Blueprint for the South Australian Representative System of Marine

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2057.04 - BluePrint 5 art.qxd 10/11/04 3:18 PM Page 1
Blueprint for the South Australian
Representative System of
Marine Protected Areas
www.environment.sa.gov.au
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For further information please contact:
Department for Environment and Heritage
Telephone: (08) 8124 4900, or
see SA White Pages for your local
Department for Environment and Heritage office.
Online information available at: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au
© Department for Environment and Heritage
Novemeber 2004
FIS 2057.04
ISBN 1322-9354
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Foreword
South Australia’s coastal, estuarine
and marine environments are a
valuable and fragile community
resource. Our oceans sustain some
of the most biologically diverse
fauna and flora in the world, with
an estimated ninety per cent of
these species unique to southern
Australia. Effective planning and
management is crucial for the
protection and conservation of
our species and the waters they
inhabit.
The Hon. Mike Rann, MP
Premier of South Australia
The Hon. John Hill, MP
Minister for Environment and Conservation
This protection starts with the
Government of South Australia’s
commitment to the development
of the South Australian
Representative System of Marine
Protected Areas (SARSMPA). These
areas will protect and conserve
the diversity of these environments,
whilst providing for the
continuation of many existing
activities and the ecologically
sustainable use of our precious
marine resources. As a key
commitment of the recently
released Living Coast Strategy,
the development of the SARSMPA
is fundamental to ensuring that
representative samples of these
environments are protected for
the benefit of current and future
generations. The pursuit of this
goal will also see the Government
progress a number of national and
international commitments as well
as achieve a key target within the
State Strategic Plan – Creating
Opportunity through the
establishment of 19 multiple-use
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
by 2010.
The Blueprint for the South
Australian Representative System
of Marine Protected Areas
provides:
• a commitment to conserve
and protect areas of high
conservation value;
• a commitment to conserve
and protect species that are
rare, threatened or have special
needs; and
• a framework for the integrated
management of a range of
human activities (including
fishing, diving, research, tourism,
cultural and indigenous use)
whilst achieving the
conservation objectives of MPAs.
A collaborative approach from all
levels of Government, industry and
the community is required in the
planning and management of
MPAs to ensure that South Australia
achieves a world-class
representative system. Local
communities will be encouraged
to assist shape MPAs in their local
marine environment through
participating on MPA Consultative
Committees. Industry
representatives and key marine
stakeholders will be sought to
advise the Government on the
development of policy and
management frameworks to
guarantee that the broad range
of interests and resource users are
adequately consulted in any
decisions.
The State Government is pleased
to present to the community the
Blueprint for the South Australian
Representative System of Marine
Protected Areas.
The Hon. Mike Rann, MP
The Hon. John Hill, MP
Premier of South Australia
Minister for Environment and
Conservation
Blueprint for the South Australian Representative System of Marine Protected Areas - Page 1
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Introduction
South Australia’s mainland coastline extends over some 4,000 kilometres,
and our territorial waters cover over 60,000 square kilometres – both are
highly varied in their physical and biological natures.
Habitats represented include
mangrove forests, reefs dominated
by algae, kelp forests, estuaries, salt
marshes, seagrass meadows, rocky
shores, rocky reefs, mudflats and
sandy beaches. These habitats
support an extremely diverse range
of fauna and flora and
it is estimated that nearly
ninety per cent of these plants and
animals are not found anywhere
else in the world.
In 1991, the Commonwealth
Government announced the
establishment of a marine
conservation program called
Ocean Rescue 2000 to ensure
the conservation and ecologically
sustainable use of Australia’s
marine and coastal environments.
A key component of this initiative
was a commitment to establish a
National Representative System of
Marine Protected Areas (NRSMPA).
A Marine Protected Area
can be defined as:
…any area of land and/or sea
especially dedicated to the
protection and maintenance of
biological diversity and of natural
and associated cultural resources,
and managed through legal or
other effective means. (IUCN 1994)
An Intergovernmental Agreement
on the Environment (1992)
committed State, Territory and
Commonwealth Governments
to MPA establishment. This
agreement recognised that a
representative system of protected
areas is a significant strategy in
maintaining ecological processes
and systems.
