Course: BIOL 211 (2)
Instructor: Dr. Waldman
Iowa State University
**Look at book questions and Mastering Biology for extra practice!!
Exam 3 Review (Practice Exam 2)
1.) True or False: Fungi are more closely related to plants than they are to animals.
Identify the two growth forms of fungi.
a. Chytrids & zygomycetes
b. Hyphae and mycelia
c. Mycelia and chytrids
d. Yeasts and mycelia
3.) Which of the following fungi are parasitic?
c. Athlete’s foot fungus
d. Mycorrhizal fungi
4.) Fungi are some of the only organisms that breakdown 2 particular compounds. What are
a. Cellulose and Lignin
b. Cellulose and starch
c. Lignin and starch
d. None of the above
5.) Biologists divide fungi into 4 different groups based on _________.
a. The amount of surface area offered by the mycelia
b. Their distinctive reproductive structures
c. The different environments where groups of fungi live
d. Whether fungi reproduce sexually or asexually
6.) Which of the following statements are true about fungal spores?
a. They are the most fundamental reproductive cell in fungi
b. They are the dispersal stage in the fungal life cycle
c. They are resistant to drying out
d. All the above are true
7.) Using the known traits and lifestyle patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF),
select the most likely AMF association from the choices below.
a. A Glomeromycota species whose hyphae network extends between, and not into,
root ells of plants in cool soils high in phosphorus
b. A zygomycete species whose hyphae extend between, and not into, root cells of
trees in warm, low-phosphorus soils
c. A Glomeromycota species whose hyphae grow into the root cells of grassland
plants in warm, low-phosphorus soils
d. A zygomycte species whose hyphae grow into the root cells of northern birch
1060 Hixson-Lied Student Success Center 515-294-6624 [email protected] http://www.si.iastate.edu
8.) Why do fungi carry out extracellular digestion?
a. Fungi cannot produce digestive enzymes and can absorb only amino acids and
b. Simple sugars and amino acids cannot cross the cell membranes of fungal hyphae
without first being digested
c. Fungi depend on mutualistic relationships with plants to obtain nutrients
d. Only small molecules can diffuse across the plasma membranes of hyphae.
Macromolecules must first be broken down.
9.) Which group of fungi is largely aquatic?
10.) Briefly describe the experiment testing if mycorrhizal fungi are mutualistic, including
the 2 treatments, their predictions, & results.
11.) Name and define the 4 types of reproductive structures, and give the name of the fungi
lineages that posses each structure.
12.) Chytrids and Zygomycetes form a polytomy, while Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are
monophyletic. What does this mean for each group?
13.) Almost all green algae and land plants are ______________.
14.) What are some common characteristics between green algae & land plants?
a. Chloroplasts with double membrane and chlorophylls a & b
b. Synthesize starch
c. Cell wall composed of cellulose
d. All of the above
Seedless vascular plants were the dominant plants during the __________ period.
16.) Which pair of morphological traits is used to define the three categories into which
land plants are classified?
a. Where plants appear in the fossil record, and the closeness of their phylogenetic
b. Whether or not they produce flowers, and whether or not their seeds developed in
c. Which habitats the plants colonize, and which photosynthetic pigments they
d. Whether or not the plants contain vascular tissue, and whether or not they produce
Which of the following statements about seed plants is true?
a. Angiosperms have more species diversity that other taxa of land plants
b. Seed plants lack vascular tissue
c. Gymnosperms have more species diversity than other taxa of land plants
d. Angiosperms produce “naked seeds”
18.) Which major evolutionary trends in green plants are supported by the order in which
distinct plant taxa are found in the fossil record?
a. A distinct break from algae lineages and continued dependence on moisture for
b. Nonvascular and vascular plants arising independently from separate taxa of
c. The evolution of land plants from green algae, and the gradual evolution of traits
that reduce the dependence of land plants on wet environments
d. The steady development in the ability of land plants to produce increasingly
19.) One of the challenges of living on land is desiccation. What structure did plants evolve
to overcome this challenge?
d. Spores encased in sporopollenin
20.) Plants also need to take in CO2 from the atmosphere for photosynthesis but this waxy
substance also prevents the exchange of gases. What structure found in modern plants is
the solution to this problem?
d. Spores encased in sporopollenin
Ovaries develop into _______________, while ovules develop into ______________.
a. Fruit, seeds
b. Seeds, fruit
c. Both become fruit
d. Both become seeds
What is the difference between tracheids and vessel elements?
23.) For the chart below, fill in the columns with the lineages belonging to each group + 1
Seedless Vascular Plant
Gymnosperms & Angiosperms
24.) What are the 2 key synapomorphies that all seed plants share?
25.) The gametophyte is the multicellular _______________ stage and the sporophyte is the
multicellular _________________ stage.
a. Gametes are produced by ______________ while the sporophyte produces spores
26.) Fill in the table below.
Dominant stage in
27.) What is a pollination syndrome? Give an example.
28.) What is double fertilization? Which group (general) uses it?
29.) The stamen of a flower consists of the ______________, where microsporangia are
produced and a filament. A carpel consists of an _____________, which contains ovules
where megapsores develop.
30.) Which of the following about viruses is true?
a. They rely on a host (obligate)
b. They contain cells
c. They are considered organisms
d. They manufacture their own ATP, amino acids, and nucleotides
31.) A(n) ___________________ is when a disease rapidly infects a large number of
individuals over a widening area, but a __________________ is worldwide.
32.) How do enveloped viruses differ from nonenveloped viruses?
a. Enveloped viruses have a capsid whereas nonenveloped viruses do not
b. Nonenveloped viruses do not have unique shapes whereas enveloped viruses do
c. Enveloped viruses have a membrane-like outercovering whereas nonenveloped
viruses do not
d. Unlike enveloped viruses, nonenveloped viruses are too small to see with a light
33.) Which of the following is NOT a hypothesis about the origin of viruses?
a. Escaped-genes hypothesis
b. Degradation hypothesis
c. DNA world-origin hypothesis
d. RNA world-origin hypothesis
34.) Briefly describe what occurs during the lytic and lysogenic cycle.
35.) Which of the following statements concerning virus entry into cells is true?
a. Viruses must somehow bypass both the cell membrane and cell wall (if present)
to enter a cell and replicate
b. Viruses always release an enzyme called lysozyme that degrades the cell wall
c. Viruses always recognize particular cell surface molecules that allow them to
d. Viruses always enter cells through mechanical disruption, such as that caused by a