Chapter 25: America and World War II, 1941-1945

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America
and
World War II
1941–1945
Why It Matters
The United States entered World War II unwillingly and largely unprepared. The American
people, however, quickly banded together to transform the American economy into the most
productive and efficient war-making machine in the world. American forces turned the tide in
Europe and the Pacific, and they played a crucial role in the defeat of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
The Impact Today
Many changes that began in World War II are still shaping our lives today.
• The United Nations was founded.
• Nuclear weapons were invented.
• The United States became the most powerful nation in the world.
The American Vision Video The Chapter 25 video,
“Japanese American Internment Camps,” chronicles the
treatment of Japanese Americans during World War II.
1943
• Detroit race riots
• Zoot suit riots in Los Angeles
1941
• President Roosevelt forbids racial
discrimination in defense industries
1942
• Women’s Army
Auxiliary Corps
established
• United States enters World War II
• Japanese American
relocation ordered
▲
F. Roosevelt
1933–1945
1941
▼
1941
• Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
and the Philippines
▲
▲
1942
1943
▼
1942
• Japan takes Philippines;
MacArthur vows: “I shall return.”
• Americans turn the tide in the
Pacific at the Battle of Midway
734
▼
1943
• Battle of Tarawa
• Germans defeated at
Stalingrad
• Allied forces land in Italy
Allied soldiers landing at Omaha Beach in Normandy
on D-Day—June 6, 1944
1944
• Supreme Court rules in
Korematsu v. the United States
that Japanese American
relocation is constitutional
1945
• Franklin Roosevelt dies
in office; Harry S Truman
becomes president
▲
Truman
1945–1953
▲
1944
1945
▼
▼
1944
• Eisenhower leads D-Day invasion
1945
• United States drops atomic bomb on Japan
• Battle of Leyte Gulf
• World War II ends
HISTORY
Chapter Overview
Visit the American Vision Web
site at tav.glencoe.com
and click on Chapter
Overviews—Chapter 25 to
preview chapter information.
735
Mobilizing for War
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
The United States quickly mobilized its
economy and armed forces to fight World
War II.
Organizing As you read about American
mobilization for World War II, complete a
graphic organizer like the one below by
filling in the agencies the U.S. government created to mobilize the nation’s
economy for war.
• Explain how the United States mobilized its economy.
• Describe the issues involved in raising
an American army.
Key Terms and Names
cost-plus, Reconstruction Finance
Corporation, Liberty ship, War Production
Board, Selective Service and Training Act,
disfranchise
✦1940
Government Agencies
Created to Mobilize
the Economy
✦1941
1940
Fall of France;
Selective Service Act
Franklin D. Roosevelt
December 7, 1941
Japan attacks Pearl
Harbor
Section Theme
Individual Action The success of the
United States in mobilizing for war was
due largely to the cooperation of individual American citizens.
✦1942
✦1943
1942
Women’s Army Auxiliary
Corps (WAAC) established
1943
Office of War Mobilization
(OWM) established
Shortly after 1:30 P.M. on December 7, 1941, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox phoned
President Roosevelt at the White House. “Mr. President,” Knox said, “it looks like the Japanese
have attacked Pearl Harbor.” A few minutes later, Admiral Harold Stark, chief of naval operations, phoned and confirmed the attack.
As Eleanor Roosevelt passed by the president’s study, she knew immediately something
very bad had happened:
“All the secretaries were there, two telephones were in use, the senior military aides were
on their way with messages.” Eleanor also noticed that President Roosevelt remained calm:
“His reaction to any event was always to be calm. If it was something that was bad, he just
became almost like an iceberg, and there was never the slightest emotion that was allowed to
show.”
Turning to his wife, President Roosevelt expressed anger at the Japanese: “I never wanted
to have to fight this war on two fronts. We haven’t got the Navy to fight in both the Atlantic
and Pacific. . . . We will have to build up the Navy and the Air Force and that will mean we
will have to take a good many defeats before we can have a victory.”
—adapted from No Ordinary Time
Converting the Economy
Although the difficulties of fighting a global war troubled the president, British
Prime Minister Winston Churchill was not worried. Churchill knew that victory in modern war depended on a nation’s industrial power. He compared the American economy
736
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
to a gigantic boiler: “Once the fire is lighted under it
there is no limit to the power it can generate.”
Churchill was right. The industrial output of the
United States during the war astounded the rest of the
world. American workers were twice as productive as
German workers and five times more productive than
Japanese workers. American war production turned
the tide in favor of the Allies. In less than four years,
the United States achieved what no other nation had
ever done—it fought and won a two-front war
against two powerful military empires, forcing each
to surrender unconditionally.
The United States was able to expand its war production so rapidly after the attack on Pearl Harbor in
part because the government had begun to mobilize
the economy before the country entered the war.
When the German blitzkrieg swept into France in
May 1940, President Roosevelt declared a national
emergency and announced a plan to build 50,000
warplanes a year. Shocked by the success of the
German attack, many Americans were willing to
build up the country’s defenses.
Roosevelt and his advisers believed that the best way
to rapidly mobilize the economy was to give industry
an incentive to move quickly. As Henry Stimson, the
new secretary of war, wrote in his diary: “If you are
going to try and go to war, or to prepare for war, in a
capitalist country, you have got to let business make
money out of the process or business won’t work.”
Normally when the government needed military
equipment, it would ask companies to bid for the
contract, but that system was too slow in wartime.
Instead of asking for bids, the government signed
cost-plus contracts. The government agreed to pay a
company whatever it cost to make a product plus a
guaranteed percentage of the costs as profit. Under
the cost-plus system, the more a company produced
and the faster it did the work, the more money it
would make. The system was not cheap, but it did
get war materials produced quickly and in quantity.
Although cost-plus convinced many companies
to convert to war production, others could not afford
to reequip their factories to make military goods. To
convince more companies to convert, Congress gave
new authority to the Reconstruction Finance
Corporation (RFC). The RFC, a government agency
set up during the Depression, was now permitted to
make loans to companies to help them cover the cost
of converting to war production.
American Industry
Gets the Job Done
By the fall of 1941, much had already been done to
prepare the economy for war, but it was still only partially mobilized. Although many companies were producing military equipment, most still preferred to
make consumer goods. The Depression was ending
and sales were rising. The Japanese attack on Pearl
Harbor, however, changed everything. By the summer
of 1942, almost all major industries and some 200,000
companies had converted to war production. Together
they made the nation’s wartime “miracle” possible.
ECONOMICS
Tanks Replace Cars
The automobile industry
was uniquely suited to the mass production of military equipment. Automobile factories began to
produce trucks, jeeps, and tanks. This was critical
in modern warfare because the country that could
move troops and supplies most quickly usually
History Through Art
WW II Posters War posters were designed to help encourage and inform the
American public. How would you have felt to see a poster such as this one?
Reading Check Analyzing What government policies helped American industry to produce large quantities of
war materials?
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
737
won the battle. As General George C. Marshall,
chief of staff for the United States Army, observed:
“
The greatest advantage the United States enjoyed
on the ground in the fighting was . . . the jeep and
the two-and-a-half ton truck. These are the instruments that moved and supplied United States troops
in battle, while the German army . . . depended on
animal transport. . . . The United States, profiting
from the mass production achievements of its automotive industry . . . had mobility that completely outclassed the enemy.
”
—quoted in Miracle of World War II
Automobile factories did not just produce vehicles.
They also built artillery, rifles, mines, helmets, pontoon bridges, cooking pots, and dozens of other
pieces of military equipment. Henry Ford launched
one of the most ambitious projects when he created an
assembly line for the enormous B-24 bomber known
as “the Liberator” at Willow Run Airport near Detroit.
By the end of the war, the factory had built over 8,600
aircraft. Overall, the automobile industry produced
nearly one-third of the military equipment manufactured during the war.
Building the Liberty Ships
Henry Kaiser’s shipyards more than matched Ford’s achievement in aircraft production. Kaiser’s shipyards built many
ships, but they were best known for their production
of Liberty ships. The Liberty ship was the basic
cargo ship used during the war. Most Liberty ships
were welded instead of riveted. Welded ships were
cheap, easy to build, and very hard to sink compared
to riveted ships.
When a riveted ship was hit, the rivets often came
loose, causing the ship to fall apart and sink. A welded
ship’s hull was fused into one solid piece of steel. A
torpedo might blow a hole in it, but the hull would not
come apart. A damaged Liberty ship could often get
back to port, make repairs, and return to service.
The War Production Board As American companies converted to war production, many business
leaders became frustrated with the mobilization
process. Government agencies argued constantly
about supplies and contracts and whose orders had
the highest priority.
After Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt tried to
improve the system by creating the War Production
Board (WPB). He gave the WPB the authority to set
Switching to Wartime Production
Automobiles Produced (in millions)
Automobile Production, 1941–1945
4
3,779,628
3
2
1
222,862
1941
1942
139
610
70,001
1943
1944
1945
Year
Source: Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970.
priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies. Almost
immediately, the WPB clashed with the military.