What does representative mean?
A representative area is an area
that is typical of the surrounding
habitats or communities.
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A representative MPA
encompasses typical examples
of marine ecosystems.
Protecting representative areas in
MPAs, therefore, aims to protect
examples of an ecosystem. By
protecting examples of all of our
different ecosystems or habitats
we are able to conserve the
variety of life in our marine
environment.
In South Australia, there are eight
defined bioregions, or regions with
distinctive patterns of biodiversity,
that are distributed across State
waters. To include all ecosystem
types will require more than one
MPA. A common approach is to
have a network or system of MPAs,
which collectively encompasses
examples of all known types of
habitats or communities. This is
referred to as a Representative
System of MPAs.
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The Australian and New Zealand
Environment and Conservation
Council (ANZECC) released a
Strategic Plan of Action for the
NRSMPA in 1999. This document
guides the way for Australia to fulfil
its international responsibilities and
obligations as a signatory to the
Convention on Biological Diversity
and the Convention on Migratory
Species (Bonn Convention), as well
as responsibilities under bilateral
agreements for migratory birds with
Japan and China (JAMBA and
CAMBA). It also contributes to the
establishment and management
of a global representative system
of MPAs.
South Australia has a number
of marine and estuarine areas
currently protected by aquatic
reserves, rock lobster sanctuaries,
the Great Australian Bight Marine
Park and areas incorporating islands
and estuaries in conservation parks.
While these areas have some
conservation benefits, they do not in
themselves deliver a robust network
of protected areas that comply with
international best practice or
national commitments to develop
a comprehensive, adequate and
representative system.
Many significant areas for
conservation are under-represented
or not represented at all.
In recognition of the unique nature
of our marine environment and
mounting evidence of change
caused through our actions, the
Government of South Australia is
committed to conserving our marine
and estuarine biodiversity, while
providing for the ecologically
sustainable use our marine
resources.
What is biodiversity?
The variability among living
organisms from all sources, including,
terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and the ecological
complexes of which they are a part;
this includes the diversity within
species, between species and of
ecosystems. (UNEP 1994)
In 1998, Our Seas and Coasts –
A Marine and Estuarine Strategy
for South Australia was released
as a framework for integrated
management with five major
commitments: Clean Healthy Seas,
Sustainable Use, Conserving
Biodiversity and Heritage, Working
Together and Better Understanding.
The South Australian Government’s
election policies of 2002, and its
subsequent Living Coast Strategy,
provides for the protection of areas
of outstanding ecological
significance through the
establishment of a system of
multiple-use MPAs and marine parks.
This commitment has recently been
recognised in the South Australia
Strategic Plan – Creating
Opportunity (March 2004) as Target
3.5 to have 19 MPAs in place by
2010. A map detailing the proposed
focus areas for the 19 MPAs is
enclosed as Appendix II.
This Blueprint puts forth future
directions for the planning and
management of the SARSMPA.
It outlines the goal, principles,
and objectives and recognises
the critical role of the community
through a comprehensive program
for public participation.
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Goals and Objectives
The Goal and Objectives of the SARSMPA is to maintain the long-term
ecological viability and processes of marine and estuarine systems,
to conserve and protect biodiversity, acknowledging ecologically
sustainable use.
Why do we need MPAs?
Objectives of the SARSMPA
Benefits of the SARSMPA
Humans are having an everincreasing impact on natural
resources, and the marine
environment is no different.
Extractive resource industries have
grown and harvesting methods
have become more efficient.
Pollution from the land is affecting
marine ecosystems and coastal
development and population
growth has risen dramatically,
and will continue to increase
competition for space and
resources.
The SARSMPA will:
There are many benefits to
both the community and the
environment from the dedication
and management of MPAs. These
benefits depend on the location
and nature of individual areas,
but may include:
MPAs are now regarded
internationally as a critical tool
to conserve examples of our
marine realms in an undisturbed
state, much like National Parks
do on land.
Simply, MPAs are needed as an
insurance policy to guarantee
that future generations can
continue to enjoy and draw
profit from the marine
environment.
