species richness, number of rare bats species, and the bat diversity index were
positively correlated with the vegetation scores, and relative abundance of the most
abundant bat species was negatively correlated with vegetation scores. A high number of
phyllostomine species in a community is a good indicator of low levels of disturbance.
Although a single indicator group will probably not be sufficient for decision-making
processes in conservation, evaluating bat populations may be a good first step in
assessing an area’s conservation value, especially in rainforests regions.
Mowrey, R. A. and J.C. Zasada. 1985. Den tree use and movements of northern flying
squirrels in interior Alaska and implications for forest management. Juneau, Alaska.
351-356pp.
197
Geographic location: North America
Patriquin, K. J. and R.M.R Barclay . 2003. Foraging by bats in cleared, thinned and
unharvested boreal forest. 40: 686-657pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Canada
Abstract: 1. Modern silvicultural methods employ various styles of selective harvesting
in addition to traditional clear-cutting. This can create a mosaic of patches with different
tree densities that may influence habitat use by foraging bats. Use of forest patches may
also vary among bat species due to variation in their manoeuvrability. Apart from studies
investigating use of clear-cuts, few have tested for differences in use of forest patches by
bats, or for differences among bat species. 2. We investigated the influence of various
harvesting regimes, which created forest patches of different tree densities, on habitat
selection by foraging bats in the boreal mixed-wood forest of Alberta, Canada. We also
tested for variation in habitat selection among species related to differences in body size
and wing morphology. 3. Over two summers we assessed habitat use by bats using
ultrasonic detectors to count the echolocation passes of foraging bats. We measured
activity in three forest types and four tree densities, ranging from intact (unharvested)
forests to clear-cuts. 4. Smaller, more manoeuvrable, species (Myotis spp.) were less
affected by tree density than the larger, less manoeuvrable, Lasionycteris noctivagans .
Two Myotis spp. Differed in their habitat use. Myotis lucifugus , an aerial insectivore,
preferred to forage along the edge of clear-cuts, while M. septentrionalis , a species that
gleans prey from surfaces, did not forage in clear-cuts but preferred intact forest. 5. The
largest species in our study, L. noctivagans , preferred clear-cuts and avoided intact
patches. There were therefore differences in habitat selection by foraging bats among the
species in our study area, and these were correlated with size and wing morphology. 6.
Synthesis and applications . Our results suggest that, in the short term, thinning has
minimal effect on habitat use by bats. They also indicate that silvicultural methods have
different immediate effects on different species of bats that may be obscured if the
community is studied as a single entity. Management for forest-dwelling bats must take
such species-specific effects into consideration. Harvesting that creates a mosaic of
patches with different tree densities is likely to satisfy the requirements of more species
than a system with less diverse harvesting styles.
Patterson, B. R. 1994. Surplus Killing of White-Tailed Deer, Odocoileus-Virginianus,
by Coyotes, Canis Latrans, in Nova-Scotia. Kejimkujik. 108: 484-487pp.
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
198
Abstract: I documented an apparent case of surplus killing of White-tailed Deer,
Odocoileus virginianus, by Eastern Coyotes, Canis latrans, in Kejimkujik National Park
Nova Scotia. A group of three to four coyotes killed a group of five female deer on the
night of 16 March 1993. With the exception of one fawn, the deer appeared to be in
excellent physical condition. Deep snow conditions probably contributed to this event.
Patterson, B. R., B.A. MacDonald, B.A. Lock, D.G. Anderson, and L.K. Benjamin.
2002. Proximate factors limiting population growth of white-tailed deer in Nova Scotia.
Kejimkujik. 66: 511-521pp.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities in Nova Scotia, Canada,
declined during the late 1980s and early 1990s. We estimated population change,
survival, and relative importance of mortality factors for deer in 2 geographic areas of
Nova Scotia from February 1994 to January 1999. Pellet-group surveys indicated that
deer densities in both study areas increased slowly (2, was approx. 1.07 and 1.05 in the
Queens County and Cape Breton study areas, respectively) during the study. Annual
survival rates of adult deer did not differ among years or between the study areas. Annual
survival rates for adult females averaged 93.9 +/- 4.3% (SE) and 80.4 +/- 3.1% within
and outside of Kejimkujik National Park, respectively, where harvest did not occur.