Military agencies continued to sign contracts without
consulting with the WPB. Finally, in 1943, Roosevelt
established the Office of War Mobilization (OWM)
to settle arguments between the different agencies.
Reading Check Explaining What military need led
to the production of Liberty ships?
Building an Army
Converting factories to war production was only
part of the mobilization process. If the United States
was actually going to fight and win the war, the
country also needed to build up its armed forces.
Creating an Army Within days of Germany’s attack
on Poland, President Roosevelt expanded the army
to 227,000 soldiers. After France surrendered to
Germany in June 1940, two members of Congress
Tanks Produced (in thousands)
Tank Production, 1941–1945
30
29,497
25
23,884
20
17,565
15
11,184
10
5
4,203
1941
1942
1943
1944
Year
Source: Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970.
1945
introduced the Selective Service and Training Act, a
plan for the first peacetime draft in American history.
Before the spring of 1940, college students, labor
unions, isolationists, and most members of Congress
had opposed a peacetime draft. Opinions changed
after Germany defeated France. In September
Congress approved the draft by a wide margin.
You’re in the Army Now At first the flood of
draftees overwhelmed the army’s training facilities.
Many recruits had to live in tents and use temporary
facilities. The army also endured equipment shortages. Troops carried sticks representing guns, threw
stones simulating grenades, and practiced maneuvers with trucks carrying signs that read “TANK.”
New draftees were initially sent to a reception center, where they were given physical exams and injections against smallpox and typhoid. The draftees
were then issued uniforms, boots, and whatever
equipment was available. The clothing bore the label
“G.I.,” meaning “Government Issue,” which is why
American soldiers were called “GIs.”
After taking aptitude tests, recruits were
sent to basic training for eight weeks. They
learned how to handle weapons, load backpacks, read maps, pitch tents, and dig
trenches. Trainees drilled and exercised constantly and learned how to work as a team.
After the war, many veterans complained
that basic training had been useless. Soldiers
were rushed through too quickly, and the
physical training left them too tired to learn
the skills they needed. A sergeant in Italy told
a reporter for Yank magazine that during a
recent battle, a new soldier had held up his
rifle and yelled, “How do I load this thing?”
Despite its problems, basic training helped
to break down barriers between soldiers.
Recruits came from all over the country, and
training together made them into a unit.
Training created a “special sense of kinship,”
one soldier noted. “The reason you storm the
beaches is not patriotism or bravery. It’s that
sense of not wanting to fail your buddies.”
1. Interpreting Graphs How does the number of
tanks produced relate to the number of automobiles produced in the previous graph?
2. Making Generalizations How do these two
graphs illustrate the commitment of the United
States to winning the war?
A Segregated Army
Although basic training
promoted unity, most recruits did not
encounter Americans from every part of society. At the start of the war, the U.S. military
was completely segregated. White recruits did
not train alongside African Americans.
African Americans had separate barracks,
latrines, mess halls, and recreational facilities.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
739
Once trained, African Americans were organized
into their own military units, but white officers were
generally in command of them. Most military leaders
also wanted to keep African American soldiers out
of combat and assigned them to construction and
supply units.
Pushing for “Double V” Some African Americans
did not want to support the war. As one student at a
black college noted: “The Army Jim Crows us. . . .
Employers and labor unions shut us out. Lynchings
continue. We are disenfranchised . . . and spat upon.
What more could Hitler do to us than that?” By
disfranchised, the student meant that African
Americans were often denied their right to vote.
Despite the bitterness, most African Americans
agreed with African American writer Saunders
Redding that they should support their country:
“
There are many things about this war I do not
like . . . yet I believe in the war. . . . We know that
whatever the mad logic of [Hitler’s] New Order there is
no hope for us under it. The ethnic theories of the
Hitler ‘master folk’ admit of no chance of freedom. . . .
This is a war to keep [people] free. The struggle to
broaden and lengthen the road of freedom—our own
private and important war to enlarge freedom here in
America—will come later. . . . I believe in this war
because I believe in America. I believe in what America
professes to stand for. . . .
”
—quoted in America at War
History
Tuskegee Airmen The Tuskegee Airmen distinguished themselves in combat,
yet they were not allowed to serve in integrated units. In what theater of the
war did the Tuskegee Airmen serve?
Many African American leaders combined patriotism with protest. In 1941 the National Urban League
set two goals for its members: “(1) To promote effective participation of [African Americans] in all
phases of the war effort. . . . (2) To formulate plans
for building the kind of United States in which we
wish to live after the war is over. . . .”
The Pittsburgh Courier, a leading African American newspaper, embraced these ideas and launched
what it called the “Double V” campaign. African
Americans, the paper argued, should join the war
effort in order to achieve a double victory—a victory over Hitler’s racism abroad and a victory over
racism at home. If the United States wanted to portray itself as a defender of democracy, Americans
might be willing to end discrimination in their own
country.
President Roosevelt knew that African American
voters had played an important role in his election
victories. Under pressure from African American
leaders, he ordered the army air force, navy, and
marines to begin recruiting African Americans, and
he directed the army to put African Americans into
combat. He also appointed Colonel Benjamin O.
Davis, the highest-ranking African American officer
in the U.S. Army, to the rank of brigadier general.
African Americans in Combat
In response to the
president’s order, the army air force created the 99th
Pursuit Squadron, an African American unit that
trained in Tuskegee, Alabama. These African American fighter pilots became known as the Tuskegee
Airmen. After General Davis urged the military to
put African Americans into combat, the 99th Pursuit
Squadron was sent to the Mediterranean in April
1943. The squadron played an important role during
the Battle of Anzio in Italy.
African Americans also performed well in the
army. The all-African American 761st Tank Battalion
was commended for its service during the Battle of
the Bulge. Fighting in northwest Europe, African
Americans in the 614th Tank
Destroyer Battalion won 8 Silver
Stars for distinguished service, 28
Bronze Stars, and 79 Purple Hearts.
Although the military did not end
all segregation during the war, it did
integrate military bases in 1943 and
steadily expanded the role of African
Americans within the armed forces.
These successes paved the way for
President Truman’s decision to fully
Benjamin
O. Davis
integrate the military in 1948.
Women Join the Armed Forces
As in World War I,
women joined the armed forces. The army enlisted
women for the first time, although they were barred
from combat. Instead, as the army’s recruiting slogan
suggested, women were needed to “release a man for
combat.” Many jobs in the army were administrative
and clerical. By assigning women to these jobs, more
men would be available for combat.
Congress first allowed women in the military in
May 1942, when it established the Women’s Army
Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) and appointed Oveta Culp
Hobby, an official with the War Department, to serve
as its first director. Although pleased about the establishment of the WAAC, many women were unhappy
that it was an auxiliary corps and not part of the regular army. A little over a year later, the army replaced
the WAAC with the Women’s Army Corps (WAC).
Director Hobby was assigned the rank of colonel.
“You have a debt and a date,” Hobby explained to
those training to be the nation’s first women officers.
“A debt to democracy, a date with destiny.” The
Coast Guard, the navy, and the marines quickly followed the army and set up their own women’s units.
In addition to serving in these new organizations,
another 68,000 women served as nurses in the army
and navy.
Americans Go to War The Americans who went to
war in 1941 were not well trained. Most of the troops
had no previous military experience. Most of the officers had never led men in combat. The armed forces
mirrored many of the tensions and prejudices of
American society. Despite these challenges, the
United States armed forces performed well in battle.
Checking for Understanding
1. Define: cost-plus, Liberty ship,
disfranchise.
2. Identify: Reconstruction Finance
Corporation, War Production Board,
Selective Service and Training Act.
3. Describe the role of the OWM in the
war production effort.
Reviewing Themes
4. Individual Action Why do you think
African Americans were willing to fight
in the war even though they suffered
discrimination in American society?
History
Women Pilots General Barney M. Giles inspects the guard of honor of the
Women Air Service Pilots (WASPS) at Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas. Many
pilots wore Filfinella patches (right) for good luck. Why do you think the army
refused to allow women to fly in combat?
Of all the major powers involved in the war, the
United States suffered the fewest casualties in combat.
American troops never adopted the spit-andpolish style of the Europeans. When they arrived at
the front, Americans’ uniforms were usually a mess,
and they rarely marched in step. When one
Czechoslovakian was asked what he thought of the
sloppy, unprofessional American soldiers, he commented, “They walk like free men.”
Reading Check Summarizing How did the status of
women and African Americans in the armed forces change
during the war?
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
5. Evaluating How effectively did
American industry rally behind the war
effort? Give examples to support your
opinion.
6. Categorizing Use a graphic organizer
like the one below to list the challenges
facing the United States as it mobilized
for war.
7. Analyzing Graphs Study the graphs of
automobile and tank production on
pages 738 and 739. Why did automobile production decrease while tank
production increased?
