Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

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Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vol. 62, No. 25, Suppl D, 2013
ISSN 0735-1097/$36.00
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.028
Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension
D. Dunbar Ivy, MD,* Steven H. Abman, MD,y Robyn J. Barst, MD,z Rolf M. F. Berger, MD,x
Damien Bonnet, MD,jj Thomas R. Fleming, PHD,{ Sheila G. Haworth, MD,# J. Usha Raj, MD,**
Erika B. Rosenzweig, MD,z Ingram Schulze Neick, MD,# Robin H. Steinhorn, MD,yy
Maurice Beghetti, MDzz
Aurora, Colorado; New York, New York; Groningen, the Netherlands; Paris, France; Seattle, Washington;
London, United Kingdom; Chicago, Illinois; Davis, California; and Geneva, Switzerland
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease in newborns, infants, and children that is associated with significant
morbidity and mortality. In the majority of pediatric patients, PH is idiopathic or associated with congenital heart
disease and rarely is associated with other conditions such as connective tissue or thromboembolic disease.
Incidence data from the Netherlands has revealed an annual incidence and point prevalence of 0.7 and 4.4 for
idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 2.2 and 15.6 for pulmonary arterial hypertension, respectively,
associated with congenital heart disease (CHD) cases per million children. The updated Nice classification for PH
has been enhanced to include a greater depth of CHD and emphasizes persistent PH of the newborn and
developmental lung diseases, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The
management of pediatric PH remains challenging because treatment decisions continue to depend largely on
results from evidence-based adult studies and the clinical experience of pediatric experts. (J Am Coll Cardiol
2013;62:D117–26) ª 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can present at any age from
infancy to adulthood. The distribution of etiologies in children is quite different than that of adults, with a predominance
of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and
PAH associated with congenital heart disease (APAH-CHD)
(1–5). In pediatric populations, IPAH is usually diagnosed
in its later stages due to nonspecific symptoms. Without
appropriate treatments, median survival rate after diagnosis
of children with IPAH appears worse when compared with
that of adults (6). Therapeutic strategies for adult PAH have
not been sufficiently studied in children, especially regarding
potential toxicities, formulation, or optimal dosing, and
appropriate treatment targets for goal-oriented therapy in
children are lacking. Nevertheless, children with PAH are
currently treated with targeted PAH drugs and may benefit
from these new therapies. This review provides an overview of
recent information regarding the current approach and diagnostic classification of PAH in children as based on discussions and recommendations from the Pediatric Task Force of
the 5th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension
(WSPH) in Nice, France (2013).
From *Pediatric Cardiology, Children’s Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado
School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; yPediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Children’s
Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado;
zColumbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York;
xCentre for Congenital Heart Diseases, Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children’s
Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; kCentre de Référence Malformations Cardiaques Congénitales
Complexes, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de
Paris, Pediatric Cardiology, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France; {Department of
Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; #Great Ormond Street
Hospital, London, United Kingdom; **Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois
at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; yyDepartment of Pediatrics, University of California
Davis Children’s Hospital, Davis, California; and the zzPediatric Cardiology Unit,
University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. The University of Colorado School of
Medicine has received consulting fees for Dr. Ivy from Actelion, Bayer, Gilead, Eli
Lilly, Pfizer, and United Therapeutics. The University Medical Center Groningen
has received consulting fees for Dr. Berger from Actelion, Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline,
Lilly, Novartis, and Pfizer. Dr. Berger has performed consultancies for Actelion,
Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and United Therapeutics. Dr.
Bonnet has received lecture and consulting honoraria from Actelion, Eli Lilly, Pfizer,
and Bayer. Dr. Fleming has served as a consultant to Actelion and Pfizer. Dr.
Haworth has received consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline. Dr. Rosenzweig has
received research grant support from Actelion, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Eli Lilly,
Bayer, and United Therapeutics; and consulting honoraria from United Therapeutics
and Actelion. The University of California has received consulting fees for Dr.