• conserve and protect
comprehensive, adequate
and representative examples
of ecosystems, habitats, species
and populations;
• conserve and protect areas
of high conservation value,
including those containing high
wilderness value, high species
diversity, natural refuges for flora
and fauna, habitats unique to
southern Australia, and habitats
containing endemic species;
• conserve and protect species
that are rare, threatened,
depleted or have special
requirements, and their
associated habitats;
• provide a monitoring framework
that will contribute to the
understanding of South
Australia’s marine environment
and enhance MPA
management; and
• provide a framework for the
integrated management of
a range of human activities
compatible with the goal,
including economic, cultural,
indigenous and social
resource use.
Page 4 - Blueprint for the South Australian Representative System of Marine Protected Areas
• protecting marine life and
habitats;
• providing opportunities for
nature-based tourism and
recreational activities, such as
snorkelling and SCUBA diving;
• enhancing local fisheries through
protecting depleted stocks and
increasing populations;
• supporting research and
education; and
• protecting cultural sites and
aesthetic values.
These benefits have the potential
to enhance social and economic
values for local and regional
communities.
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Principles for development of the SARSMPA
The following principles will guide the development of the SARSMPA:
Bioregional Framework
The SARSMPA will be developed
within a marine bioregional
framework. Eight marine bioregions
have been identified
in South Australian waters by the
ANZECC Interim Marine and Coastal
Regionalisation for Australia (IMCRA)
classification system. This provides
the framework for developing the
SARSMPA, using ecosystems as
the basis for determining
representativeness. The SARSMPA
should represent the variability of
major ecosystems and habitat types
within and between each bioregion.
All bioregions will be represented in
the SARSMPA.
MPA selection will consider the best
ecosystem representation available
having regard to overlaps that may
exist across Victorian, Western
Australian and Commonwealth
boundaries.
Comprehensiveness
The SARSMPA will include the full
range of ecosystems recognised at
an appropriate scale, within and
across each biogeographic region.
Adequacy
The SARSMPA will have the required
level of reservation to ensure the
ecological viability and integrity of
populations, species, communities
and ecological processes.
This principle recognises that
replication of reserved ecosystems
should be considered, and
acknowledges that marine
ecosystems have a high degree
of interconnectivity and
Figure 1. South Australian Marine Bioregions
interdependence between each
other and with the land.
Representativeness
Marine areas selected as MPAs will
reflect the biotic diversity of the
marine ecosystems from which they
derive.
Ecologically Sustainable Development
Ecologically Sustainable Development
(ESD) can be defined as:
Using, conserving and enhancing the
community’s resources so that
ecological processes, on which life
depends, are maintained and the
total quality of life, now and for the
future, can be increased.
The core objectives of ESD are to:
• enhance individual and
community well-being and welfare
by following a path of economic
development that safeguards the
welfare of future generations;
• provide for equity within and
between generations; and
• protect biological diversity and
maintain essential ecological
processes and life support
systems.
Related to this is the Precautionary
Principle:
Where there are threats of serious or
irreversible environmental damage,
lack of full scientific certainty should
not be used as
a reason for postponing measures
to prevent environmental
degradation.
Application of the Precautionary
Principle, to both public and private
decisions, should be guided by:
• careful evaluation to avoid,
wherever practicable, serious
or irreversible damage to the
environment; and
• an assessment of the riskweighted consequences of
various options.
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Developing a Representative System
of Marine Protected Areas
The Government of South Australia has established a target within
the State Strategic Plan of developing 19 multiple-use MPAs by 2010.
MPAs will be progressively
dedicated during this period,
commencing with the Encounter
MPA, followed by other locations
in central and western South
Australia and finally along the
southern coast.
The following key concepts
provide a framework for the
development of the SARSMPA.
Selection of MPA locations
The selection of locations of MPAs
to form part of the representative
system will use a range of criteria
and methodologies.
Primary Biogeographic,
Biophysical and Ecological Criteria
Within the bioregional framework,
MPAs will be identified primarily
according to nationally and
internationally recognised
biogeographic, biophysical,
ecological and biological criteria.