Challenges to
Mobilization
Writing About History
8. Descriptive Writing Take on the role
of a draftee who has just completed the
first week of basic training. Write a letter to your parents telling them about
basic training and what you hope to
accomplish once the training is over.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
741
The Early Battles
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
By late 1942, the Allies had stopped the
German and Japanese advance.
Sequencing As you read about the military campaigns of 1942, complete a time
line similar to the one below to record
the major battles discussed and the victor
in each.
• Analyze how the Allies were able to
fight a war on two fronts and turn the
war against the Axis in the Pacific,
Russia, and the North Atlantic.
• Explain why Stalingrad is considered
a major turning point of the war.
Key Terms and Names
Chester Nimitz, Douglas MacArthur,
James Doolittle, periphery, George
Patton, convoy system
1942
1943
Section Theme
Individual Action Many American soldiers made heroic sacrifices in order to
turn the tide against the Axis Powers.
✦1942
✦1943
May 1942
Fall of the Philippines;
Battle of the Coral Sea
June 1942
Battle of Midway
✦1944
February 1943
Germans defeated
at Stalingrad
May 1943
Germans driven out
of North Africa
On June 4, 1942, Lieutenant Commander James Thach climbed into his F4F Wildcat fighter
plane. Thach knew that the Japanese Zero fighter planes were better than his Wildcat. To
improve his chances against them, he had developed a new tactic he called the “Thach
weave.” At the Battle of Midway, he had his first chance to try it:
So we boarded our planes. All of us were highly excited and admittedly nervous. . . . A
“
very short time after, Zero fighters came down on us—I figured there were twenty. . . . The
James S. Thach
air was just like a beehive, and I wasn’t sure that anything would work. And then my weave
began to work! I got a good shot at two Zeros and burned them . . . then Ram, my wingman,
radioed: ‘There’s a Zero on my tail.’ . . . I was really angry then. I was mad because my poor
little wingman had never been in combat before [and] this Zero was about to chew him to
pieces. I probably should have ducked under the Zero, but I lost my temper and decided to
keep my fire going into him so he’d pull out. He did, and I just missed him by a few feet. I
saw flames coming out of his airplane. This was like playing chicken on the highway with
two automobiles headed for each other, except we were shooting at each other as well.
”
—quoted in The Pacific War Remembered
Holding the Line Against Japan
While officers like James Thach developed new tactics to fight the Japanese, the commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific, Admiral Chester Nimitz, began planning operations against the Japanese navy. Although the Japanese had badly damaged
the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, they had missed the American aircraft carriers,
742
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
which were at sea on a mission. The United States
had several carriers in the Pacific, and Nimitz was
determined to use them. In the days just after Pearl
Harbor, however, he could do little to stop Japan’s
advance into Southeast Asia.
The Fall of the Philippines
A few hours after they
bombed Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked
American airfields in the Philippines. Two days later,
Japanese troops landed in the islands. The American
and Filipino forces defending the Philippines were
badly outnumbered. Their commander, General
Douglas MacArthur, decided to retreat to the Bataan
Peninsula. Using the peninsula’s rugged terrain,
MacArthur’s troops held out for more than three
months. Gradually, the lack of supplies along with
diseases such as malaria, scurvy, and dysentery took
their toll. Realizing MacArthur’s capture would
demoralize the American people, President
Roosevelt ordered the general to evacuate to
Australia. In Australia MacArthur made a promise:
“I came through, and I shall return.”
On April 9, 1942, the weary defenders of Bataan
finally surrendered. Nearly 78,000 prisoners of war
were forced to march—sick, exhausted, and starving—65 miles (105 km) to a Japanese prison camp.
Thousands died on this march, which came to be
known as the Bataan Death March. Here one captured American, Leon Beck, recalls the nightmare:
“
They’d halt us in front of these big artesian
wells . . . so we could see the water and they
wouldn’t let us have any. Anyone who would make a
break for water would be shot or bayoneted. Then
they were left there. Finally, it got so bad further along
the road that you never got away from the stench of
death. There were bodies laying all along the road in
various degrees of decomposition—swollen, burst
open, maggots crawling by the thousands. . . .
”
—quoted in Death March: The Survivors of Bataan
Although the troops in the Bataan Peninsula surrendered, a small force held out on the island of
Corregidor in Manila Bay. Finally, in May 1942,
Corregidor surrendered. The Philippines had fallen.
The Doolittle Raid Even before the fall of the
Philippines, President Roosevelt was searching for a
way to raise the morale of the American people. He
wanted to bomb Tokyo, but American planes could
reach Tokyo only if an aircraft carrier brought them
close enough. Unfortunately, Japanese ships in the
North Pacific prevented carriers from getting close
enough to Japan to launch their short-range bombers.
In early 1942, a military planner suggested replacing the carrier’s usual short-range bombers with
long-range B-25 bombers that could attack from farther away. Although B-25s could take off from a carrier, they could not land on its short deck. After
attacking Japan, they would have to land in China.
President Roosevelt put Lieutenant Colonel James
Doolittle in command of the mission. At the end of
March, a crane loaded sixteen B-25s onto the aircraft
carrier Hornet. The next day the Hornet headed west
across the Pacific. On April 18, American bombs fell
on Japan for the first time.
Striking Back: The Doolittle Raid, April 18, 1942
The plan for the Doolittle raid was to launch B-25
bombers from aircraft carriers between 450 and 650 miles
from Japan. The planes would bomb selected targets, and
fly another 1,200 miles to airfields in China.
All went well until the Japanese
discovered the carriers more than 150 miles from the
proposed launch site. Instead of canceling the mission, the
bombers took off early. The planes reached
Japan and dropped their bombs, but they
did not have enough fuel to reach the
friendly airfields in China. The crews were
forced to bail out or crash-land, and only 71
of the 80 crew members survived.
Nevertheless, the raid provided an instant
boost to sagging American morale.
Planes arrive
in China
Carriers launch B-25s
Tokyo is
bombed
Battle of Midway, 1942
Course of
Yorktown
8 June 4, 5:01 P.M. Yorktown
Course of Enterprise
and Hornet
9 June 6, 1:31 P.M.
Japanese submarine
I-168 torpedoes the
Yorktown, which sinks
the next morning.
fliers join Enterprise attack on
the Hiryu, setting
it ablaze.
Hiryu sinks
Course of
Japanese fleet
7
Akagi sinks
Kaga sinks
Soryu sinks
June 4,
6 10:22-10:28 A.M.
U.S. Dive-bombers
score direct hits on
Kaga, Akagi, and Soryu.
1 June 4, 4:30 A.M.
Japanese carriers launch
108 warplanes to strike
U.S. base at Midway.
4 June 4, 7:08 A.M.
U.S. fliers from Midway begin
attacking Japanese fleet.
Line of U.S. submarines
stationed 170 miles
from Midway.
E
U.S. Dauntless
dive-bomber
U.S. fighters clash with
attackers.
Japanese planes return.
Fleet turns to engage
U.S. carriers.
W
Yorktown sinks
2 June 4, 6:16 A.M.
5 June 4, 9:17 A.M.
N
June 4, noon.
Planes from the Hiryu
attack U.S. carriers.
Yorktown hit.
The ship is abandoned
but remains afloat.
C
F I Kure Atoll
I
(U.S.)
C
a N
P aC E
O
Midway
Islands
3 June 4,
6:30 A.M.
Japanese begin
bombing Midway.
(U.S.)
U.S. actions
Japanese actions
S
A Change in Japanese Strategy
While Americans
were overjoyed that the air force had finally struck
back, Japanese leaders were aghast. Doolittle’s
bombs could have killed the emperor. The Doolittle
raid convinced Japanese leaders to change their
strategy.
Before the raid, the Japanese Navy had been arguing about what to do next. The officers in charge of
the navy’s planning wanted to cut American supply
lines to Australia by capturing the south coast of
New Guinea. The commander of the fleet, Admiral
Yamamoto, wanted to attack Midway Island—the
last American base in the North Pacific west of
Hawaii. Yamamoto believed that attacking Midway
would lure the American fleet into battle and enable
his fleet to destroy it.
After Doolittle’s raid, the planners dropped their
opposition to Yamamoto’s plan. The American fleet
had to be destroyed in order to protect Tokyo from
bombing. The attack on New Guinea would still go
ahead, but only three aircraft carriers were assigned
to the mission. All of the other carriers were ordered
to prepare for an assault on Midway.
744
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
1. Interpreting Maps When did Japan launch the attack
on Midway?
2. Applying Geography Skills Why were aircraft carriers
so vital to the war in the Pacific?
The Battle of the Coral Sea
The Japanese believed
that they could proceed with two different attacks.
They thought the United States was unaware of
Japan’s activity and would not be able to respond in
time. Japan did not know that an American team
of code breakers, based in Hawaii, had already broken the Japanese Navy’s secret code for conducting
operations.