Annual survival rates of adult males and fawns outside of the park, where hunting
occurred, were 50.7 +/- 7.6% and 36.9 +/- 7.4%, respectively. No marked adult males or
fawns died within the park during the study (winter only for fawns). Annually, hunting
(34.2 +/- 8.2% and 8.2 +/- 2.4% for adult males and fen-tales, respectively) and predation
(7.2 +/- 5.3% and 7.5 +/- 2.3% for adult males and females, respectively) were the largest
mortality factors for adult deer. Coyote (Canis latrans) predation (27.5 +/- 8.7% during
Dec-May only) was most influential for fawns. Monte Carlo simulations involving a
model of adult survival and fawn recruitment supported the results of the deer pelletgroup inventories and suggested low but positive rates of increase for both populations.
Although predation and the unregistered harvest of adult females probably slowed the
growth of deer populations following the decline, the recent establishment of a zonebased antlerless harvest quota system should allow managers to regulate deer numbers by
annually adjusting the number of antlerless permits in response to estimates of hunting
and nonhunting losses.
Pauli, J. N, S. A. Dubay, E. M. Anderson, and S. J. Taft. 2004. Strongyloides
robustus and the Northern Sympatric Populations of Northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and
Southern (G. volans) Flying Squirrels. 40: 579-582pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: North America
199
Abstract: Within North America, northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern
(Glaucomys volans) flying squirrels occupy distinct ranges with limited overlap.
Sympatry in northern latitudes coincides with northern hardwood vegetation from
Minnesota to New England. Strongyloides robustus is an intestinal parasite that infects
both species but appears to be deleterious only to northern flying squirrels. As a result, S.
robustus could be a critical determinant of flying squirrel population characteristics in at
least some areas of sympatry. However, cold weather could potentially limit the
distribution of S. robustus in northern climates. Therefore, we assessed fecal samples
from both flying squirrel species to determine the presence of the nematode in Wisconsin.
Strongyloides robustus was found in 12 flying squirrel scat samples and infected 52% of
southern flying squirrels and 11% of northern flying squirrels. Prevalence of S. robustus
infection for northern flying squirrels was substantially lower than previously reported
from more southern regions. This is the northernmost documentation of S. robustus in
flying squirrels and the first documentation of S. robustus parasitizing flying squirrels in
Wisconsin.
Potvin, F., R. Courtois, and L. Belanger . 1999. Short-term response of wildlife to
clear-cutting in Quebec boreal forest: multiscale effects and management implications.
29: 1120-1127pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: We studied the short-term response of wildlife to clear-cutting in four blocks
(52114 km2) that were logged in 100- to 250-ha clustered patches. Surveys were
conducted, 2 years before and 2 years after logging, to determine
the relative abundance of 12 wildlife species, and telemetry data were also gathered on
four species. Small mammals, species with the smallest home ranges (£1 ha), either
remained in the clearcut patches or had replacement habitat in the buffer strips. Most
species with home ranges up to 25 ha (spruce grouse, Falcipennis canadensis Linné;
snowshoe hare, Lepus americanus Erxleben) were excluded from clearcut patches.
Species with home ranges ³5 km2 (marten, Martes americana Turton; moose, Alces alces
Linné) remained in some residual forest patches scattered throughout clearcuts and in the
adjacent uncut forest. In their home range, these two species avoided clearcut patches
where the shrub layer and coniferous regeneration were scattered. Because many wildlife
species depend on residual forest, the important issue is not the size of clearcut patches
but the extent and configuration of the remaining forest. Instead of a clustered
distribution of clearcut patches, we propose two harvest scenarios more compatible with
integrated wildlife forest management objectives on a local scale.
Reid, J. W. 2003. Public Preferences for Wildlife as a Focus for Biodiversity
Conservation in Nova Scotia.
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
200
Reuanen, P., M. Mönkkönen, and A. Nikula. 2000. Managing boreal forest landscapes
for flying squirrels. 14: 218-226pp.
Geographic location: Northern Finland
Rossolimo, T. and H. Love. 2004. Soil arthropod biodiversity sampling and evaluation
of EMAN protocol for pitfall trapping in KNP. 20 .pp.
Copy location: KNPNHS
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Sangster, C. 2005. Significant Old and Unique Forests of Nova Scotia, Canada - GIS
Database . Nova Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and Natural Areas
Management Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
Copy location: NSDEL
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Significant old and unique forests of Nova Scotia is a geographic information
systems (GIS) database covering the extent of Nova Scotia. Significant old and unique
forests are forest stands having such old-forest attributes as climax species composition
and high average height. Maps are available for 20 county or districts. This GIS database
assists in identifying areas in Nova Scotia that may require special management and/or
some measure of conservation.
Sangster, C. 2005. Significant Ecosites of Nova Scotia, Canada - GIS Database . Nova
Scotia Environment and Labour, Environmental and Natural Areas Management
Division, Protected Areas Branch : Halifax.