Steinhorn from Ikaria and United Therapeutics, and she has served as an unpaid
consultant to Actelion. Dr. Beghetti has served as an advisory board member for
Actelion, Bayer, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and Pfizer; has received grants
from Actelion and Bayer; has receiving lecture fees from Actelion, Bayer, and Pfizer;
has developed educational materials for Actelion and Pfizer; and has receiving
consulting fees from Actelion, Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Novartis. All
other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of
this paper to disclose.
Manuscript received October 15, 2013; accepted October 22, 2013.
Definition
The definition of PH in children is the same as that in adults.
Similar to adults, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is
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Ivy et al.
Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension
excluded in the definition of PH.
Absolute pulmonary artery pressure falls after birth, reaching
APAH-CHD = pulmonary
levels that are comparable to adult
arterial hypertension
values within 2 months after
associated with congenital
heart disease
birth. After 3 months of age in
term babies at sea level, PH is
AVT = acute vasodilator
testing
present when the mean pulmoCHD = congenital heart
nary pressure exceeds 25 mm Hg
disease
in the presence of an equal disHPAH = hereditary
tribution of blood flow to all
pulmonary arterial
segments of both lungs. This
hypertension
definition does not carry any
IPAH = idiopathic pulmonary
implication of the presence or
arterial hypertension
absence of pulmonary hypertenPAPm = mean pulmonary
sive vascular disease (PHVD).
artery pressure
In particular, PVR is important
PH = pulmonary
in the diagnosis and managehypertension
ment of PHVD in children with
PHVD = pulmonary
CHD.
hypertensive vascular
disease
In defining the response to
acute vasodilator testing (AVT),
PPHN = persistent
pulmonary hypertension of
it is critical to initially determine
the newborn
the purpose of the test for the
PVR = pulmonary vascular
care of the individual child.
resistance
Three separate situations may be
SVR = systemic vascular
evaluated. First, AVT is critical
resistance
for determining possible treatment with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in patients
with IPAH. Second, AVT may be helpful in the assessment
of operability in children with CHD. Third, AVT may aid
in assessing long-term prognosis. There is no drug standard
for AVT in pediatrics; however, inhaled nitric oxide (dose
range 20 to 80 parts per million) has been used most
frequently and is advised if available for this purpose
(3,4,7–11). In the child with IPAH, a robust positive
response during AVT may be used to determine whether or
not treatment with a CCB may be beneficial. Use of the
modified Barst criteria, which is defined as a 20% decrease
in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm) with normal
or sustained cardiac output and no change or decrease in the
ratio of pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance (PVR/
SVR) has been associated with a sustained response to
CCBs (12). Although generally used in adult settings,
evaluation of the Sitbon criteria (e.g., a decrease in PAPm
by 10 mm Hg to a value <40 mm Hg with sustained cardiac
output) has not been studied adequately in children with
IPAH to determine if these criteria are appropriate,
in particular with regard to long-term response (13). In
assessing operability in CHD, there is no established
protocol for AVT or proven criteria for assessing the response with respect to either operability or long-term
outcomes (level C). Although many studies have evaluated
retrospective criteria for operability, such as PVR/SVR
(9,14), there is no solid evidence to support the absolute mean pulmonary pressure, PVR index, or PVR/SVR
Abbreviations
and Acronyms
JACC Vol. 62, No. 25, Suppl D, 2013
December 24, 2013:D117–26
in response to AVT that determines operability with
adequate sensitivity and specificity to predict a favorable
long-term outcome. The preponderance of data used for
evaluation of operability includes baseline hemodynamics
and clinical characteristics (15). In assessing prognosis in
IPAH and repaired CHD, AVT may be predictive. The
Barst and Sitbon criteria have each been shown to be of
predictive value in IPAH in children and adults (12,16,17).