In March 1942, decoded Japanese messages
alerted the United States to the Japanese attack on
New Guinea. In response, Admiral Nimitz sent two
carriers, the Yorktown and the Lexington, to intercept
the Japanese in the Coral Sea. There, in early May,
carriers from both sides launched all-out airstrikes
against each other. Although the Japanese sank the
Lexington and badly damaged the Yorktown, the
American attacks forced the Japanese to call off their
landing on the south coast of New Guinea. The
American supply lines to Australia stayed open.
JAPANESE FORCES To destroy the U.S.
Pacific Fleet, crippled by the 1941 attack
on Pearl Harbor, Japan plots an occupation of two
Aleutian islands and an invasion of Midway.
Strategists believe that the twin actions will lure U.S.
carriers to their doom. Two Japanese carriers and
58 other ships sail for the Aleutians. For Midway,
Japan commits 4 large carriers, 2 light carriers, 280
planes, 7 battleships, 14 cruisers, 15 submarines,
42 destroyers, and more than 30 supporting ships.
These include transports carrying 5,000 troops to
take Midway.
U.S. FORCES No battleships guard U.S.
carriers sent to Midway to engage the
enemy fleet. Into combat go 3 carriers, including
battle-damaged Yorktown. Protecting them are 8
cruisers and 16 destroyers. The U.S. has a total of
360 aircraft, including 234 carrier-based fighters and
small bombers. Based on Midway are 28 fighters,
46 small bombers, 31 PBY Catalina scout planes,
4 Marauder medium bombers, and 17 Flying
Fortresses. Most pilots on Midway have never flown
in combat.
TURNING POINT
The Battle of Midway
Back at Pearl Harbor, the
code-breaking team that had alerted Nimitz to the
attack on New Guinea now learned of the plan to
attack Midway. With so many ships at sea, Admiral
Yamamoto transmitted the plans for the Midway
attack by radio, using the same code the Americans
had already cracked.
Admiral Nimitz had been waiting for the opportunity to ambush the Japanese fleet. He immediately
ordered carriers to take up positions near Midway.
Unaware they were heading into an ambush, the
Japanese launched their aircraft against Midway on
June 4, 1942. The island was ready. The Japanese
planes ran into a blizzard of antiaircraft fire, and 38 of
them were shot down.
As the Japanese prepared a second wave to attack
Midway, aircraft from the American carriers Hornet,
Yorktown, and Enterprise launched a counterattack. The
American planes caught the Japanese carriers with
fuel, bombs, and aircraft exposed on their flight decks.
Within minutes three Japanese carriers were reduced to
burning wrecks. A fourth was sunk a few hours later.
By nightfall it was apparent that the Americans had
dealt the Japanese navy a deadly blow. Admiral
Yamamoto ordered his remaining ships to retreat.
The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the
war. The Japanese Navy lost four of its largest carriers—the heart of its fleet. Just six months after Pearl
Harbor, the United States had stopped the Japanese
advance in the Pacific. As Admiral Ernest King, the
commander in chief of the U.S. Navy, later observed,
Midway “put an end to the long period of Japanese
offensive action.” The victory was not without cost,
however. The battle killed 362 Americans and 3,057
Japanese. Afterward, one naval officer wrote to his
wife: “Let no one tell you or let you believe that this
war is anything other than a grim, terrible business.”
Reading Check Explaining Why was the Battle of
Midway considered a turning point?
Turning Back the German Army
In 1942 Allied forces began to win victories in
Europe as well. Almost from the moment the United
States entered the war, Joseph Stalin, the leader of the
Soviet Union, urged President Roosevelt to open a
second front in Europe. Stalin appreciated the LendLease supplies that the United States had sent, but
the Soviet people were still doing most of the fighting. If British and American troops opened a second
front by attacking Germany from the west, it would
take pressure off the Soviet Union.
Roosevelt wanted to get American troops into
battle in Europe, but Prime Minister Churchill urged
caution. He did not believe the United States and
Great Britain were ready to launch a full-scale invasion of Europe. Instead Churchill wanted to attack the
periphery, or edges, of the German empire. Roosevelt
agreed, and in July 1942 he ordered the invasion of
Morocco and Algeria—two French territories indirectly under German control.
The Struggle for North
Africa Roosevelt decided to
invade Morocco and Algeria
for two reasons. First, the
invasion would give the
army some experience without requiring a lot of troops.
More importantly, once
American troops were in
North Africa, they would be
able to help British troops
fighting the Germans in
Egypt.
CHAPTER 25
HISTORY
Student Web
Activity Visit the
American Vision Web
site at tav.glencoe.com
and click on Student
Web Activities—
Chapter 25 for an
activity on America and
World War II.
America and World War II
745
in History
746
Fleet Admiral Chester
W. Nimitz 1885–1966
Admiral Isoroku
Yamamoto 1884–1943
Taking command of the Pacific Fleet
after the bombing of Pearl Harbor,
Admiral Chester Nimitz did not view
the Japanese attack as a complete disaster. The United States still had its aircraft carriers, and base facilities were
in good repair. Even though the battle
fleet was at the bottom of the harbor,
most of the ships could be retrieved
and repaired. If the Japanese had attacked
the fleet at sea, nothing would have been salvageable.
Nimitz believed that the only way to win the war was to keep
constant pressure on the Japanese. He ordered attacks in early
1942 and firmly backed the Doolittle raid. Nimitz planned the
American campaigns that turned the tide of war at Midway and
Guadalcanal. Nimitz kept the pressure on the Japanese throughout
the war, and he signed the Japanese surrender document as the
official representative of the United States government in 1945. In
less than four years, he had taken a badly damaged fleet and
made it victorious throughout the Pacific.
The son of a schoolmaster, Isoroku
Yamamoto spent his entire adult life in
the military. In the 1930s he was one of
the few Japanese leaders who opposed
war with the United States. Yamamoto
did so not because he was a pacifist, but
because he feared Japan would lose.
When he realized that Japan’s leaders
were intent on war, Yamamoto became
convinced that Japan’s only hope lay in launching a surprise attack
that would destroy the American Pacific Fleet. Although some officers opposed his plan, Yamamoto won out, and he planned and
implemented the attack on Pearl Harbor. During the first years of
the war, he enjoyed tremendous prestige because of Japanese victories he helped engineer.
In April 1943 the admiral took an inspection flight of several
islands. Having already broken the Japanese codes, the Americans
knew of the flight. On April 18, American fighters shot down
Yamamoto’s plane in the South Pacific, and the admiral was killed
in the attack.
Egypt was very important to Britain because of the
Suez Canal. Most of Britain’s empire, including
India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaya, and Australia,
used the canal to send supplies to Britain. The
German forces in the area, known as the “Afrika
Korps,” were commanded by General Erwin
Rommel—a brilliant leader whose success earned
him the nickname “Desert Fox.”
The British forced Rommel to retreat at the battle
of El Alamein, but his forces remained a serious
threat. On November 8, 1942, the American invasion of North Africa began under the command of
General Dwight D. Eisenhower. The American
forces in Morocco, led by General George Patton,
quickly captured the city of Casablanca, while
those in Algeria seized the cities of Oran and
Algiers. The Americans then headed east into
Tunisia, while British forces headed west into
Libya. The plan was to trap Rommel between the
two Allied forces.
When the American troops advanced into the
mountains of western Tunisia, they had to fight the
German army for the first time. They did not do well.
At the Battle of Kasserine Pass, the Americans were
outmaneuvered and outfought. They suffered roughly
7,000 casualties and lost nearly 200 tanks. Eisenhower
fired the general who led the attack and put Patton in
command. Together, the American and British forces
finally pushed the Germans back. On May 13, 1943, the
last German forces in North Africa surrendered.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
The Battle of the Atlantic As American and British
troops fought the German army in North Africa, the
war against German submarines in the Atlantic
Ocean continued to intensify. After Germany
declared war on the United States, German submarines entered American coastal waters. They
found American cargo ships to be easy targets, especially at night when the glow from the cities in the
night sky silhouetted the vessels. To protect the ships,
cities on the East Coast dimmed their lights every
evening. People also put up special “blackout curtains” and drove with their headlights off.
By August 1942, German submarines had sunk
about 360 American ships along the American coast.
So many oil tankers were sunk that gasoline and fuel
oil had to be rationed. To keep oil flowing, the government built the first long-distance oil pipeline,
stretching some 1,250 miles (2,010 km) from the Texas
oil fields to Pennsylvania.
The loss of so many ships convinced the U.S.
Navy to set up a convoy system. Under this system,
cargo ships traveled in groups and were escorted by
navy warships. The convoy system improved the
situation dramatically. It made it much harder for a
submarine to torpedo a cargo ship and escape without being attacked.
The spring of 1942 marked the high point of the
German submarine campaign. In May and June
alone, over 1.2 million tons of shipping were sunk. Yet
in those same two months, American and British
shipyards built over 1.1 million tons of new shipping.