Socio-economic and Cultural
Selection Criteria
State, regional and local socioeconomic values, together with
scientific, cultural, indigenous and
other values and interests will be
identified to assist in the selection
and management planning of
the SARSMPA.
Ongoing Selection of MPAs
Multiple-use can be defined as:
The development of MPAs will use
existing data, knowledge and
resources. Future nominations of
additional areas and/or proposals
for modifications to existing MPAs
may occur, as better information
regarding marine habitat types
and distribution, ecosystem
functioning and environmental
impacts, becomes available in
the ensuing decades.
An approach that aims to achieve
integration of an acceptable
balance of outcomes across
the full range of marine uses.
(ANZECC 1999)
Nominations outside of the
SARSMPA
There are a number of MPAs
currently in South Australia, serving
a variety of purposes. A process
will be established to facilitate
the nomination of areas with
objectives that fall outside those
of the SARSMPA.
MPA Design –
A Multiple-use Approach
A basic principle in the
development of the SARSMPA is
the recognition of multiple-use
within MPAs. This approach
provides for the specific
conservation and protection of
marine and estuarine ecosystems
while also providing for the
ecologically sustainable use
of the area.
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This means that most activities,
such as recreational and
commercial fishing, will still be
allowed within an MPA boundary.
There will, however, be particular
zones, or periods of time, where
some activities will not be
permitted. This is primarily to
protect significant habitats,
species, ecological or cultural
features.
There are five zones that may
be used within a South Australian
MPA offering various levels of
protection or use. These are:
Restricted access zones are
generally the smallest component
of MPAs designed to protect and
conserve biologically significant
habitats in a pristine condition
and for scientific research.
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Sanctuary zones – also known as
‘no-take’ areas – provide a high
level of protection where the
removal or harm of plants or
animals is prohibited. Sanctuary
zones result in many benefits,
including:
• refuges for vulnerable species;
• habitat protection and habitat
recovery;
• development of natural
biological communities;
• spill over of adults and juveniles
into fishing grounds; and
• enhanced protection of
offspring which can restock
fishing grounds.
Habitat protection zones offer a
level of protection and allow for a
range of recreational and
commercial fishing activities that
do not harm habitat, interfere with
the services that habitats provide
to populations that use them,
impact significantly on fish
populations or ecological
processes.
General managed use zones allow
ongoing use of most recreational
and commercial activities,
provided that they are
ecologically sustainable and
consistent with the overall
objectives of the SARSMPA.
Special purpose zones are placed
in areas that require specific
zoning controls and management;
for example, port facilities. The
activities permitted in these zones
are dependent upon the specific
nature of the activities and
management needs.
The SARSMPA will therefore
accommodate multiple levels
of protection and use within the
total area of any particular MPA.
Levels of protection and use will
be varied through the use of
zoning and specifying permissible
activities for each area.
Legislation
A legislative framework for MPAs
will be developed for the
establishment of the SARSMPA.
This framework will include
provisions for dedication and
management of MPAs and
displaced effort. It will
complement existing legislation
including National Parks and
Wildlife Act 1972, Wilderness
Protection Act 1992, Historic
Shipwrecks Act 1981 and
Fisheries Act 1982.
Social and Economic
Considerations
The Government of South Australia
recognises that the development
of the SARSMPA may displace
existing uses in some areas,
and/or require changes to current
resource sharing arrangements.
Accordingly, careful consideration
and cooperative decisions with
local communities, relevant
industries and other stakeholders
will be required to address
economic and social impacts.
Indigenous issues
The Aboriginal community has
close ties with both the land
and sea in South Australia.
Appropriate consultation with
Aboriginal representatives will be
undertaken prior to establishing
an MPA. Aboriginal heritage
issues and activities, such as
traditional fishing rights, will be
taken into consideration during
the process of identifying MPAs
and development of zoning.
Importantly, the establishment of
an MPA will not extinguish native
title and will be consistent with
native title legislation.
