The Enjoyment of Music 11th Complete Edition

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The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
PART I
Materials of Music
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Prelude 1: Listening to Music Today
Typical places
and ways of
listening to
music
Suggested picture of
guy with mp3 player
and laptop (in Shorter
edition, p. 4, Full p. 5
Understanding
music requires
active listening
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Some Practical Suggestions
Practice listening to music
Knowledge of musical
notation is not necessary
Use Listening Guides,
Resource CD, and Glossary
Attend live music
performances!
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Attending Concerts
Recordings vs. live
concerts
Art music vs. popular
music
Pianist Lang Lang
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
To Find a Concert, Check Listings
For on-campus concerts (Music Department)
In the “weekend section” of local newspapers
College newspaper
On websites of local concert venues and musical groups
Be sure to ask for student discounts!
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Concert Program
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
1. Melody: Musical Line
“It is the melody which is the
charm of music, and it is that
which is most difficult to
produce. The invention of a
fine melody is a work of
genius.”
―Haydn
Joseph Haydn
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Defining Melody
Melody: A succession of single pitches or tones
perceived as a meaningful unity.
Newton: “Amazing Grace”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Characteristics of Melody: Contour
Strauss: Don Juan
Mozart: Piano Concerto
Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite
Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Characteristics of Melody: Range
“America”
“Greensleeves”
Strauss: Don Juan
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Characteristics of
Melody
Conjunct Movement: A smooth, connected melody
that moves principally by small intervals.
Beethoven: String Quartet No. 1
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Characteristics of
Melody
Disjunct movement: A disjointed or
disconnected melody with many leaps.
Brahms: Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, III
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Structure of
Melody
Phrase: A unit of meaning within a larger structure,
like a musical sentence.
Cadence: A resting place in a musical phrase.
Mozart: Symphony No. 40, I
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Structure of Melody
Rhyme scheme: Poetic phrases and musical phrases
generally align.
Billings: “Chester”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Structure of
Melody
Prokofiev: Violin Concerto
Countermelody: An added melody sounding
against another melody.
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
2. Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time
Rhythm: Length, or duration of individual notes.
Beat: Regular pulsation.
Accent: Beats that are stronger.
Beethoven: “Turkish March” (duple)
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time
Metrical Patterns: Simple recurring patterns,
typically 2, 3, or 4 beats grouped in a measure.
Downbeats
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
2. Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time
Simple Meter
Duple Meter
Bar Line
Measure
Triple Meter
Quadruple Meter
(Common Time)
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
2. Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time
Duple Meter
Sousa: “Stars and Stripes Forever”
Mahler: Symphony No. 1, III
Triple Meter
Purcell: Rondeau from Abdelazar
Vivaldi: The Four Seasons, Autumn
Quadruple Meter
(Common Time)
Brahms: Symphony No. 1, IV
Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time: Compound Meter
6/8
9/8
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time: Compound Meter
6/8
Corelli: Violin Sonata, Gigue
9/8
Bach: Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring
12/8
Fauré: Pelléas et Mélisande, “Sicilienne”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time
Syncopation: Deliberate disruption of pattern;
accent shifted to a weak beat or offbeat.
Borodin: Prince Igor, “Polovetsian Dances”
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Youths…”
Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time
Polyrhythm: Simultaneous use of different
rhythmic patterns.
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, “Sacrificial Dance…”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time
Additive Meter: Irregular grouping of beats in
a larger pattern.
Ravi Shankar: Bhimpalasi
Anoushka Shankar
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Time
Nonmetric: Music without a strong sense of
beat or meter.
Gregorian chant: “Alleluia, emitte spiritum”
Gregorian chant: “Venite, exsultemus domino”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
3. Harmony: Musical Space
Vertical aspect of music
Chord
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
3. Harmony: Musical Space
Scale: A collection of pitches arranged in
order.
ascending or descending
Octave
(descending)
Do ti la sol fa mi re do
8 7 6
5
4 3 2
1
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Function of Harmony
Triad: Three-note chord, do-mi-sol or 1-3-5
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Organization of Harmony
Tonic or keynote:
First note of scale (do) is “home base”
Tonality
Major tonality
Minor tonality
Diatonic harmony
Chromatic harmony
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Organization of Harmony:
Tonality
Major Tonality
Haydn: Symphony No. 94, III
Minor Tonality
Chopin: Mazurka
Quiz
Chopin: Prelude
Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 4, I
Vivaldi: Concerto for Piccolo
Haydn: Symphony No. 45, I
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Organization of Harmony
Diatonic Harmony
Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, I
Chromatic Harmony
Bach: Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue
Quiz
“Joy to the World”
Wagner: Tristan und Isolde
Haydn: Trumpet Concerto, III
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Consonance and Dissonance
Dissonance
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Youths…”
Consonance
Mendelssohn: Midsummer Night’s Dream, Nocturne
Drone
Shankar: Bhimpalasi
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
4. The Organization of Musical
Sounds
“If only the world could feel the power of
harmony.”
—W. A. Mozart
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Musical Systems
Melody and harmony function together to make a
musical system.
An octave is an important interval.