From July 1942 onward, American shipyards
produced more ships than German submarines
managed to sink. At the same time, American airplanes and warships began to use new technology,
including radar, sonar, and depth charges, to locate
and attack submarines. As the new technology began
to take its toll on German submarines, the Battle of the
Atlantic slowly turned in favor of the Allies.
TURNING POINT
Stalingrad
In the spring of 1942, before the Battle of
the Atlantic turned against Germany, Adolf Hitler
was very confident he would win the war. Rommel’s
troops were pushing the British back in Egypt.
German submarines were sinking American ships
rapidly, and the German army was ready to launch a
new offensive to knock the Soviets out of the war.
Hitler was convinced that the only way to defeat
the Soviet Union was to destroy its economy. In May
1942, he ordered his army to capture strategic oil
fields, industries, and farmlands in southern Russia
and Ukraine. The key to the attack was the city of
Stalingrad. The city controlled the Volga River and
was a major railroad junction. If the German army
captured Stalingrad, the Soviets would be cut off
from the resources they needed to stay in the war.
When German troops entered Stalingrad in midSeptember, Stalin ordered his troops to hold the city
History
Halting the German Advance Soviet troops assault German positions in
Stalingrad in November 1942. Why did the Soviet army need to hold on to
the city of Stalingrad?
at all cost. Retreat was forbidden. The Germans were
forced to fight from house to house, losing thousands
of soldiers in the process.
On November 23, Soviet reinforcements arrived
and surrounded Stalingrad, trapping almost 250,000
German troops. When the battle ended in February
1943, 91,000 Germans had surrendered, although only
5,000 of them survived the Soviet prison camps and
returned home after the war. The Battle of Stalingrad
was a major turning point in the war. Just as the Battle
of Midway put the Japanese on the defensive for
the rest of the war, the Battle of Stalingrad put the
Germans on the defensive as well.
Reading Check Evaluating What did the Allies do
to win the Battle of the Atlantic?
Checking for Understanding
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
1. Define: periphery, convoy system.
2. Identify: Chester Nimitz, Douglas
MacArthur, James Doolittle, George
Patton.
3. Explain the American strategy in North
Africa.
5. Analyzing How did code breakers help
stop Japanese advances?
6. Evaluating How were the Americans
able to win the Battle of the Atlantic?
7. Organizing Use a graphic organizer
like the one below to list the reasons
the Battle of Midway was a major turning point in the war.
8. Examining Maps Study the map of
Midway on page 744. Why do you think
the Japanese forces attacked when they
did?
Reviewing Themes
4. Individual Action How did the
Doolittle raid help boost American
morale?
Battle of Midway
Writing About History
9. Descriptive Writing Take on the role
of an American soldier fighting in the
Pacific in World War II. Write a letter to
your family explaining what conditions
are like for you and what you hope to
accomplish during the war.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
747
Social Studies
Reading a Thematic Map
Why Learn This Skill?
Bataan and Corregidor,
December 1941–May 1942
In your study of American history, you will often
encounter thematic, or special-purpose, maps.
Knowing how to read a thematic map will help
you get more out of it.
Camp
O'Donnell
PHILIPPINES
April 15
Dec. 31
ZAMBALES
Learning the Skill
Mt. Arayat
Military maps use colors, symbols, and arrows to
show major battles, troop movements, and defensive positions during a particular battle or over a
period of time. When reading a military map, follow these steps:
MOUNTAINS
January 2
3 Where did the Japanese imprison the survivors
of the Bataan Death March?
4 What geographic features did the Japanese
encounter on the Bataan Peninsula?
Skills Assessment
Complete the Practicing Skills questions on
page 775 and the Chapter 25 Skill Reinforcement
Activity to assess your mastery of this skill.
748
E
W
Subic
Bay
S
Bataan
Peninsula
January 7
Manila
Jan. 26–
Bay
Apr. 3
Final Attack
Battle of
the Pockets
Apr. 3–8
il 9
Jan. 26–Feb. 15
A pr
Battle of
the Points
Jan. 23–Feb. 13
0
0
South
China
Sea
Mariveles
Corregidor
Island
May 5–6
15 miles
15 kilometers
12
Practicing the Skill
information on the map shows you this?
N
Calumpit
• Use the map to draw conclusions.
1 What part of the world does the map show?
2 When did MacArthur leave for Australia? What
January 2
Jan. 1–4
• Study the map itself. This will reveal the actual
event or sequence of events that took place.
Notice the geography of the area, and try to
determine how it could affect military strategy.
The map on this page shows troop movements in
the Philippines from December 1941 to May 1942.
Analyze the information on the map, then answer
the following questions.
San Fernando
h
• Read the map key. This tells what the symbols on
the map represent.
Mt. Pinatubo
Ma
rc
• Read the map title. This will indicate the location
and time period covered on the map.
Dec. 31
Lambert Equal-Area projection
Manila
Occupied
by Japanese
January 2
U.S. retreat to Bataan
Japanese forces
MacArthur to Australia
“Death March” of
U.S. prisoners
U.S. defensive line
at date shown
Japanese victory
USAFFE HQ
Occupied by Japanese
Applying the Skill
Reading a Thematic Map Study the map of the Battle
of Midway on pages 744–745. Use the information on
the map to answer the following questions.
1. When was the battle fought?
2. What American aircraft carriers took part in the
battle?
3. What was the fate of the Hiryu?
Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook
CD-ROM, Level 2, provides instruction and
practice in key social studies skills.
Life on the Home Front
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
World War II placed tremendous
demands on Americans at home and led
to new challenges for all Americans.
Categorizing As you read about the
challenges facing Americans on the home
front, complete a graphic organizer listing
opportunities for women and African
Americans before and after the war. Also
evaluate what progress still needed to be
made after the war.
• Describe how the wartime economy
created opportunities for women and
minorities.
• Discuss how Americans coped with
shortages and rapidly rising prices.
Key Terms and Names
Rosie the Riveter, A. Philip Randolph,
Sunbelt, zoot suit, rationing, victory
garden, E bond
Opportunities
Before War
Af ter War Still Needed
Women
African Americans
✦1941
✦1942
June 1941
Executive Order 8802 forbids race discrimination
in industries with government contracts
Section Theme
Civic Rights and Responsibilities To
win the war, American citizens at home
made countless changes in work patterns
and lifestyles.
✦1943
August 1941
Roosevelt creates the Office
of Price Administration
✦1944
February 1942
Japanese American
relocation ordered
June 1943
Race riots in Detroit; zoot
suit riots in Los Angeles
Laura Briggs was a young woman living on a farm in Idaho when World War II began.
As with many other Americans, the war completely changed her outlook on life:
When I was growing up, it was very much depression times. . . . As farm prices
“
[during the war] began to get better and better, farm times became good times. . . . We
and most other farmers went from a tarpaper shack to a new frame house with indoor
plumbing. Now we had an electric stove instead of a wood-burning one, and running water
at the sink. . . . The war made many changes in our town. I think the most important is that
aspirations changed. People suddenly had the idea, ‘Hey I can reach that. I can have that. I
can do that. I could even send my kid to college if I wanted to.’
”
—quoted in Wartime America: The World War II Home Front
“Rosie the Riveter” symbolized
new roles for women
Women and Minorities Gain Ground
As American troops fought their first battles against the Germans and Japanese, the
war began to dramatically change American society at home. In contrast to the devastation the war brought to large parts of Europe and Asia, World War II had a positive
effect on American society. The war finally put an end to the Great Depression.
Mobilizing the economy created almost 19 million new jobs and nearly doubled the
average family’s income.
When the war began, American defense factories wanted to hire white men. With so
many men in the military, there simply were not enough white men to fill all of the jobs.
Under pressure to produce, employers began to recruit women and minorities.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
749
Women in the Defense Plants
During the Depression, many people believed married women should
not work outside the home, especially if it meant
taking jobs away from men trying to support their
families. Most women who did work were young,
single, and employed in traditional female jobs. The
wartime labor shortage, however, forced factories to
recruit married women to do industrial jobs that traditionally had been reserved for men.
Although the government hired nearly 4 million
women for mostly clerical jobs, it was the women in
the factories who captured the public’s imagination.
The great symbol of the campaign to hire women was
“Rosie the Riveter,” a character from a popular song
by the Four Vagabonds. The lyrics told of Rosie, who
worked in a factory while her boyfriend served in the
marines. Images of Rosie appeared on posters, in
newspapers, and in magazines. Eventually 2.5 million
women went to work in shipyards, aircraft factories,
and other manufacturing plants. For many older middle-class women like Inez Sauer, working in a factory
changed their perspective:
“
I learned that just because you’re a woman and
have never worked is no reason you can’t learn. The
job really broadened me. . . . I had always been in a
shell; I’d always been protected. But at Boeing I found
a freedom and an independence I had never known.