Classification
As a modification of the past Dana Point classification (18),
the Nice clinical classification of PH further highlights aspects
of pediatric disorders, especially in regard to childhood
disorders that may be increasingly encountered by specialists
treating adults with PH (Table 1). Children with PH who
were diagnosed in the neonatal through adolescent age ranges
are now surviving into adulthood; thus, a common classification is required to facilitate transition from pediatric to adult
services. In addition, goals for improving pediatric classification systems include the need for clarification of disease
phenotype, encouraging new thinking on causation
and disease pathobiology, enhancement of diagnostic evaluations, improvements in correlations of phenotype and therapeutic responsiveness, and enhancement of clinical trial
design. As a result, the Pediatric Task Force recommended
several changes for implementation in the WSPH meeting
proceedings.
In particular, the Nice classification now includes additional novel genetic disorders causing PAH, including those
related to mutations in the following genes: SMAD 9, caveolin 1 (19), potassium channel KCNK3 (20), and T-box 4
(small patella syndrome) (21).
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
(PPHN), due to its particular anatomic and physiological
nature, has been moved to a separate subcategory in group
1 to emphasize unique aspects of its timing of onset
immediately after birth, time course, and therapeutic strategies. In group 2, congenital and acquired left heart inflow
and outflow tract obstruction has been added (22). Lesions
in this category include pulmonary vein stenosis, cor triatriatum, supravalvular mitral ring, mitral stenosis, subaortic
stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta
associated with an increased left ventricular end-diastolic
pressure. In group 3, developmental lung diseases have
been emphasized due to growing recognition of the
important role of abnormal lung vascular growth in the
pathogenesis of PH and impaired lung structure in these
disorders (Table 2). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
(CDH) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (Fig. 1)
have been highlighted due to their relative frequency and
the critical role of PH in determining survival and longterm outcomes (23–25). Several other developmental
disorders, such as surfactant protein deficiencies and alveolar
capillary dysplasia, are now included as relatively rare but
important causes of PH (Table 2). In the neonate, these
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December 24, 2013:D117–26
Table 1
Updated Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension*
1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension
1.1 Idiopathic PAH
1.2 Heritable PAH
1.2.1 BMPR2
1.2.2 ALK-1, ENG, SMAD9, CAV1, KCNK3
1.2.3 Unknown
1.3 Drug and toxin induced
1.4 Associated with:
1.4.1 Connective tissue disease
1.4.2 HIV infection
1.4.3 Portal hypertension
1.4.4 Congenital heart diseases
1.4.5 Schistosomiasis
10 Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis
10 0 . Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)
2. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease
2.1 Left ventricular systolic dysfunction
2.2 Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
2.3 Valvular disease
2.4 Congenital/acquired left heart inflow/outflow tract obstruction and
congenital cardiomyopathies
3. Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia
3.1 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
3.2 Interstitial lung disease
3.3 Other pulmonary diseases with mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern
3.4 Sleep-disordered breathing
3.5 Alveolar hypoventilation disorders
3.6 Chronic exposure to high altitude
3.7 Developmental lung diseases
4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)
5. Pulmonary hypertension with unclear multifactorial mechanisms
5.1 Hematologic disorders: chronic hemolytic anemia, myeloproliferative
disorders, splenectomy
5.2 Systemic disorders: sarcoidosis, pulmonary histiocytosis,
lymphangioleiomyomatosis
5.3 Metabolic disorders: glycogen storage disease, Gaucher disease, thyroid disorders
5.4 Others: tumoral obstruction, fibrosing mediastinitis, chronic renal failure,
segmental PH
*Modified as compared with the Dana Point classification. Reprinted with permission from
Simonneau G, Gatzoulis MA, Adatia I. Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62:D34–41.
BMPR2 ¼ bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II; CAV1 ¼ caveolin 1; ENG ¼ endoglin;
KCNK3 ¼ potassium channel K3; PAH ¼ pulmonary arterial hypertension; PH ¼ pulmonary
hypertension; PPHN ¼ persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
latter disorders often present with severe or lethal PH and
must be specifically evaluated to provide appropriate diagnosis and management. In group 5, the category of segmental PH has been added to PH with unclear
multifactorial mechanisms. Examples of segmental PAH
include pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect
and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries and branch
pulmonary arterial stenosis of variable severity.