Western octave: 12 equal semitones
(half steps)
Major/minor scales: Seven pitches drawn from the
12
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Formation of Major and Minor
Scales
12 semitones make up the chromatic scale
White keys on a keyboard
Black keys on a keyboard
Two half steps = whole step
Octave
&
#
#
#
#
#
half steps
whole step
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
White Keys: C D E F G A B C
Black keys are in between the white keys
Up a scale sharp ( # )
Down a scale flat ( b )
Black key above C is C#, D is D#, etc.
Black key below D is Db, E is Eb, etc.
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Major Scale
Do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do
No black keys between E and F (mi–fa) or B and
C (ti–do)
E–F and B–C are half steps
Other white keys are a whole step apart
&
Do
re
mi
fa
sol
la
ti
do
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Major Scales Pattern
Major mode: w w h w w w h
Tonic (do)
Dominant (sol)
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Minor Scale
Minor mode: w h w w h w w
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Chromaticism
Tones foreign to a key
weaken the tonic relationship
Diatonic tones
Chromatic tones
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Other Scale Types
Non-Western
Pentatonic (five-note)
Tritonic (three-note)
Microtonal scale
Pentatonic Scale
&
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
Aspects of the Major-Minor System
Active and rest chords
Tonic triad
Dominant triad
Subdominant triad
&
1
tonic
2
3
4
subdominant
5
6
7
8(1)
dominant
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Key as a Form-Building Element
Using a new key or temporarily shifting the
tonal center
Original melody
&
Transposed melody (up a 4th)
&
b
Modulation (relative minor)
&
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Key as a Form-Building Element
Key provides musical unity
Movement from key to key creates tension
Home key provides unity
Foreign key provides variety and contrast
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
5. Musical Texture: Types of Texture
Monophony: Single-line texture, or melody
without accompaniment.
Gregorian chant: Psalm 94, “Venite, exsultemus domino”
Gregorian chant: Whitsunday Mass, “Alleluia, emitte…”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
5. Musical Texture: Types of Texture
Heterophony: Texture in which two or more
voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody
simultaneously, often the result of
improvisation.
African traditional, Gabon: “Porter’s Song”
African traditional: “Herding Song”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
5. Musical Texture: Types of Texture
Polyphony: Two or more melodic lines combined
into a multivoiced texture.
• Non-imitative polyphony (simultaneous melodies)
Rimsky-Korsakov: “Capriccio espagnol, Fandano asturiano”
Bach: Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring
• Imitative polyphony
Marenzio: “La bella ninfa mia”
Handel: Concerto Grosso in G
Bach: Concerto for Violin and Oboe, II
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
5. Musical Texture: Types of Texture
Homophony: Texture with principal melody and
accompanying harmony.
Dvořák: Symphony No. 9, II
Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
5. Musical Texture: Types of Texture
QUIZ
Monophony―Homophony ―Polyphony
American traditional: “America”
Mahler: Symphony No. 1, III
Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 21
Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 4, III
Billings: “Chester”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
5. Musical Texture: Contrapuntal
Devices
Imitation
Canon
Round
Ex.: “Row, Row, Row Your Boat”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
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The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
6. Musical Form:
Structure and Design in Music
Purcell: Rondeau from Abdelazar
Chopin: Prelude in E
Mozart: Piano Concerto, II
Beethoven: String Quartet in F
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
6. Musical Form:
Structure and Design in Music
British traditional: “Greensleeves”
Handel: Keyboard Suite No. 5
Shankar: Bhimpalasi
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
6. Musical Form:
Two-Part and Three-Part Form
Brahms: Symphony No. 1, IV
British traditional: “Greensleeves”
Dvořák: Symphony No. 9, II
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
6. Musical Form:
The Building Blocks of Form
Theme: A melodic idea used as a
building block in music.
Thematic development
Purcell: Rondeau from Abdelazar
Thematic transformation
Berlioz: Symphony fantastique
Mvt. I
Mvt. III
Mvt. II
Mvt. V
Mvt. IV
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
6. Musical Form:
The Building Blocks of Form: Theme
Sequence
Handel: Concerto Grosso, II
Purcell: Rondeau from Abdelazar
Motive
Mozart: Symphony No. 40, I
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
6. Musical Form:
The Building Blocks of Form
Call-and-response, or responsorial
African traditional: “Porter’s Song”
Gregorian chant: Whitsunday Mass
Ostinato
Couperin: “Les barricades misterieuses”
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th
Complete Edition
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
7. Musical Expression: Tempo and
Dynamics, The Pace of Music
Mozart: Abduction from the Seraglio, Overture
Handel: Sampson, “Let the Bright Seraphim”
Bach, C. P. E., Trio Sonata, I
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
7. Musical Expression: Tempo and
Dynamics, The Pace of Music
Glière: “Russian Sailor’s Dance”
Smetana: The Moldau
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
7. Musical Expression: Loudness and
Softness, Dynamics
Strauss: Don Juan
Prokofiev: Classical Symphony, III
Fauré: Pelléas et Mélisande, “Sicilienne”
Mahler: Symphony No. 1, III
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
7. Musical Expression: Moving from
One Dynamic to Another
Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2
Smetana: The Moldau
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
7. Musical Expression:
Shaping the Expressive Content of
Music
Metronome
Interpretation
Chopin: Fantasie Impromptu (rubato)
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/music/enjoyment-of-music11/complete/
The Enjoyment of Music 11th, Complete Edition

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