After the war I could never go back to playing bridge
again, being a clubwoman. . . . when I knew there
were things you could use your mind for. The war
changed my life completely.
”
—quoted in Eyewitness to World War II
Although most women left the factories after the
war, their success permanently changed American
attitudes about women in the workplace.
African Americans Demand War Work
Although
factories were hiring women, they resisted hiring
African Americans. Frustrated by the situation,
A. Philip Randolph, the head of the Brotherhood
of Sleeping Car Porters—a major union for African
American railroad workers—decided to take action.
He informed President Roosevelt that
he was organizing “from ten to fifty
thousand [African Americans] to
march on Washington in the interest
of securing jobs . . . in national
defense and . . . integration into the
military and naval forces.”
In response, Roosevelt issued
Executive Order 8802, on June 25, 1941.
The order declared, “there shall be no
discrimination in the employment of
workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color
or national origin.” To enforce the
order, the president created the Fair
Employment Practices Commission—
the first civil rights agency established
by the federal government since the
minutes that would have taken a code
Reconstruction era.
machine operator hours to encipher
in History
The Navajo Code Talkers
1942–1945
When American marines stormed
an enemy beach, they used radios to
communicate. Using radios, however,
meant that the Japanese could intercept and translate the messages. In the
midst of the battle, however, there was
no time to use a code machine. Acting
upon the suggestion of Philip
Johnston, an engineer who had lived
on a Navajo reservation as a child, the
marines recruited Navajos to serve as
“code talkers.”
The Navajo language was a “hidden
language”—it had no written alphabet
and was known only to the Navajo and
a few missionaries and anthropologists.
The Navajo recruits developed a code
using words from their own language
to represent military terms. For example, the Navajo word jay-sho, or
“buzzard,” was code for bomber; lotso,
or “whale,” meant battleship; and
na-ma-si, or “potatoes,” stood for
grenades.
Code talkers proved invaluable in
combat. They could relay a message in
750
CHAPTER 25
and transmit. At the battle of Iwo Jima,
code talkers transmitted more than 800
messages during the first 48 hours as
the marines struggled to get ashore
under intense bombardment.
Over 400 Navajo served in the
marine corps as code talkers. Sworn to
secrecy, their mission was not revealed
until many years after the war. In 2001
Congress awarded the code talkers the
Congressional Gold Medal to recognize
their unique contribution to the war
effort.
America and World War II
Mexicans Become Farmworkers
The wartime economy needed workers in many different areas. To help
farmers in the Southwest overcome
the labor shortage, the government
introduced the Bracero Program in
1942. Bracero is Spanish for worker.
The federal government arranged for
Mexican farmworkers to help in the
harvest. Over 200,000 Mexicans came
to the United States to help harvest
Migration in the United States, 1940–1950
Total Population Increase
1940–1950
400,000 and over
200,000–399,999
100,000–199,999
50,000–99,999
260,000
San
Francisco
Population migration
between regions
910,000
WEST
NORTH
Denver
Detroit
New York City
San Diego
14
0,
00
0
65
Fort
Worth
1. Interpreting Maps Which region had
the largest influx of new residents?
2. Applying Geography Skills Why do
you think so many Americans moved
during the 1940s?
fruit and vegetables in the Southwest. Many also
helped to build and maintain railroads. The Bracero
Program continued until 1964. Migrant farmworkers
became an important part of the Southwest’s agricultural system.
Reading Check Describing How did mobilizing the
economy help end the Depression?
A Nation on the Move
The wartime economy created millions of new
jobs, but the Americans who wanted these jobs did
not always live nearby. To get to the jobs, 15 million
Americans moved during the war. Although the
assembly plants of the Midwest and the shipyards
of the Northeast attracted many workers, most
Americans headed west and south in search of jobs.
Taken together, the growth of southern California
and the expansion of cities in the Deep South created
a new industrial region—the Sunbelt. For the first
time since the Industrial Revolution began in the
United States, the South and West led the way in
manufacturing and urbanization.
The Housing Crisis
Perhaps the most difficult task
facing cities with war industries was deciding where
to put the thousands of new workers. Many people
had to live in tents and tiny trailers. To help solve the
housing crisis, the federal government allocated over
$1.2 billion to build public housing, schools, and
community centers during the war.
Although prefabricated government housing
had tiny rooms, thin walls, poor heating, and
Houston
0,0
Memphis
640,000
Los Angeles
00
0
0,
Washington, D.C.
98
00
Dallas
SOUTH
Baton Rouge
Mobile
almost no privacy, it was better than no housing at
all. Nearly two million people lived in governmentbuilt housing during the war.
Racism Explodes Into Violence African Americans
began to leave the South in great numbers during
World War I, but this “Great Migration,” as historians
refer to it, slowed during the Depression. When jobs
in war factories opened up for African Americans
during World War II, the Great Migration resumed.
When African Americans arrived in the crowded
cities of the North and West, however, they were often
met with suspicion and intolerance. Sometimes these
attitudes led to violence.
The worst racial violence of the war erupted in
Detroit on Sunday, June 20, 1943. The weather that
day was sweltering. To cool off, nearly 100,000
people crowded into Belle Isle, a park on the
Detroit River. Fights erupted between gangs of
white and African American teenage girls. These
fights triggered others, and a full-scale riot erupted
across the city. By the time the violence ended, 25
African Americans and 9 whites had been killed.
Despite the appalling violence in Detroit, African
American leaders remained committed to their
Double V campaign.
The Zoot Suit Riots
Wartime prejudice erupted elsewhere as well. In southern California, racial tensions
became entangled with juvenile delinquency. Across
the nation, crimes committed by young people rose
dramatically. In Los Angeles, racism against Mexican
Americans and the fear of juvenile crime became
linked because of the “zoot suit.”
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
751
A zoot suit had very baggy, pleated pants and an
overstuffed, knee-length jacket with wide lapels.
Accessories included a wide-brimmed hat and a long
key chain. Zoot-suit wearers usually wore their hair
long, gathered into a ducktail. The zoot suit angered
many Americans. In order to save fabric for the war,
most men wore a “victory suit”—a suit with no vest,
no cuffs, a short jacket, and narrow lapels. By comparison, the zoot suit seemed unpatriotic.
In California, Mexican American teenagers adopted
the zoot suit. In June 1943, after hearing rumors that
zoot suiters had attacked several sailors, 2,500 soldiers
and sailors stormed into Mexican American neighborhoods in Los Angeles. They attacked Mexican
American teenagers, cut their hair, and tore off their
zoot suits. The police did not intervene, and the violence continued for several days. The city of Los
Angeles responded by banning the zoot suit.
Racial hostility against Mexican Americans did not
deter them from joining the war effort. Approximately
500,000 Hispanic Americans served in the armed
forces during the war. Most—about 400,000—were
Mexican American. Another 65,000 were from Puerto
Rico. They fought in Europe, North Africa, and the
MOMENT
in HISTORY
BEHIND BARBED WIRE
As wartime hysteria mounted,
the U.S. government rounded
up 120,000 people of Japanese
ancestry—77,000 of whom
were American citizens—and
forced them into internment
camps in early 1942. Given just
days to sell their homes, businesses, and personal property,
whole families were marched
under military guard to rail
depots, then sent to remote,
inhospitable sites where they
lived in cramped barracks surrounded by barbed wire and
watchtowers. By 1945, with the
tide of war turned, most had
been released, but they did not
get an official apology or financial compensation until 1988.
Pacific, and by the end of the war, 17 Mexican
Americans had received the Medal of Honor.
Japanese American Relocation
When Japan
attacked Pearl Harbor, many West Coast Americans
turned their anger against Japanese Americans. Mobs
attacked Japanese American businesses and homes.
Banks would not cash their checks, and grocers
refused to sell them food.
Newspapers printed rumors about Japanese spies
in the Japanese American community. Members of
Congress, mayors, and many business and labor
leaders demanded that all people of Japanese ancestry be removed from the West Coast. They did not
believe that Japanese Americans would remain loyal
to the United States in the face of war with Japan.
On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt gave in to
pressure and signed an order allowing the War
Department to declare any part of the United States to
be a military zone and to remove anybody they wanted
from that zone. Secretary of War Henry Stimson
declared most of the West Coast a military zone and
ordered all people of Japanese ancestry to evacuate to
10 internment camps.
Not all Japanese Americans accepted
the relocation without protest. Fred
Korematsu argued that his rights had
been violated and took his case to the
Supreme Court. In December 1944, in
Korematsu v. the United States, the
Supreme Court ruled that the relocation
was constitutional because it was based
not on race, but on “military urgency.”
Shortly afterward, the Court did rule in
Ex Parte Endo that loyal American citizens
could not be held against their will. In early 1945, therefore, the government began to release the Japanese
Americans from the camps. ; (See page 1081 for more
information on Korematsu v. the United States.)
Despite the fears and rumors, no Japanese
American was ever tried for espionage or sabotage.