The Nice classification has also been modified with regard
to PAH associated with CHD (Table 3). Type 1 includes
patients with classic Eisenmenger syndrome with right-toleft shunting and systemic desaturation. Type 2 includes
patients with CHD and significant PHVD with normal
resting saturation. The shunts may be either operable or
inoperable but are characterized by increased PVR. Type 3
includes PAH with coincidental CHD, which includes
small atrial or ventricular septal defects that do not cause
severe PAH and follow a course similar to IPAH. Finally,
post-operative PAH (type 4) includes patients with repaired
Table 2
D119
Developmental Lung Diseases Associated With
Pulmonary Hypertension
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD)
ACD with misalignment of veins
Lung hypoplasia (“primary” or “secondary”)
Surfactant protein abnormalities
Surfactant protein B (SPB) deficiency
SPC deficiency
ATP-binding cassette A3 mutation
thyroid transcription factor 1/Nkx2.1 homeobox mutation
Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia
CHD of any type who develop PHVD. The task force also
recognized lesions in which pulmonary vascular disease is
likely, but the specific criteria for PH are not met, and thus
are not included in the Nice clinical classification. This
includes patients with single ventricle physiology who have
undergone bidirectional Glenn or Fontan-type procedures
(26). In this setting of nonpulsatile flow to the pulmonary
arteries, PAP may not be >25 mm Hg; however, significant
pulmonary vascular disease can lead to a poor outcome (27).
It is anticipated that these recommended changes in the
classification of PH will prove to be useful in the diagnostic
evaluation and care of patients and design of clinical trials in
pediatric PH.
Etiology
Current registries have begun to examine the etiology
and outcome of pediatric PH. In children, idiopathic
PAH, heritable PAH, and APAH-CHD constitute the
majority of cases, whereas cases of PAH associated with
connective tissue disease are relatively rare (1–4,28). Large
registries of pediatric PH, including the TOPP (Tracking
Outcomes and Practice in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension) registry (4) and the combined adult and pediatric
U.S. REVEAL (Registry to Evaluate Early and LongTerm PAH Disease Management) registry, have been
described (3). Of 362 patients with confirmed PH in the
TOPP registry, 317 (88%) had PAH, of which 57%
were characterized as IPAH or hereditary PAH (HPAH)
and 36% as APAH-CHD (4). PH associated with respiratory disease was also noted, with BPD reported as the
most frequent chronic lung disease associated with PH.
Only 3 patients had either chronic thromboembolic PH
or miscellaneous causes of PH. Chromosomal anomalies
(mainly trisomy 21) or syndromes were reported in 47 of
the patients (13%) with confirmed PH. Many factors may
contribute to PH associated with Down syndrome, such
as lung hypoplasia, alveolar simplification (which may
be worse in the presence of CHD), CHD, changes in
the production and secretion of pulmonary surfactant,
Ivy et al.
Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension
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Pulmonary Vascular Disease in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Figure 1
From Mourani PM, Abman SH. Curr Opinion Pediatr 2013;25:329–37. SMC ¼ smooth muscle cell.
elevated plasma levels of asymmetric dimethyl arginine,
hypothyroidism, obstructive airway disease, sleep apnea,
reflux, and aspiration (29–31).
Another large registry for pediatric PH has been reported
from the nationwide Netherlands PH Service (32). In this
registry, 2,845 of 3,263 pediatric patients with PH
had PAH (group 1), including transient PAH (82%) and
progressive PAH (5%). The remaining causes of PH
included lung disease and/or hypoxemia (8%), PH associated with left heart disease (5%), and chronic thromboembolic PH (<1%). The most common causes of transient
pulmonary hypertension were PPHN (58%) and APAHCHD (42%). In the progressive PAH cases, APAHCHD (72%) and IPAH (23%) were common causes.