Copy location: NSDEL
Geographic location: Nova Scotia
Abstract: Significant Ecosites of Nova Scotia is a geographic information systems (GIS)
database covering the extent Nova Scotia. In this database, "significant ecosites" are
defined as unique, rare, and/or outstanding landform-vegetation complexes that are
atypical within a particular ecosystem or that occupy a relatively small percentage of that
ecosystem. 20 County or District area maps are available.
201
Skillen, R. R. 2005. Changes in the Distribution of Michigan Flying Squirrels-masters
thesis . 1-112pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: In light of growing concern for boreal mammalian species at the southern edge
of their range, the current and historical ranges of flying squirrels (Glaucomys) in
Michigan were examined. The available data clearly indicate a dramatic northward
advance of the southern flying squirrel (G. volans) in the Lower Peninsula and an
eastward advance in the Upper Peninsula. While northern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus)
persist in the eastern Upper Peninsula, recent intensive trapping efforts indicate that
populations may be declining in other parts of the historical range, particularly the
northern Lower Peninsula. January isotherms coinciding with the northern range limit of
the southern flying squirrel proposed by Muul (1968) and Stapp et al. (1991) appear not
be valid in Michigan. However, changes in other climatic measures more indicative of
winter severity and in the distribution of conifer forests may be influencing the recent
changes in the distribution of flying squirrels in Michigan.
Taulman, J. F. 1997. Effect of forest alterations on population dynamics, home range,
and habitat selection of the southern flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans. University of
Arkansas: Fayetteville, Arkansas. 306pp.
Geographic location: USA
Taulman, J. F. 1999. Selection of nest trees by southern flying squirrels (Sciuridae
Glaucomys volans) in Arkansas. 248: 369-377pp.
Geographic location: USA
Abstract: Natural nest-site selection was investigated in 50 radiocollared southern flying
squirrels Glaucomys volans during spring and summer, 1994-1996, in the Ouachita
National Forest of Arkansas. Squirrels nested in 226 trees in a variety of habitats at five
study areas. Contrary to previous reports describing southern flying squirrels as habitat
generalists, in this study squirrels showed selection in both the habitat and tree type in
which nests were placed. Where it was available, mature pine-hardwood forest was
selected for nesting. Young (< 15 years old) and immature (15-40 years old) pine
plantations and harvested areas were avoided as nesting habitats. At harvested study
areas, squirrels nested in protected riparian mature forest strips (greenbelt) along, and 1020 m either side of, intermittent creeks and in adjacent mature forests. Squirrels
constructed only outside nests in pine trees. In mature pine-hardwood forest, pines were
used for outside nests more frequently than hardwoods; in greenbelt habitat, pines and
hardwoods were chosen equally for outside nests. Both outside and cavity nests were
202
found in hardwoods; standing dead trees (snags) contained only cavity nests. Snags were
selected over hardwoods for cavity nesting in both mature pine-hardwood forest and
greenbelt habitat. All hardwood species and all decay classes of snags were used for
diurnal nesting in greater frequency than expected. Considering both cavity and outside
nest-site selection, pines were used less than expected. Results suggest that mature forests
are optimal flying squirrel nesting habitats and should be retained adjacent to harvested
areas to provide resources to squirrels abandoning stands after disturbance. Within
harvested areas, nesting habitat can be substantially improved through the retention of
overstory hardwoods and snags, as well as protection of mature forest strips along
drainages.
Terry, E. L., B.N. McLellan, and G.S Watts. 2000. Winter habitat ecology of
mountain caribou in relation to forest management. 37: 589-602pp.