Displaced commercial
fishing effort
The primary aim of MPA
development is biodiversity
conservation and not fisheries
management. Thorough planning
and pragmatic zoning of MPAs,
incorporating local community
and industry input, should ensure
that South Australia’s MPAs have
the least possible impact on
marine users. Wherever possible,
areas for higher levels of
protection will be chosen that
achieve the conservation goal
while minimising impacts on
recreational and commercial
fishers.
A means to address displaced
commercial fishing effort will be
developed as part of purposespecific legislation for the
dedication and management of
MPAs for those instances where
unavoidable conflict occurs.
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Recreational fishing
Recreational fishing is a significant
leisure activity undertaken by
many South Australians of all ages.
Advice from local recreational
fishers and key stakeholder bodies
will actively be sought during the
development and consultation
activities associated with the
zoning of MPAs. These views will
help shape MPAs and minimise
impacts on recreational fishers
while still achieving the desired
conservation outcomes.
Management and Review
Planning, management,
monitoring and review
arrangements for the SARSMPA
will be based on the principles
of integrated ecosystem
management, and consider
multiple-use activities and impacts
both within and adjacent to MPAs.
The implications of declarations on
land use planning, and any needs
for regulation or compliance by
land-based authorities, will also
be considered.
The management of specific
activities within an MPA will
be integrated through a
management plan. A range of
complementary management
techniques including monitoring
(based on performance
indicators), compliance, staff
training and education will be
employed by the management
authority as directed by legislation
and the management plan.
Management plans will be
reviewed periodically to ensure
that the objectives are met.
The management of MPAs will be
compatible with State Acts and
policies; National legislation and
Agreements; and International
Treaties and Conventions. It will
also have regard to management
plans established by
Commonwealth, State or Local
Governments. Cooperative
management agreements
between Victoria, Western
Australia and Commonwealth
Governments will also be
developed.
Management Resources
The Government recognises that
significant resources will be
required to establish, manage
and monitor the SARSMPA. An
assessment of management and
displaced commercial fishing
effort requirements will be
conducted during each draft
MPA proposal process.
Partnerships between the
community and all three levels
of Government will
be negotiated to facilitate
appropriate management.
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The Community’s Role in Developing
the SARSMPA
Establishing a comprehensive, adequate and representative system
of MPAs requires a long-term commitment to public understanding,
communication and participation.
Involving the local community in
the decision-making processes
makes for a successful MPA for
a number of reasons:
• local communities have a
vested interest in the health
and productivity of their local
marine environment;
• local communities can
contribute local knowledge
about the marine environment,
sometimes learnt from many
generations working and living
in the area; and
• if local communities have
ownership over the outcome,
they are more likely to support the
management systems that ensue.
Throughout this process, public
participation will primarily be
concerned with the:
• development of MPA zoning
proposals;
• preparation of a management
plan to establish formal
management arrangements;
• broad community
understanding of the process
and outcomes; and
• ongoing role in the
management of the MPA.
Committees
There are two types of committees
and one working group proposed
for facilitating formal community
involvement in the development
of the SARSMPA:
• Marine Advisory Committee;
MPA Consultative Committees
• short-term MPA Consultative
Committees (for individual or
grouped MPA proposals); and
Short-term MPA Consultative
Committees will assist with the
development of MPA zoning
schemes and management plans.
Membership of these committees
will be expertise based drawn from
the local community, including
industry and Local Government.
Communities will be asked to
nominate suitable persons to be
considered for MPA Consultative
Committees. The Minister for
Environment and Conservation
will appoint final membership and
the committees will have a close
working relationship with the
Department for Environment
and Heritage, as well as the
other established committees.
• Scientific Working Group.
Existing groups such as industry
bodies, Regional Development
Boards, community reference
groups, existing National Parks and
Wildlife Consultative Committees,
Natural Resource Management
Boards, Fisheries Management
Committees, Recreational Fishing
Committees and Friends of Parks
provide additional opportunities
to undertake both formal and
informal consultation during the
MPA planning process.
Marine Advisory Committee
The Marine Advisory Committee
will advise on the development
of policy and management
frameworks for MPAs with an
emphasis on integrating
environmental, social and
economic issues. The committee
will report to the Minister for
Environment and Conservation
and members will be appointed
on a skills and expertise basis.