Down syndrome was the most frequent chromosomal disorder (12%), a rate similar to that observed in the TOPP
registry. Thus, early registry reports of children with PH
provide important insights into the spectrum of pediatric
PH; however, these data are likely limited or biased by the
nature of referrals and the clinical practice of PH centers
participating in the registries (33).
Epidemiology and Survival
Although the exact incidence and prevalence of PH in
pediatric population are still not well known, recent registries have described estimates of incidence and prevalence in
Table 3
Clinical Classification of Congenital Heart Disease
Associated With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
1. Eisenmenger Syndrome
2. Left to right shunts
Operable
Inoperable
3. PAH with co-incidental CHD
4. Post-operative PAH
Definition of PAH based on mean PAP >25 mm Hg and PVR >3 Wood units m2.
children with PAH. In the Netherlands registry, the yearly
incidence rates for PH were 63.7 cases per million children.
The annual incidence rates of IPAH and APAH-CHD
were 0.7 and 2.2 cases per million, respectively. The point
prevalence of APAH-CHD was 15.6 cases per million. The
incidences of PPHN and transient PH associated with
CHD were 30.1 and 21.9 cases per million children,
respectively (32). Likewise, the incidence of IPAH in the
national registries from the United Kingdom was 0.48 cases
per million children per year, and the prevalence was 2.1
cases per million (34).
Prior to the availability of targeted PAH therapies,
a single-center cohort study showed that the estimated
median survival of children and adults with IPAH were
similar (4.12 vs. 3.12 years, respectively) (35). Currently,
with targeted pulmonary vasodilators, the survival rate has
continued to improve in pediatric patients with PAH.
Patients with childhood-onset PAH in the combined adult
and pediatric U.S. REVEAL registry demonstrated 1-, 3-,
and 5-year estimated survival rates from diagnostic catheterization of 96 4%, 84 5%, and 74 6%, respectively
(3). There was no significant difference in 5-year survival
between IPAH/FPAH (75 7%) and APAH-CHD (71 13%). Additionally, a retrospective study from the United
Kingdom has shown the survival in 216 children with IPAH
and APAH-CHD (1). The survival rates of IPAH were
85.6%, 79.9%, and 71.9% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively,
whereas APAH-CHD survival rates were 92.3%, 83.8%,
and 56.9% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. In a separate
report of IPAH from the United Kingdom, survival at 1, 3,
and 5 years was 89%, 84%, and 75%, whereas transplant-free
survival was 89%, 76%, and 57% (34). Reports from the
Netherlands have shown 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of 87%,
78%, and 73%, respectively, for patients with progressive
PAH (36). Although overall survival has improved, certain
patients, such as those with repaired CHD and PHVD,
remain at increased risk (1,32,36,37).
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December 24, 2013:D117–26
Figure 2
D121
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Diagnostic Work-Up
#If a reliable test cannot be obtained in a young child and there is a high index of suspicion for underlying lung disease, the patient may require further lung imaging. {Children
7 years of age and older can usually perform reliably to assess exercise tolerance and capacity in conjunction with diagnostic work-up. AVT ¼ acute vasodilator testing; CHD ¼
congenital heart disease; CT ¼ computed tomography; CTA ¼ computed tomography angiography; CTD ¼ connective tissue disease; CTEPH ¼ chronic thromboembolic
pulmonary hypertension; CXR ¼ chest radiography; DLCO ¼ diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; ECG ¼ electrocardiogram; HPAH ¼ heritable pulmonary arterial
hypertension; PA ¼ pulmonary artery; PAH ¼ pulmonary arterial hypertension; PAPm ¼ mean pulmonary artery pressure; PAWP ¼ pulmonary artery wedge pressure; PCH ¼
pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis; PEA ¼ pulmonary endarterectomy; PFT ¼ pulmonary function test; PH ¼ pulmonary hypertension; PVOD ¼ pulmonary veno-occlusive
disease; PVR ¼ pulmonary vascular resistance; RHC ¼ right heart catheterization; RV ¼ right ventricular; V/Q ¼ ventilation/perfusion; WU ¼ Wood units.