Geographic location: British Columbia
Abstract: 1. During winter, mountain caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou live in late
successional and old-growth coniferous forests, where they feed almost exclusively on
arboreal lichens. Because some of these forests are also valuable to the forest industry,
caribou ecology and forest management remains a central conservation issue in British
Columbia. To improve our understanding of caribou habitat use in relation to forest
management, we investigated the winter habitat selection patterns of mountain caribou at
a range of spatial scales between 1988 and 1993 in the northern Cariboo Mountains,
British Columbia.2. Within winter ranges, caribou selected forest stands dominated by
subalpine fir (> 80% Abies lasiocarpa) and with moderate slopes (16-30%) during early
winter (November-December). Although stands with moderately high timber volumes
(201-300 m(3) ha(-1)) were used the most during early winter, caribou used these stands
in proportion to their availability. Caribou primarily used open-canopy subalpine fir
stands (i.e. parkland) later in the winter (January-March), where low stocking and
inoperable timber volumes (< 100 m(3) ha(-1)) reduced direct conflicts with forest
harvesting.3. Characteristics of subalpine forests at early winter caribou foraging areas
did not differ significantly from random sites for most variables measured. However, a
multivariate analysis indicated that sites used by caribou had slightly less total basal area,
more moderate slopes and slightly heavier lichen loads than unused sites.4. Within early
winter foraging areas, caribou chose foraging paths with more trees and greater
accessible lichen biomass per standing tree compared with random paths. Although
windthrown trees and lichen litterfall were encountered infrequently, caribou rarely
rejected these sources of lichen when encountered.5. The relatively low basal area (27
m(2) ha(-1)) and minor component of economically valuable Engelmann spruce Picea
engelmannii (< 20%) at early winter caribou foraging areas suggests less conflicts with
forestry compared with other caribou populations in southern British Columbia and
Idaho.6. Selection silvicultural systems may provide solutions to caribou-forestry
conflicts, particularly in mid-elevation subalpine fir stands (1325-1525 m) that may have
both operable timber volumes and high caribou numbers. Univ British Columbia, Dept
203
Anim Sci, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Minist Environm Lands & Pk, Prince
George, BC V2L 3H9, Canada.
Vasseur, L. and K. Brooks. 2000. Kejimkujik Ecosystem: A synopsis of current
research Kejimkujik Fall Conference 2000.
Copy location: Grafton Field Office or Science Centre
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Abstract: This is a summary of talks given at the Keji fall conference.
Vernes, K. 2004. Breeding Biology and Seasonal Capture Success of Northern Flying
Squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) and Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in
Southern New Brunswick . 11: 123-137pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: Fundy National Park
Abstract: Sciurids have been poorly studied in the Acadian forests of eastern North
America, yet they represent common and ecologically important members of the forest
community in the region. I gathered data on capture success and general life history traits
of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus
hudsonicus) in mature forest at Fundy National Park in southern New Brunswick,
Canada. Squirrels were livetrapped over 14 sampling periods between 1999 and 2001.
Flying squirrel capture success was considerably greater in summer and fall than in
winter and spring, while red squirrels were caught more often in spring and summer than
fall and winter. Capture success for both species was positively correlated with maximum
daily temperature. Breeding seasons of both species began with male testes developing in
winter and spring, followed by female pregnancy and lactation in late spring and summer.
Flying squirrels may have also had an additional fall breeding season in the second year
of the study. My data also suggest that G. sabrinus is smaller in eastern North America
compared with western North America, where most data pertaining to this species has
been gathered. There was no sexual dimorphism apparent in either flying squirrels or red
squirrels.
W. E. Johnson, A. Antunes, S. Luo, P. Austin-Smith, M. O'Brien, and S. J. O’Brien.
Populations of American marten, Martes americana.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: North America
204
Abstract: The American pine marten (Martes americana) is broadly distributed across
northern North America, but relatively little is known about patterns of genetic variation
in the maritime regions south of the St. Lawrence River. Patterns of sequence variation
in 1140 bp of the cytochrome b mitorchondrial gene and in size variation at nine
microsatellite loci were assessed in 214 American marten (Martes americana) samples
with the objective of describing the evolutionary relationship of the Nova Scotia
American marten populations, characterizing the extent and patterns of marten genetic
variation across the region, and estimating levels of gene flow between the important
marten populations. Assessment of the uniqueness of the Cape Breton population is of
special importance given its legal status as endangered under the Nova Scotia
Endangered Species Act in 2001. Cape Breton Island had severely reduced levels of both
mtDNA variation and microsatellite size variation relative to other marten populations,
consistent with either a founder event and/or recent inbreeding. The low level of
differentiation between Cape Breton and samples from Ontario and Quebec suggest that
these populations have been isolated for a relatively short time. By contrast, populations
from mainland Nova Scotia and New Brunswick showed greater genetic differentiation
and reduced levels of gene flow.
Waldick, R. 1994. Implications of forestry-associated habitat conversion on amphibians
in the vicinity of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick. M.Sc. thesis. Dalhousie
University: Halifax. 177 .pp.
Copy location: Greater Fundy Ecosystem Project
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Abstract: The effects of the conversion of a natural, mixed-species forest in Eastern
Canada into a managed conifer plantation was examined. The ecological conversion
resulted in changes in microclimate and physical habitat that reduce the suitability of
these sites for some species of amphibian. At the stand level, increased exposure occurred
as a result of: tree canopy removal, and degradation in the quantity and quality of leaf
litter, and large-dimension woody debris. Of the various species studied, only the
American toad (Bufo americanus) appeared to be tolerant of these habitat changes.