Members must possess knowledge
and experience of a particular
function or vocational interest
relevant to the MPA program.
Scientific Working Group
The Scientific Working Group will
be drawn from people with the
necessary scientific expertise and
experience in marine conservation
and/or related disciplines and will
also report to the Minister for
Environment and Conservation.
The objective of the working
group will be to meet on an
ad-hoc basis to provide technical
and scientific support to the
development of the SARSMPA.
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Public Participation
A collaborative approach, with increased public participation
in MPA planning and management is critical for successful
MPA establishment.
Development of MPA
Proposals
Development of MPA
Management Arrangements
The objectives of public
participation are:
The purpose of public
participation is to involve the
community in the development
of MPAs via a formal consultative
committee and community
consultation program. MPA
Consultative Committees will
assist to:
This stage is primarily concerned
with establishing a formal
management framework to
ensure the MPA is managed in
accordance with the Blueprint
and to involve the community
in the development of a
management plan.
• to engage all interested parties
in zoning and management
plan development;
• document the ecological values
and potential threats;
Outcomes will be facilitated
through the existing consultative
committees, public workshops,
public meetings, release of a
draft management plan, the
implementation of community
education programs and
monitoring activities.
• document the socio-economic
benefits and potential impacts;
• determine the purpose,
principles and management
objectives for the proposed
MPA; and
• consult widely on the merits
of the proposal.
Management and monitoring of
the SARSMPA will involve on-going
consultation and collaboration
between all spheres of
government, industry and
community groups with an interest
in the marine environment.
Page 10 - Blueprint for the South Australian Representative System of Marine Protected Areas
• to inform and encourage the
community on how to have
input into the planning process;
• to encourage the community
in ongoing management of
the MPA; and
• to determine resource
partnership agreements
between the three spheres
of government, industry and
community for the management
and monitoring of the MPA.
The community will be advised
of the Government’s intent to
develop a MPA in a given area.
This will precede the call for
members of the local community
to nominate for membership of
that MPA’s Consultative
Committee to assist in the
development of a draft zoning
scheme and management plan.
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Appendix I
Summary of IUCN Guidelines for Protected
Area Management Categories
Category 1A Strict Nature Reserve: Protected Area managed
mainly for science
Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or
representative ecosystems, geological or physiological
features and/or species, available primarily for scientific
research and/or environmental monitoring.
Category 1B Wilderness Area: Protected Area managed
mainly for wilderness protection
Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land and/or
sea, retaining its natural character and influence, without
permanent or significant habitation, which is protected and
managed so as to preserve its natural condition.
Category 2
National Park: Protected Area managed mainly
for ecosystem conservation and recreation
Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to:
• protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems
for this and future generations;
• exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes
of designation of the area; and
• provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational,
recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be
environmentally and culturally compatible.
Category 3
Natural Monument: Protected Area managed
for conservation of specific natural features
Area containing one or more specific natural or
natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding value
because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic
qualities or cultural significance.
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Category 4
Habitat/Species Management Area: Protected Area
managed mainly for conservation through management
intervention
Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for
management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance
of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific
species.
Category 5
Protected Landscape/Seascape: Protected Area managed
mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation
Area of land, with coast and seas as appropriate, where the
interaction of people and nature over time has produced
an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic,
cultural and/or ecological value, and often with high
biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this
traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance
and evolution of such an area.
Category 6
Managed Resource Protected Area: Protected Area
managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural
ecosystems
Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems,
managed to ensure long-term protection and maintenance
of biological diversity, while at the same time providing a
sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet
community needs.
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Appendix II
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Glossary
Adequacy
The maintenance of the ecological viability and integrity of populations, species
and communities.
ANZECC
Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, a Ministerial Council
representing all jurisdictions, that operated until 2001.
Baseline
The territorial sea baseline is the line from which the seaward limits of Australia’s maritime
zones are measured.
Biodiversity
The variability among living organisms from all sources, including, terrestrial, marine and other
aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes the
diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
Bioregion
An area defined by a combination of biological, social and geographic criteria, rather than
by geopolitical considerations. Generally, a system of related, interconnected ecosystems.