Diagnosis
Treatment Goals
A methodical and comprehensive diagnostic approach is
important because of the many diseases associated with PH.
Despite this, recent registries have shown that most children
do not undergo a complete evaluation (38–40). A modified,
comprehensive diagnostic algorithm is shown in Figure 2.
Special situations may predispose to the development of
PAH and should be considered (41).
Although many treatment goals and endpoints for clinical
trials are similar in adults and children, there are also
important differences. As in adults, clinically meaningful
endpoints include clinically relevant events such as death,
transplantation, and hospitalization for PAH. Further
parameters that directly measure how a patient feels, functions, and survives are meaningful and include functional
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Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension
class and exercise testing; however, there are no acceptable
surrogates in children. Although World Health Organization (WHO) functional class is not designed specifically
for infants and children, it has been shown to correlate
with 6-min walk distance and hemodynamic parameters
(1–3,32,34). Further, WHO functional class has been
shown to predict risk for PAH worsening and survival in
pediatric PH of different subtypes. Although not validated,
a functional class designed specifically for children has been
proposed (42). Pediatric PAH treatment goals may be
divided into those that are for patients at lower risk or
higher risk for death (Table 4). As in adults, clinical evidence
of right ventricular failure, progression of symptoms, WHO
functional class 3/4 (3,34,36,43), and elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels (44–46) are recognized to be associated
with higher risk of death. In children, failure to thrive has
been associated with higher risk of death (3,34). Abnormal
hemodynamics are also associated with higher risk, but the
values found to be associated with higher risk are different
than those for adults. Additional parameters include the
ratio of PAPm to systemic artery pressure, right atrial
pressure >10 mm Hg, and PVR index (PVRI) greater than
20 Wood units m2 (16,43). In recent pediatric PAH
outcome studies, baseline 6-min walk distance was not
a predictor of survival, neither when expressed as an absolute
distance in meters nor when adjusted to reference values
expressed as z-score or as percentage of predicted value
(1,34,36,46,47). Serial follow-up of cardiac catheterization
in pediatric PH may be beneficial. Maintenance of
Figure 3
JACC Vol. 62, No. 25, Suppl D, 2013
December 24, 2013:D117–26
a vasoreactivity has been shown to correlate with survival
(3,12,16). Indications for repeat cardiac catheterization in
children with PH include clinical deterioration, assessment
of treatment effect, detection of early disease progression,
listing for lung transplant, and prediction of prognosis.
However, it must be emphasized that cardiac catheterization
should be performed in experienced centers able to manage
potential complications such as PH crisis requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (40,48–50). Noninvasive
endpoints to be further evaluated in children include pediatric
functional class as well as z-scores for body mass index (3,34),
echocardiographic parameters such as the systolic to diastolic
duration ratio (51), tissue Doppler indexes (52–54), eccentricity index (52), tricuspid plane annular excursion (52,55),
and pericardial effusion. Pediatric reference values for
cardiopulmonary exercise testing in association with outcome
are needed (56,57). Development of assessment tools for daily
activity measures may be valuable in determining treatment
goals. Initial magnetic resonance imaging parameters are
promising (58), and pulsatile hemodynamics such as pulmonary arterial capacitance (59,60) require further validation.
Novel parameters, such as fractal branching (61), proteomic
approaches (62,63), and definition of progenitor cell populations (64–66) are under active study.
Treatment
The prognosis of children with PAH has improved in the
past decade owing to new therapeutic agents and aggressive
World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension 2013 Consensus Pediatric IPAH/FPAH Treatment Algorithm*
*Use of all agents is considered off-label in children aside from sildenafil in Europe. **Dosing recommendations per European approved dosing for children. See text for
discussion of use of sildenafil in children in the United States. CCB ¼ calcium channel blocker; ERA ¼ endothelin receptor antagonist; HPAH ¼ hereditary pulmonary arterial
hypertension; inh ¼ inhalation; IPAH ¼ idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; IV ¼ intravenous; PDE-5i ¼ phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor; SQ ¼ subcutaneous.
