Anatomical Terms and Positions

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ANATOMICAL
TERMS AND
POSITIONS
Term 2
Anatomy
 The
study of the structures of the
body
Gross Anatomy

Study of features of the body or organs that can be seen with the
.
naked eye
Physiology
 The
study of the functions of the cells,
tissues, and organs of the body
THE ANATOMICAL POSITION


Upright position with
arms down at the side
and palms forward,
face front, and feet
parallel
Person is facing you,
his right is your left
The Body Planes

Imaginary vertical or
horizontal lines used
to divide the body into
section for descriptive
purposes
TRANSVERSE PLANE
as the horizon



An imaginary
horizontal line that
divides the body into
top and bottom halves
Superior refers to
anything located
above or higher
Inferior refers to
anything located
below the line
SAGITTAL PLANE




From front to back
dividing the body into left
and right
Medial – refers to
anything located toward
the midline
Lateral – refers to
anything away from the
midline
AKA – Median Plane
CORONAL PLANE




An imaginary line that divides
the body into front and back
parts
Anterior (ventral) – refers to
anything in the front or toward
the belly
Posterior (dorsal) – refers to
anything in the back section –
think dorsal fin
AKA – Frontal Plane
BODY CAVITIES
Dorsal and ventral

Two main cavities
DORSAL CAVITY


Cranial Cavity –
contains the skull
Spinal Cavity –
contains the spinal
cord
VENTRAL CAVITY
Thoracic Cavity – aka
the chest, contains the
heart, lungs, and great
blood vessels
Abdominal cavity –
Contains the organs of
digestion.
Diaphragm- separates
the thoracic from the
abdominal cavity
PELVIC CAVITY

Contains the
reproductive organs
and excretory system.
INGUINAL

Refers to the groin
which is the crease at
the junction of the
trunk with the upper
end of the thigh.
OTHER BODY CAVITIES
Cranial Cavity

Nasal Cavity

Spinal Cavity

Buccal Cavity

Orbital Cavity


ABDOMINAL QUADRANTS

Lets stop and identify
the organs in
quadrants
NINE REGION METHOD
REVIEW



What Plane?
TRANSVERSE
Above the line?
SUPERIOR
Below the line?
INFERIOR



What Plane?
SAGITTAL
Toward the midline?
MEDIAL
Away from the
midline?
LATERAL



What Plane?
CORONAL
Toward the belly or in
front?
ANTERIOR (ventral)
Toward the back or in
the back section?
POSTERIOR (dorsal)





WHAT IS THE ANATOMICAL
POSITION?
Standing so the body is
erect
Facing forward
Holding the arms at the
sides
Turning hands with the
palms toward the front
The patient is facing
you…. So his right is
your?
MAJOR BODY
SYSTEMS
The human body…

A single structure made up of billions of
smaller structures of four major kinds
CELLS


The simplest units of
living matter.
Can maintain life and
reproduce themselves.

Key terms:







Cytology
Cytoplasm
Stem cells
Somatic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells
Chromosomes
DNA
TISSUES


More complex than
cells.
A tissue is an
organization of many
cells working together
for a similar function.

Key Terms:




Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nerve tissue
ORGANS


An organization of several different kinds of
tissues.
They are arranged so they can perform a
special function.
SYSTEMS



An organization of varying numbers and
kinds of organs.
They are arranged so that together they can
perform complex functions for the body.
The 13 major system are…
Skeletal System

Major Functions:




Supports and shapes the body.
Protects internal organs.
Forms some blood cells and stores minerals.
Major Structures:



Bones
Joints
Cartilage
Muscular System

Major Functions:




Holds the body erect.
Makes movement possible.
Generates body heat.
Major Structures:


Muscles
Tendons
Cardiovascular System

Major Functions:



Blood circulates throughout body.
Transports oxygen and nutrients to cells.
Major Structures:




Heart
Arteries
Veins
Blood
Lymphatic and Immune System

Major Functions:




Protects the body from harmful substances.
Brings oxygen and nutrients to cells
Removes waste from cells.
Major Structures:



Lymph nodes
Tonsils
spleen
Respiratory System

Major Functions:



Brings oxygen into the body for transportation to
the cells.
Removes carbon dioxide and waste from body.
Major Structures:


Nose, pharynx
Lungs
Digestive System

Major Functions:



Absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream.
Eliminates solid wastes.
Major Structures:




Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestines
Urinary System

Major Functions:


Filters blood to remove waste.
Major Structures:




Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary bladder
Urethra
Nervous System

Major Functions:



Coordinates the reception of stimuli.
Transmits messages throughout the body.
Major Structures:



Nerves
Brain
Spinal cord
Special Senses

Major Functions:



Receive visual and auditory information.
Transmits information to the brain.
Major Structures:


Eyes
Ears
Integumentary System

Major Functions:



Protects the body against invasion of bacteria.
Regulates the body temperature.
Major Structures:


Skin
Sweat glands
Endocrine System

Major Functions:


Integrates all body functions.
Major Structures:





Adrenals
Gonads
Pancreas
Thymus
Pituitary
Reproductive System

Major Functions:


Produces new life.
Major Structures:


Male: penis, testicles
Female: Vagina, ovaries, uterus
Pathology
vs Etiology

Pathology is the study of the nature and
cause of disease that involves change in
structure and function .

Etiology is the study of the cause of
disease.
DISEASE TRANSMISSION


What is a pathogen?
What is
contamination?

Identify ways that
diseases are
transmitted:






DISEASE OUTBREAK

Endemic:

Epidemic:

Pandemic:

LETS LOOK AT SOME OF THE DISEASE
AND DISORDERS LISTED IN THE
CHAPTER.
Student Workbook Learning
Exercises Answer Key
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Chapter 2 Answers
Matching Word Parts 1
2.1. adip/o
2.2. anter/o
2.3. aden/o
2.4. -ologist
2.5. -ology
Matching Word Parts 2
2.6. cyt/o
2.7. cephal/o
2.8. caud/o
2.9. exo2.10. endo-
Chapter 2 Answers
Matching Word Parts 3
2.11. poster/o
2.12. -stasis
2.13. path/o
2.14. -plasia
2.15. hist/o
Definitions
2.16. nosocomial
infection
2.17. dominant gene
2.18. abdominal cavity
2.19. medial
2.20. adult stem
Chapter 2 Answers
Definitions
2.21. phenylketonuria
2.22. adenitis
2.23. parietal peritoneum
2.24. gene
2.25. histology
Chapter 2 Answers
Matching Regions of the Thorax and Abdomen
2.26. epigastric region
2.27. umbilicus region
2.28. hypochondriac
region
2.29. hypogastric region
2.30. iliac region
Chapter 2 Answers
Which Word?
2.31. inguinal
2.32. genetics
2.33. epidemiologist
2.34. exocrine glands
2.35. inferior
Spelling Counts
2.36. mesentery
2.37. hemophilia
2.38. hypertrophy
2.39. epithelial
2.40. anomaly
Chapter 2 Answers
Matching Pathology of
Tissue Formation
2.41. dysplasia
2.42. anaplasia
2.43. hyperplasia
2.44. hypoplasia
2.45. aplasia
Term Selection
2.46. proximal
2.47. posterior
2.48. frontal
2.49. midsagittal
2.50. distal
Chapter 2 Answers
Sentence Completion
2.51. Down syndrome
2.52. physiology
2.53. thoracic
2.54. iatrogenic
2.55. chromosomes
Word Surgery
2.56. aden, -ectomy
2.57. endo-, -crine
2.58. hist, -ologist
2.59. retro-, periton, -eal
2.60. path, -ologist
Chapter 2 Answers
Word Surgery
2.61. eti-, -ology
2.62. home/o -stasis
2.63. pan-, dem, -ic
2.64. epi-, gastr, -ic
2.65. idi/o, path, -ic
Clinical Conditions
2.66. epidemic
2.67. functional
2.68. bloodborne
2.69. cytology
2.70. vector-borne
Chapter 2 Answers
Clinical Conditions
2.71. quadrant
2.72. waterborne
2.73. pelvic
2.74. peritonitis
2.75. geneticist
Chapter 2 Answers
2.76. iliac
2.77. genome
2.78. adenocarcinoma
2.79. loose
2.80. fetal alcohol
syndrome
Chapter 2 Answers
Challenge Word Building
2.81. myoplasty
2.82. myalgia
2.83. gastrosis
2.84. laryngitis
2.85. myectomy
2.86. gastralgia
2.87. laryngectomy
2.88. nephrosis
2.89. neuroplasty
2.90. nephritis
Chapter 2 Answers
Labeling Exercises
2.91. hypochondriac
2.92. umbilical
2.93. hypogastric
2.94. lumbar
2.95. iliac
2.96. midsagittal
2.97. anterior
2.98. lateral
2.99. posterior
2.100. frontal
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