Comprehensiveness Includes the full range of ecosystems recognised at an appropriate scale within and across
each bioregion.
Conservation
The protection, maintenance, management, sustainable use, restoration and enhancement
of the natural environment.
Ecologically
Sustainable
Development
Using, conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological processes,
on which life depends, are maintained and the total quality of life, now and for the
future, can be increased.
Ecosystem
A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living
environment interacting as a functional unit.
Endemic
Restricted to a specified region or site.
Habitat
The physical place or type of site where an organism, species or population naturally occurs
together with the characteristics and conditions which render it suitable to meet the lifecycle
needs of that organism, species or population.
IMCRA
The Interim Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia is an ecosystem based
classification for marine and coastal environments. It provides ecologically based
regionalisations at the meso-scale (100-1000 km) and at a provincial scale
(greater than 1000s km).
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IUCN
The World Conservation Union (formerly known as the International Union for the Conservation
of Nature).
Multiple-use
An approach that aims to achieve integration of an acceptable balance of outcomes across
the full range of marine uses.
Precautionary
Principle
Where there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of full scientific
certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental
degradation.
Protected Area /
Marine Protected
Area
An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of
biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through
legal or other effective means.
Replication
The principle that if more than one sample of an ecosystem is reserved across its geographic
range this will decrease the likelihood that chance events will cause the ecosystem decline.
Representativeness Those marine areas that are selected for inclusion in reserves should reasonably reflect the
biotic diversity of the marine ecosystems from which they derive.
State Waters
Australia’s Offshore Constitutional Settlement established Commonwealth, State and Territory
jurisdictions over marine areas. States generally have primary jurisdiction over marine areas to
three (3) nautical miles from the baseline.
Threatened
Species and /or
ecological
communities
A species or ecological community that is vulnerable or endangered.
Threatening
processes
The dominant limiting factors and constraints to the ongoing conservation of biodiversity.
Viability
The likelihood of long-term survival of the example/population of the particular ecosystem or
species under consideration.
Vulnerability
The predisposition of an area to a threatening process.
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Photo Credits
Front Cover
(clockwise): Leafy Seadragon (Syngnathidae Phycodurus eques) (Marine Life Society of SA); Zoanthids (Zoanthus robustus),
Baudin Rocks Conservation Park (David Murihead, Marine Life Society of SA); Sea Lion (David Murihead)
Page 2
Page 3
Nudibranch (Polyceridae Tambja verconis) (David Muirhead)
Nullabor Cliffs (DEH); Southern Right Whales (Picture courtesy of The Advertiser. Photo by C Richardson);
Lighthouse at Cape du Couedic, Flinders Chase National Park (S Baker)
Page 4
Australian Sea Lion (David Muirhead); Children swimming (Sue Gibbs)
Page 5
Southern Rock Lobster (Jasus Edwardsii)(David Muirhead); Sponge garden (Sean Connell)
Page 6
Jetty Fishing, Coffin Bay, Eyre Peninsula (SATC); Diminutive Ascidians (Clavellina moluccencis) (Marine Life Society of SA)
Page 7
Shortsnout Seahorse (Syngnathidae Hippocampus breviceps) (David Muirhead); Western Blue Groper (Labridae Achoerodus
gouldii) (Sean Connell)
Page 8
Page 9
Moonta Bay Jetty (Val Boxall); Reefwatch (Picture courtesy of The Advertiser. Photo by G Adams)
Old Wives (Enoplosus armatus) in Brown algae (Scaberia agardhii), Normanville (David Muirhead);
Beach fishing, Western Cove, Kangaroo Island (SATC)
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Kelp (Marine Life Society of SA)
Page 11
Pink Aplysilla (Aplysillidae Aplysilla rosea) (David Muirhead); Diver (David Boyle)
Page 12
Seagrass (Sean Connell); Trevally (David Muirhead, Marine Life Society of SA)
Page 14
Gogonia (David Boyle)
Page 15
Sponge (Sean Connell)
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