Ivy et al.
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treatment strategies. However, the use of targeted pulmonary PAH therapies in children is almost exclusively based
on experience and data from adult studies, rather than
evidence from clinical trials in pediatric patients. Due to the
complex etiology and relative lack of data in children with
PAH, selection of appropriate therapies remains difficult.
We propose a pragmatic treatment algorithm based on the
strength of expert opinion that is most applicable to children
with IPAH (Fig. 3). Treatment of PPHN has recently
been reviewed (67,68).
The ultimate goal of treatment should be improved
survival and allowance of normal activities of childhood
without the need to self-limit. The Nice pediatric PH
treatment algorithm was modeled from the 2009 consensus
adult PH treatment algorithm and current pediatric experience (69). Background therapy with diuretics, oxygen,
anticoagulation, and digoxin should be considered on an
individual basis. Care should be taken to not overly decrease
intravascular volume due to the pre-load dependence of the
right ventricle. Following the complete evaluation for all
causes of PH, AVT is recommended to help determine
therapy.
In children with a positive AVT response, oral CCBs may
be initiated (12,70). Therapy with amlodipine, nifedipine, or
diltiazem has been used. Because CCBs may have negative
inotropic effects in young infants, these agents should be
avoided until the child is older than 1 year of age. In the
child with a sustained and improved response, CCBs may be
continued, but patients may deteriorate, requiring repeat
evaluation and additional therapy. For children with
a negative acute vasoreactivity response or in the child with
a failed or nonsustained response to CCBs, risk stratification
should determine additional therapy (Table 4). Although
the specific number of lower- or higher-risk criteria to drive
therapeutic choices is not yet known, a greater proportion of
either should be considered as justification for therapy.
Similar to adults, determinants of higher risk in children
include clinical evidence of right ventricular failure, progression of symptoms, syncope, WHO functional class III or
IV, significantly elevated or rising B-type natriuretic peptide
levels, severe right ventricular enlargement or dysfunction,
Table 4
and pericardial effusion. Additional hemodynamic parameters that predict higher risk include a PAPm to systemic artery pressure ratio >0.75 (16), right atrial pressure
>10 mm Hg, and PVRI greater than 20 Wood units m2
(43). Additional high-risk parameters include failure to
thrive. In the child with a negative acute vasoreactivity
response and lower risk, initiation of oral monotherapy is
recommended. Treatment of choice is an endothelin
receptor antagonist (bosentan [43,71–77], ambrisentan
[78,79]) or phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor (sildenafil
[80–86], tadalafil [87,88]). The STARTS-1 (Sildenafil in
Treatment-Naive Children, Aged 1–17 Years, With
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension) and STARTS-2 sildenafil trials have received recent regulatory attention and were
actively discussed at the WSPH meeting. STARTS-1 and
STARTS-2 were worldwide randomized (stratified by
weight and ability to exercise), double-blind, placebocontrolled studies of treatment-naive children with PAH. In
these 16-week studies, the effects of oral sildenafil monotherapy in pediatric PAH were studied (84). Children with
PAH (1 to 17 years of age; 8 kg) received low- (10 mg),
medium- (10 to 40 mg), or high- (20 to 80 mg) dose sildenafil or placebo orally 3 times daily. The estimated mean
standard error percentage change in pVO2 for the low-,
medium- and high-doses combined versus placebo was
7.7 4.0% (95% CI: 0.2% to 15.6%; p ¼ 0.056). Thus,
the pre-specified primary outcome measure was not statistically significant. Peak VO2 only improved with the
medium dose. Functional capacity only improved with
high dose sildenafil. PVRI improved with medium- and
high-dose sildenafil, but mean PAP was lower only with
