Cell Organelle Notes
The basic units of structure and function of living things are CELLS.
The structures that make up a cell are called ORGANELLES. While looking at a slice of cork under the
microscope, Robert Hooke discovered CELLS.
Structures and Functions of Cell Organelle
The cytoplasm looks like Jello. (a jelly like substance.
Cytoplasm is constantly moving.
The cell membrane is found in both PLANT and ANIMAL cells. It has two main jobs,
1. CHOOSE WHAT COMES IN AND OUT OF THE CELL.
2. PROVIDE A PROTECTIVE COVERING TO KEEP THE ORGANELLES INSIDE.
Examples of things that pass in and out of the cell membrane are FOOD, WATER, WASTES.
In a plant cell the cell membrane is found UNDER THE CELL WALL. THE CELL WALL IS ON THE OUTSIDE
OF A PLANT CELL.
In an animal cell the cell membrane is found ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE CELL. IT IS THE OUTER COVERING
OF AN ANIMAL CELL.
The nucleus is the control center of the cell. Inside the nucleus you will find CHROMOSOMES
Chromosomes direct all activities of the cell including HEREDITY, RECIPE FOR PROTEINS, DIRECT ALL
MAJOR ACTIVITIES FOR THE CELL.
Chromosomes are made of DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID)
The mitochondria are known as the POWERHOUSE of the cell. They provide the cell with
Ribosomes are also found in both PLANT and ANIMAL cells. Their main function is to READ THE
RECIPE FROM THE DNA TO MAKE PROTEINS. They can be found attached to the ER or floating in the
The endoplasmic reticulum or for short the E.R, is found in both PLANT and ANIMAL
cells. One of its functions is to PROVIDE TRANSPORTATION FOR THE MOVEMENT OF THE
Lysosomes are considered the CLEAN UP CREWS for the cell. They have two main
functions. One is to DIGEST OLD CELL PARTS
The other is to USE ENZYMES TO BREAK DOWN WASTE.
Vacuoles are found in PLANT and ANIMAL cells The only difference is in plant cells there is usually
only 1 LARGE vacuole. In animal cells there are more vacuoles and they are SMALLER Chloroplast
is only found in PLANT cells.
They contain green chlorophyll. Chlorophyll captures the ENERGY from the sun which helps the
plant in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Photosynthesis is the process of plants making their own
In multicellular organisms cells work together. Cells join together to form TISSUES Tissues work
together to form ORGANS. Together organs make up ORGAN SYSTEMS and organ systems make up
AN ORGANISM. One organ system in your body is the DIGESTIVE, it is responsible for DIGESTING
Therefore, the main differences between plant and animal cells are:
1. PLANT CELLS ARE MORE SQUARE SHAPED
2. PLANT CELLS CONTAIN CHLOROPLAST
3. PLANT CELLS HAVE ONE REALLY LARGE VACUOLE
4. PLANT CELLS PERFORM PHOTOSYNTHESIS
5. PLANT CELLS HAVE A CELL WALL.
6. THE OUTER COVERING OF A PLANT CELL IS THE CELL WALL. THE OUTER COVERING OF AN ANIMAL CELL
IS THE CELL MEMBRANE.