Japanese Americans served as translators for the
army during the war in the Pacific. The all-Japanese
100th Battalion, later integrated into the 442nd
Regimental Combat Team, was the most highly
decorated unit in World War II.
After the war, the Japanese American Citizens
League (JACL) tried to help Japanese Americans who
had lost property during the relocation. In 1988
President Reagan apologized to Japanese Americans
on behalf of the U.S. government and signed legislation granting $20,000 to each surviving Japanese
American who had been interned.
Reading Check Comparing Why did racism lead to
violence in Detroit and Los Angeles in 1943?
Daily Life in Wartime America
Housing problems and racial tensions were serious difficulties during the war, but mobilization
strained society in many other ways as well. Prices
rose, materials were in short supply, and the question
of how to pay for it all loomed ominously over the
entire war effort.
ECONOMICS
Wage and Price Controls As the economy mobilized, the president worried about inflation. Both
wages and prices began to rise quickly during the
war because of the high demand for workers and raw
materials. To stabilize both wages and prices,
Roosevelt created the Office of Price Administration
(OPA) and the Office of Economic Stabilization
(OES). The OES regulated wages and the price of
farm products. The OPA regulated all other prices.
Despite some problems with labor unions, the OPA
and OES were able to keep inflation under control.
History
Rationing Products War rationing affected everyone. Women painted seams
on their legs to make it appear they were wearing stockings, because silk was
needed to make parachutes instead of stockings. Why was rationing so vital to
the war effort?
While the OPA and OES worked to control inflation, the War Labor Board (WLB) tried to prevent
strikes that might endanger the war effort. In support, most American unions issued a “no strike
pledge,” and instead of striking, asked the WLB to
serve as a mediator in wage disputes. By the end of
the war, the WLB had helped to settle over 17,000
disputes involving more than 12 million workers.
Blue Points, Red Points
The demand for raw
materials and supplies created shortages. The OPA
began rationing, or limiting the availability of, many
products to make sure enough were available for military use. Meat and sugar were rationed to provide
enough for the army. To save gasoline and rubber,
gasoline was rationed, driving was restricted, and
the speed limit was set at 35 miles per hour.
Every month each household would pick up a
book of ration coupons. Blue coupons, called blue
points, controlled processed foods. Red coupons, or
red points, controlled meats, fats, and oils. Other
coupons controlled items such as coffee and sugar.
When people bought food, they also had to give
enough coupon points to cover their purchases.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
753
drippings for extra ration coupons. The scrap drives
were very successful and one more reason for the
success of American industry during the war.
Paying for the War
Analyzing Political Cartoons
Turning Off the Lights Early in the war, lights from eastern cities silhouetted
ships along the east coast, making them easy targets for German submarines.
Americans were asked to turn out lights or put up dark curtains. What point is
the cartoon making to Americans?
Victory Gardens and Scrap Drives Americans also
planted gardens to produce more food for the war
effort. Any area of land might become a garden—
backyards, schoolyards, city parks, and empty lots. The
government encouraged victory gardens by praising
them in film reels, pamphlets, and official statements.
Certain raw materials were so vital to the war
effort that the government organized scrap drives.
Americans collected spare rubber, tin, aluminum,
and steel. They donated pots, tires, tin cans, car
bumpers, broken radiators, and rusting bicycles. Oils
and fats were so important to the production of
explosives that the WPB set up fat-collecting stations.
Americans would exchange bacon grease and meat
Checking for Understanding
1. Define: Sunbelt, rationing, victory
garden.
2. Identify: Rosie the Riveter, A. Philip
Randolph, zoot suit, E bond.
3. Explain how the federal government
expanded during the war.
Reviewing Themes
CHAPTER 25
“V” for Victory
Despite the hardships, the overwhelming majority of Americans believed the war
had to be fought. Although the war brought many
changes to the United States, most Americans
remained united behind one goal—winning the war.
Reading Check Evaluating How did rationing affect
daily life in the United States? How did it affect the economy?
Critical Thinking
5. Evaluating If you had been a government official during the war, how would
you have proposed paying for the war?
6. Categorizing Use a graphic organizer
like the one below to list the results of
increased racial tensions during the war.
4. Civic Rights and Responsibilities What
changes did American citizens and industry have to make to adapt to the war?
754
The United States had to pay
for all of the equipment and supplies it needed. The
federal government spent more than $300 billion
during World War II—more money than it had spent
from Washington’s administration to the end of
Franklin Roosevelt’s second term.
To raise money, the government raised taxes.
Because most Americans opposed large tax increases,
Congress refused to raise taxes as high as Roosevelt
requested. As a result, the extra taxes collected covered only 45 percent of the cost of the war.
To raise the rest of the money, the government
issued war bonds. When Americans bought bonds,
they were loaning money to the government. In
exchange for the money, the government promised
that the bonds could be cashed in at some future date
for the purchase price plus interest. The most common bonds were E bonds, which sold for $18.75 and
could be redeemed for $25.00 after 10 years.
Individual Americans bought nearly $50 billion
worth of war bonds. Banks, insurance companies,
and other financial institutions bought the rest—over
$100 billion worth of bonds.
America and World War II
Analyzing Visuals
7. Examining Maps Study the map on
page 751. Which cities had populations
over 400,000?
8. Analyzing Photographs Study the
photograph on page 752. Why were
Japanese Americans interned?
Racial Tensions
Result
Result
Result
Writing About History
9. Persuasive Writing Write a newspaper
editorial urging fellow citizens to conserve resources so that these resources
can be diverted to the war effort.
Pushing the Axis Back
Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
The Allies slowly pushed back the
German and Japanese forces in 1943
and 1944.
Organizing As you read about the major
battles of 1943 and 1944, complete a
graphic organizer similar to the one below
by filling in the names of the battles
fought. Indicate whether each battle was
an Allied or an Axis victory.
• Describe the goals of the two major
offensives the Allies launched in Europe
in 1943.
• Explain the American strategy for pushing the Japanese back in the Pacific.
Key Terms and Names
Casablanca Conference, Operation
Overlord, D-Day, Omar Bradley,
amphtrac, Guadalcanal, kamikaze
Pacific
✦1943
January 1943
Casablanca
Conference
Major Battles
1943–1944
Section Theme
Geography and History The United
States fought the war by landing troops in
Italy and France and island-hopping
across the Pacific toward Japan.
Europe
✦1944
July 1943
The Allies invade Italy
✦1945
November 1943
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
meet at Tehran
June 6, 1944
D-Day invasion
begins
October 20, 1944
MacArthur returns
to the Philippines
On the morning of June 6, 1944, Lieutenant John Bentz Carroll of the 16th Infantry Regiment
scrambled down a net ladder from his troop ship to a small landing craft tossing in the waves
30 feet (9 m) below. The invasion of France had begun. Carroll’s platoon would be among the
first Americans to land in Normandy. Their objective was a beach, code-named “Omaha”:
Two hundred yards out, we took a direct hit. . . . [A machine gun] was shooting a rat-tat“
tat on the front of the boat. Somehow or other, the ramp door opened up . . . and the men
Men board a
landing craft on D-Day
in front were being struck by machine gun fire. Everyone started to jump off into the water.
They were being hit as they jumped, the machine gun fire was so heavy. . . . The tide was
moving us so rapidly. . . . We would grab out on some of those underwater obstructions and
mines built on telephone poles and girders, and hang on. We’d take cover, then make a dash
through the surf to the next one, fifty feet beyond. The men would line up behind those
poles. They’d say, ‘You go—you go—you go,’ and then it got so bad everyone just had to go
anyway, because the waves were hitting with such intensity on these things.
”
—quoted in D-Day: Piercing the Atlantic Wall
Striking Back at the Third Reich
As Lieutenant Carroll’s experience shows, storming a beach under enemy control can
be a terrifying ordeal. There is no cover on a beach, no place to hide, and no way to turn
back. Launching an invasion from the sea is very risky. Unfortunately, the Allies had no
choice. If they were going to win the war, they had to land their troops in Europe and on
islands in the Pacific.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
755
The first large Allied invasion of the war—the
attack on North Africa in November 1942—had
shown that the Allies could mount a large-scale invasion from the sea. The success of the landings convinced Roosevelt that it was again time to meet with
Churchill to plan the next stage of the war. In January
1943, the president headed to Casablanca, Morocco,
to meet the prime minister.
At the Casablanca Conference, Roosevelt and
Churchill agreed to step up the bombing of Germany.
The goal of this new campaign was “the progressive
destruction of the German military, industrial, and
economic system, and the undermining of the morale
of the German people.” The Allies also agreed to
attack the Axis on the island of Sicily. Churchill called
Italy the “soft underbelly” of Europe and was convinced that the Italians would quit the war if the
Allies invaded their homeland.
The bombing campaign did not destroy Germany’s economy or undermine German morale, but
it did cause a severe oil shortage and wrecked the
railroad system. It also destroyed so many aircraft
factories that Germany’s air force could not replace
its combat losses. By the time the Allies landed in
France, they had total control of the air, ensuring that
their troops would not be bombed.
