LEP 5.1.07 Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg`s

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R
LEP
5.1.07
Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant
Related topics
Diffraction image of a diffraction grating; visible spectral
range; single electron atom; Bohr’s atomic model; Lyman,
Paschen, Brackett and Pfund Series; energy level; Planck’s
constant; binding energy.
Principle and task
The spectral lines of hydrogen and mercury are examined by
means of a diffraction grating. The known spectral lines of Hg
are used to determine the grating constant. The wave lengths
of the visible lines of the Balmer series of H are measured.
Equipment
Spectrum tube, hydrogen
Spectrum tube, mercury
Holders for spectral tubes, 1 pair
Cover tube for spectral tubes
Connecting cord, 50 KV, 1000 mm
Object holder, 535 cm
Diffraction grating, 600 lines/mm
High voltage supply unit, 0-10 kV
Insulating support
Tripod base -PASSBarrel base -PASSSupport rod -PASS-, square, l 400 mm
Right angle clamp -PASSStand tube
Meter scale, demo, l = 1000 mm
06665.00
06664.00
06674.00
06675.00
07367.00
08041.00
08546.00
13670.93
06020.00
02002.55
02006.55
02026.55
02040.55
02060.00
03001.00
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
Cursors, 1 pair
Measuring tape, l = 2 m
02201.00
09936.00
1
1
Problems
1. Determination of the diffraction grating constant by means
of the Hg spectrum.
2. Determination of the visible lines of the Balmer series in the
H spectrum, of Rydberg’s constant and of the energy levels.
Set-up and procedure
The experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 1. Hydrogen or mercury spectral tubes connected to the high voltage power supply unit are used as a source of radiation. The power supply is
adjusted to about 5 kV. The scale is attached directly behind
the spectral tube in order to minimize parallax errors. The diffraction grating should be set up at about 50 cm and at the
same height as the spectral tube. The grating must be aligned
so as to be parallel to the scale.
The luminous capillary tube is observed through the grating.
The room is darkened to the point where it is still possible to
read the scale. The distance 2 l between spectral lines of the
same color in the right and left first order spectra are read
without moving one’s head. The distance d between the scale
and the grating is also measured.
Three lines are clearly visible in the Hg spectrum. The grating
constant g is determined by means of the wavelengths given
in Table 1. Rydberg’s constant, and thus the energy levels in
hydrogen, are determined from the measured wavelengths by
means of Balmer’s formula.
Fig. 1: Experimental set-up to determine the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom.
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH • 37070 Göttingen, Germany
25107
1
R
LEP
5.1.07
Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant
Fig. 2: Diffraction at the grating.
2l
screen
spectral tube
2. Hydrogen spectrum
Due to collision ionization, H2 is converted to atomic hydrogen
in the spectral tube. Electrons from the H atoms are exited to
higher energy levels through collisions with electrons. When
they return to lower energy levels, the atoms emit light of frequency f given by the energy difference of the concerned states:
DE = h · f
(3)
where h is Planck’s constant.
Applying Bohr’s atomic model, the energy En of a permitted
electron orbit is given by:
d
sin a =
a
l
En = –
!êêêê
d2 + l2
1 e4me 1
8 «20 h2 n2
n = 1,2,3…
(4)
where «0 = 8.8542 · 10-34 As/Vm is the electric field constant,
e = 1.6021 · 10-19 C is the electronic charge and
me = 9.1091 · 10-31 kg is the mass of the electron at rest. The
emitted light can therefore have the following frequencies:
grating
fnm =
1
n, m = 1,2,3…
(5)
If the wave number N = l-1 is used instead of the frequency f,
substituting c = l · f one obtains:
N = Ryth
1 1n
2
–
eye
where Ryth =
Theory and evaluation
1. Diffraction grating
If light of wavelength l impinges on a grating with constant g,
it is diffracted. Intensity peaks occur when the angle of diffraction a fulfills the following condition:
n · l = g · sin a ; n = 0, 1, 2, ...
n=`
0
– 0.9
BrackettSeries
– 1.5
H« PaschenSeries
Hd
energy level
In the examples given in Table 1, the average obtained for the
three measurements of the grating constant is g = 1.672 µm.
1 e4me
= 1.097 · 107 m-1
8 «20 h3 c
eV
(1)
(2)
Ed 2 + l 2
(6)
Here Ryth is Rydberg’s constant, which follows from Bohr’s
atomic model.
Light is collected by the eye on the retina, therefore the light
source is seen in the color of the observed spectral line on the
scale in the prolongation of the light beams.
For the diffraction of the nth order, the following relation is
deduced from the geometrical structure (Fig. 2):
l
2
1
m2
n=4
n=3
Hg
Hb
Ha
– 3.4
BalmerSeries
n=2
ionization energy 13.6 eV
a
n·l=g·
2
1 e4me 1
1
–
8 «20 h3 n2 m2
Tab. 1: Determination of the grating constant from the wavelengths of the Hg spectrum
2
Color
l / nm
2 l / mm
g / µm
yellow
green
blue
578.0
546.1
434.8
330
311
244
1.680
1.672
1.661
25107
– 13.6
LymanSeries
n=1
Fig. 3: Energy level diagram of the H atom.
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH • 37070 Göttingen, Germany
R
LEP
5.1.07
Balmer series / Determination of Rydberg’s constant
n = 1 : Lyman series
Spectral range:
n = 2 : Balmer series
Spectral range:
n = 3 : Paschen series
Spectral range:
n = 4 : Bracket series
Spectral range:
n = 5 : Pfund series
Spectral range:
Notices
ultraviolet
ultraviolet till red
infrared
infrared
infrared
Fig. 3 shows the energy level diagram and the spectral series
of the H atom. For m R `, one obtains the limits of the series;
the associated energy is thus the ionization energy (or the
binding energy) for an electron in the nth permitted orbit. The
binding energy can be calculated by means of the equation:
En = –Ryth · h · c
- Next to the atomic hydrogen spectrum, the molecular H2
band spectrum may be observed if the room is sufficiently
darkened. The numerous lines, which are very close to each
other, are due to the oscillations of the molecule.
- The Hd line is situated on the border of the visible spectral
range and is too weak to be observed by simple methods.
- The treatment of more complex atoms requires quantum
mechanics. In this case, the energies of the states are determined by the eigenvalues of the hamiltonian of the atom.
For atoms similar to hydrogen, calculations yield the same
results as Bohr’s atomic model.
1
n2
where c = 2.99795 · 108 m/s and h = 6.6256 · 10-34 J s =
4.13567 · 10-15 eV s. The ground state is found to be 13.6 eV.
Tab. 2: Examples of measurements for the H spectrum
(Balmer series) Distance d = 500 mm
Line
2l
lexp
llit
Ha
Hb
Hg
Hd
384 mm
275 mm
243 mm
–
656 nm
489 nm
436 nm
–
656.28
486.13
434.05
410.17
Ryexp
nm
nm
nm
nm
1.097 · 107 m-1
1.093 · 107 m-1
1.092 · 107 m-1
–
average: Ryexp = 1.094 · 107 m-1
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH • 37070 Göttingen, Germany
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