Conversely, the greatest influences were on the red-backed salamander (Plethodon
cinereus) and the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum). Although certain
elements of plantations become more suitable foe some amphibian species with time, the
persistence of reduced relative humidity and degraded litter quality limits other species.
Furthermore, recolonization by amphibians is also influenced by the juxtaposition of
silvicultural and natural areas over the landscape. The proximity to mixed-species forests
for immigration is particularly important. The presence of amphibians at breeding
habitats may not reflect the status of local populations or the quality of the surrounding
habitat. Consequently, terrestrial species, like Plethodontid salamanders should be used
as indicators of habitat quality. Management efforts should focus on mitigating changes
to habitat features that influence the most sensitive amphibian species (i.e., red-backed
205
salamanders). This can be accomplished by permitting sites to regenerate a variety of tree
species and retaining natural forests (large enough to support viable amphibian
populations) within plantations would ensure the presence of source populations for
recolonization.
Waldick, R., B. Freedmand, and R. Wassersug. 1999. The consequences for
amphibians of the conversion of natural, mixed-species forests to conifer plantations in
southern new brunswick. 113: 408-418pp.
Geographic location: Atlantic Canada
Wassersug, R. 2004. Habitat requirements of the northern ribbonsnake at Grafton Lake,
KNPNHS: Interim Report. Parks Canada: Halifax.
Copy location: KNPNHS
Geographic location: Kejimkujik
Water body: Grafton Lake
Abstract: This project had two major goals. The first was to characterize the basic
ecology of the Northern Ribbon Snake to find out where it lives, how it lives and when it
is above ground. The second goal was to identify the preferred hibernaculum of this
snake, with the hope that such sites can not only be protected, but also reproduced if they
are in fact a limiting resource.
Winterrowd, M. F., W.F. Gergits, K.S Laves, and P.D.Weigl . 2005. Relatedness
within nest groups of the southern flying squirrel using microsatellite and discriminant
function analyses. 86: 841-846pp.
Copy location: 2
Abstract: Genetic relationships were examined among wild-caught southern flying
squirrels (Glaucomys volans) sharing the same natural nest cavity. Under natural
conditions, typically 7580% of southern flying squirrel nest groups comprise adult-aged
individuals. The remainder nest in family-based groups or are solitary. The coefficient of
relatedness within nest groups of adult individuals and family-based nest groups was
examined through microsatellite DNA analysis. Family or adult nest groups were
identified from the age class of individual group members determined through a
discriminant function analysis based on body mass. From this information, nest groups
were categorized as family-base groups comprising a single adult female with nestlings,
adult groups comprising adult aged-individuals, or subadult nest groups. The average
coefficient of relatedness was determined in each nest group. Within the putative family
206
groups, most individuals were 1st-order relatives. In the adult nest groups, the coefficient
of relatedness was low, indicating that these individuals were unrelated. The relationships
within the subadult nest groups were intermediate. This is the 1st study to show that adult
nestmate southern flying squirrels typically are unrelated and do not nest in family-based
groups.
Zhang, Y., J.S. Richardson, and J.N. Negishi. 2004. Detritus processing, ecosystem
engineering and benthic diversity: a test of predator-omnivore interference. 73: 756766pp.
Copy location: 2
Geographic location: British Colombia
Abstract: 1. Interference between species from different functional groups may influence
ecosystem functioning and biological diversity. This study tested whether interactions
between predacious cutthroat trout and an omnivorous signal crayfish modified the
crayfish’s trophic and engineering effects within a detrital-based, stream benthic
community.2. We show in a trough experiment that omnivorous crayfish through their
trophic and engineering roles enhance detritus decomposition, reduce particulate organic
matter (POM) accumulation, and diminish diversity in leaf packs.3. In crayfish troughs
by day 30, leaf dry weight loss was 1·8-fold greater, whereas POM trapped in leaf packs
was 80% less, than of those in controls, and the abundance, biomass and taxon richness
of benthos in leaf packs were lower than those in controls. Predatory cutthroat trout did
not affect those variables and did not interfere with the crayfish.4. Crayfish and cutthroat
trout both decreased fine material sedimentation in the troughs.5. Thus, with no
interference from cutthroat trout, the signal crayfish acted as ecosystem processors and
engineers, and strongly influenced detrital processing, benthic diversity, and the
accumulation of POM and fine sediments.)
207

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