UNIT 1 CH. 4
FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND
• Science and Technology play a vital role in
food, from farming to cooking.
• Science is the study of the physical world.
• Technology is the application of scientific
• Brainstorm ways in which food has been
affected or improved by science and
WHAT IS FOOD SCIENCE
• Food Science is the study of all aspects of food
including processing, storage and preparation.
• Food science is considered a natural science,
because it uses biology, chemistry and physics, to
solve practical problems.
• Food Scientist have developed new products
through the years to keep the food supply safe.
WHAT IS FOOD TECHNOLOGY
• Food Technology is the application of food
science– the tools and techniques used in
processing, storage and preparation.
• Example: Scientist ask why does food spoil and
then develop technologies such as freeze drying
and controlled atmosphere storage to keep food
TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES IN FOOD
• Early Farming
• Relied on animal power, human labor, and handmade
tools. Then the invention of the cotton gin and the
mechanical reaper made harvesting much easier for
cotton and grain.
• Modern Advances
• Nowadays machinery does most of the work for humans.
From seeding to harvesting.
• New technologies are constantly being developed to
improve food production, processing, distribution,
packaging, and transportation.
• Climatologist are better equipped to predict weather
• Veterinarians use new vaccines and antibiotics to protect
livestock from diseases that once wiped out entire flocks.
• Processing and Distribution
• Food science helps with the creation of new foods to help
meet variety needs.
• Food Scientist are also working to make already existing foods
more nutritious or more shelf stable
• Manufactured Food- a product developed as a substitute for
• Increases choices for people on restricted diets or incomes
• Processing and Distribution
• Analogs- are foods made to imitate other foods.
• Meat and dairy analogs are made from textured soy
protein, tofu, vegetables or grains
• Formed Products- foods made from an inexpensive
food product to imitate an expensive food.
• Example- Surimi- flavored and shaped to resemble crab or
• Egg Substitute- made from egg whites.
• With the yolk removed there is little to no cholesterol and fat
• Packaging- 3 Types
• Modified Atmosphere Packaging- uses carbon dioxide,
oxygen and nitrogen to slow bacteria growth
• Aseptic Packages – (ex. juice boxes)- consist of layers of
plastic, paperboard, and aluminum foil
• Shrink Wrap- removes remaining air
• Quick Freezing-preserves food by exposing it to temps
• Genetic Engineering- genes are removed
from one organism, such as a plant, and
transferred to another organism.
• Plants and Animals that have been genetically
modified are referred to as genetically modified
• GMOs can give a plant or animal a trait or
characteristic that can make them become resist
to certain chemicals and diseases.
ADVANTAGES OF GMO’S
• May increase the food supply by helping crops
survive weed and pest damage
• Can improve the nutrition and taste of some foods
and remove substances that cause allergic
• Farmers may need to use fewer pesticides on plants
with built in resistance.
• May have a better resistance to spoilage
• Science can engineer new and better varieties of
DISADVANTAGES OF GMO’S
• May cause health problems, such as allergic
• May threaten the environment and the food supply.
• Plants that have built in pesticides may kill beneficial
insects, such as bees and butterflies.
• Causes more superweeds that resist herbicides and
also could cause harmful insects to become
immune to the pesticides used by the farmer.
• GMOs are patented by large corporations.
• Form of Genetic Engineering
• Clone- a genetic copy of an organism
• Organisms cloned include- cattle, pigs, dogs, and other
• Advantage• Scientist believe it could expand the food supply
• Critics believe it could destroy biodiversity
• Causes animal suffering
• Health defects such as inflamed brains and spinal cords
• There is a direct link to diet and health
• Better Nutrition in foods:
• Enrichment: restoring nutrients that were lost in
• Fortification: adding a nutrient that is not normally
found in a food. Ex.)Vitamin D is add to milk
• Functional Foods: foods with ingredients that offer
• Three Categories:
• Natural Whole Foods, Enhanced Foods, and Foods created
• Natural Whole Foods:
• Super Foods- foods that have antioxidants to help
• Examples: Blueberries, broccoli, salmon, garlic, and oats
• Whole Foods, or foods that have not been
processed, fir well into a healthful diet.
• Enhanced Foods:
• Foods that have had nutrients added to them to
• Examples: Fiber is added to cereal to improve digestive
health, also some orange juice has added Calcium.
• Food Created by Science:
• Food scientist create new foods with specific
• Example: Some margarines are engineered to lower
• These foods are referred to as Nutraceuticals,
they are still being studied and long term results
will be a long time to come. Do not rely on these
foods, it is better to choose a food from a natural
IMPROVING MEAL PREPARATION
• All cooks use science and technology in everyday
• By using cooking techniques, appliances and computers
• Cooking Techniques: foods are chemicals and a recipe is a
chemical formula. If the simplest ingredient or instruction is
changed, it can affect your final product
• Make meal preparation more efficient and simpler.
• Refrigerators prolong shelf life
• Changing the way cooks shop, plan and prepare meals.
• How do you think computers shape this
• Evaluate the Pros and Cons of genetic
• Explain how scientists’ discoveries about
the relationship between diet and health
may have contributed to a longer average
human life span.