medium-dose sildenafil. As of June 2011, 37 deaths had
been reported in the STARTS-2 extension study (26 on
study treatment). Most patients who died had IPAH/
HPAH and baseline functional class III/IV disease; patients
who died had worse baseline hemodynamics. Hazard ratios
for mortality were 3.95 (95% CI: 1.46 to 10.65) for high
versus low dose and 1.92 (95% CI: 0.65 to 5.65) for
medium versus low dose (83). Review of these data by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the
European Medicines Agency (EMA) resulted in disparate
Pediatric Determinants of Risk
Lower Risk
Determinants of Risk
Higher Risk
No
Clinical evidence of RV failure
No
Progression of symptoms
Yes
No
Syncope
Yes
Yes
Growth
Failure to thrive
I,II
WHO functional class
III,IV
Minimally elevated
SBNP/NTproBNP
Significantly elevated Rising level
Echocardiography
Severe RV enlargement/dysfunction
Pericardial Effusion
Hemodynamics
Systemic CI <2.5 l/min/m2
mPAP/mSAP >0.75
RAP >10 mm Hg
PVRI >20 WU$m2
Systemic CI >3.0 l/min/m2
mPAP/mSAP <0.75
Acute vasoreactivity
D123
D124
Ivy et al.
Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension
recommendations. Sildenafil was approved by the EMA in
2011 (10 mg 3 times daily for weight <20 kg and 20 mg
3 times daily for weight >20 kg), with a later warning on
avoidance of use of higher doses. In August 2012, the FDA
released a warning against the (chronic) use of sildenafil for
pediatric patients (ages 1 to 17 years) with PAH.
Children who deteriorate on either endothelin receptor
antagonist or PDE5 inhibitor agents may benefit from
consideration of early combination therapy (add-on or up
front). If the child remains in a low-risk category, addition of
inhaled prostacyclin (iloprost [10,89–91], treprostinil
[11,92]) to background therapy may be beneficial. It is
crucial to emphasize the importance of continuous repeat
evaluation for progression of disease in children on any of
these therapies. In children who are higher risk, initiation of
intravenous epoprostenol (l1,12,70,90,93–96) or treprostinil
(96,97) should be strongly considered. Experience using
subcutaneous treprostinil is increasing as well (98). In the
child deteriorating with high-risk features, early consideration of lung transplant is important.
Atrial septostomy may be considered in the child with
worsening PAH despite optimal medical therapy but should
be considered before the later stages with increased risk (99).
Features of a high-risk patient for this procedure include
high right atrial pressure and low cardiac output. Atrial
septostomy may be considered as an initial procedure or
before consideration of lung transplant. Surgical creation of
a palliative Potts shunt (descending aorta to left pulmonary
artery) has been described as a new option for severely ill
children with suprasystemic IPAH (100). Serial reassessment of the response to targeted PAH agents remains
a critical part of the long-term care in children with PH.
Future clinical trials designed specifically for pediatric
patients with PH are essential to further optimize therapeutic guidelines.
Conclusions
The incidence and prevalence of IPAH are lower in children than adults. The Nice classification incorporates the
growing population of children with developmental lung
diseases, such as BPD and CDH. Recent treatment strategies in children have improved their prognosis over the
past decade since the introduction of new therapeutic
agents, although almost all are based on experience and
cohort studies rather than randomized trials. Future pediatric studies are required for development of specific
treatment strategies and clinical endpoints for children
with PH.
Reprint requests and correspondence: Dr. Dunbar Ivy, Pediatric
Cardiology, Children’s Hospital Colorado, 13123 East 16th
Avenue, B100, Aurora, Colorado 80045. E-mail: [email protected]
childrenscolorado.org.
JACC Vol. 62, No. 25, Suppl D, 2013
December 24, 2013:D117–26
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Key Words: congenital heart disease
hypertension.
-
pediatrics
-
pulmonary
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