Striking at the Soft Underbelly
As the bombing
campaign against Germany intensified, the plan for
the invasion of Sicily moved ahead as well. General
Dwight D. Eisenhower was placed in overall command of the invasion. General Patton and the British
General Bernard Montgomery were put in charge of
the actual forces on the ground. The invasion began
before dawn on July 10, 1943. Despite bad weather,
the Allied troops made it ashore with few casualties.
A new vehicle, the DUKW—an amphibious truck—
proved very effective in bringing supplies and
Strategic Bombing The Allies had been bombing
artillery to the soldiers on the beach.
Germany even before the Casablanca Conference.
Eight days after the troops came ashore, American
Britain’s Royal Air Force had dropped an average of
tanks led by General Patton smashed through enemy
2,300 tons (2,093 t) of explosives on Germany every
lines and captured the western half of the island.
month for over three years. The United States Eighth
After capturing western Sicily, Patton’s troops
Army Air Force had joined the campaign in the sumheaded east, staging a series of daring end-runs
mer of 1942, and they had dropped an additional 1,500
around the German positions, while the British,
tons (1,365 t) of bombs by the end of the year.
under Montgomery, attacked from the south. By
These numbers were tiny, however, compared to
August 18, the Germans had evacuated the island.
the massive new campaign. Between January 1943 and
The attack on Sicily created a crisis within the
May 1945, the Royal Air Force and the United States
Italian government. The king of Italy, Victor
Eighth Army Air Force dropped approximately 53,000
Emmanuel, and a group of Italian generals decided
tons (48,230 t) of explosives on Germany every month.
that it was time to get rid of Mussolini. On
July 25, 1943, the king invited the dictator to
History
his palace. “My dear Duce,” the king began,
“it’s no longer any good. Italy has gone to
Softening the Gustav Line Infantrymen fire an 81-millimeter mortar to soften the German
bits. The soldiers don’t want to fight anyGustav Line near the Rapido River. Why do you think the Allies decided to attack first in Italy
rather than in France?
more. At this moment, you are the most
hated man in Italy.” The king then placed
Mussolini under arrest, and the new Italian
government began secretly negotiating with
the Allies for Italy’s surrender.
On September 8, 1943, the Italian government publicly announced Italy’s surrender.
The following day, American troops landed
at Salerno. Although stunned by the surrender, Hitler was not about to lose Italy to the
Allies. German troops went into action at
once. They seized control of northern Italy,
including Rome, attacked the Americans at
Salerno, and put Mussolini back in power.
To stop the Allied advance, the German
army took up positions near the heavily
756
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
The Big Three Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill meet at Tehran.
fortified town of Cassino. The terrain near Cassino
was steep, barren, and rocky. Instead of attacking such
difficult terrain, the Allies chose to land at Anzio,
behind German lines. They hoped the maneuver
would force the Germans to retreat. Instead of retreating, however, the Germans surrounded the Allied
troops near Anzio.
It took the Allies five months to break through the
German lines at Cassino and Anzio. Finally, in late
May 1944, the Germans were forced to retreat. Less
than two weeks later, the Allies captured Rome.
Fighting in Italy continued, however, until May 2,
1945. The Italian campaign was one of the bloodiest in
the war. It cost the Allies more than 300,000 casualties.
Landing in France
Roosevelt Meets Stalin at Tehran
Planning Operation Overlord
Roosevelt
wanted to meet with Stalin before the Allies launched
the invasion of France. In late 1943 Stalin agreed, and
he proposed that Roosevelt and Churchill meet him
in Tehran, Iran.
The leaders reached several agreements. Stalin
promised to launch a full-scale offensive against the
Germans when the Allies invaded France in 1944.
Roosevelt and Stalin then agreed to break up
Germany after the war so that it would never again
threaten world peace. Stalin also promised that once
Germany was beaten, the Soviet Union would help
the United States defeat Japan. He also accepted
Roosevelt’s proposal to create an international organization to help keep the peace after the war.
Reading Check Explaining What two major decisions did the Allies make at Casablanca?
After the conference in Tehran, Roosevelt headed
to Cairo, Egypt, where he and Churchill continued
planning the invasion of France. One major decision still had to be made. The president had to
choose the commander for Operation Overlord—
the code name for the planned invasion. Roosevelt
wanted to appoint General George C. Marshall,
Chief of Staff for the United States Army, but he
depended on Marshall for military advice and did
not want to send him to Europe. Instead, the president selected General Eisenhower to command the
invasion.
Knowing that the
Allies would eventually invade France, Hitler had
fortified the coast. Although these defenses were
formidable, the Allies did have one advantage—the
element of surprise. The Germans did not know
when or where the Allies would land. They believed
that the Allies would land in Pas-de-Calais—the
area of France closest to Britain. To convince the
Germans they were right, the Allies placed inflated
rubber tanks, empty tents, and dummy landing
craft along the coast across from Calais. To German
spy planes, the decoys looked real, and they succeeded in fooling the Germans. The real target was
not Pas-de-Calais, but Normandy.
By the spring of 1944, everything was ready.
Over 1.5 million American soldiers, 12,000 airplanes, and more than 5 million tons (4.6 million t)
of equipment had been sent to England. Only one
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
757
last time, shortly after midnight on June 6, 1944,
Eisenhower gave the final order: “OK, we’ll go.”
thing was left to do—pick the date and give the
command to go. The invasion had to begin at night
to hide the ships crossing the English Channel. The
ships had to arrive at low tide so that they could see
the beach obstacles. The low tide had to come at
dawn so that gunners bombarding the coast could
see their targets. Before the main landing on the
beaches, paratroopers would be dropped behind
enemy lines. They required a moonlit night in order
to see where to land. Perhaps most important of all,
the weather had to be good. A storm would ground
the airplanes, and high waves would swamp the
landing craft.
Given all these conditions, there were only a few
days each month when the invasion could begin. The
first opportunity would last from June 5 to 7, 1944.
Eisenhower’s planning staff referred to the day any
operation began by the letter D. The date for the invasion, therefore, came to be known as D-Day. Heavy
cloud cover, strong winds, and high waves made it
impossible to land on June 5. A day later the weather
briefly improved. The Channel was still rough, but
the landing ships and aircraft could operate. It was a
difficult decision. Eisenhower’s advisers were split
on what to do. After looking at weather forecasts one
The Longest Day
Nearly 7,000 ships carrying more
than 100,000 soldiers set sail for the coast of
Normandy on June 6, 1944. At the same time, 23,000
paratroopers were dropped inland, east and west of
the beaches. Allied fighter-bombers raced up and
down the coast, hitting bridges, bunkers, and radar
sites. As dawn broke, the warships in the Allied fleet
let loose with a tremendous barrage of fire. Thousands
of shells rained down on the beaches, code-named
“Utah,” “Omaha,” “Gold,” “Sword,” and “Juno.”
The American landing at Utah Beach went very
well. The German defenses were weak, and in less
than three hours American troops had captured the
beach and moved inland, suffering less than 200
casualties in the process. On the eastern flank, the
British and Canadian landings also went well. By the
end of the day, British and Canadian forces were several miles inland.
Omaha Beach, however, was a different story.
Under intense German fire, the American assault
almost disintegrated. As General Omar Bradley, the
commander of the American forces landing at Omaha
Operation Overlord Had Failed?
In what some historians believe was
the most important weather prediction
in military history, Group Captain
James Stagg, chief meteorologist for
the Royal Air Force, predicted gradual
clearing for Normandy, France, on
June 6, 1944. The prediction was critical
for General Dwight D. Eisenhower,
Supreme Commander of the Allied
Expeditionary Forces. He had already
delayed Operation Overlord once.
The invasion forces of Operation
Overlord were assembled and ready to
go at a moment’s notice. Everything
depended upon a break in the bad
weather so that the assault would
take the Germans by surprise.
Eisenhower trusted the weather
prediction and believed in the battle
plan. The day before the invasion,
however, he wrote the following note
on a small piece of paper—a message
he would deliver in the event the
invasion failed. He mistakenly jotted
“July 5” on the bottom and stuck the
note in his wallet.
Our landings in the Cherbourg“
Havre area have failed to gain a
satisfactory foothold and I have
withdrawn the troops. My decision
to attack at this time and place was
based upon the best information
available. The troops, the air and
the Navy did all that Bravery and
devotion to duty could do. If any
blame or fault attaches to the
attempt it is mine alone.
”
and Utah, grimly watched the carnage, he began
making plans to evacuate Omaha. Slowly, however,
the American troops began to knock out the German
defenses. More landing craft arrived, ramming their
way through the obstacles to get to the beach. Nearly
2,500 Americans were either killed or wounded
on Omaha, but by early afternoon Bradley received
this message: “Troops formerly pinned down on
beaches . . . [are] advancing up heights behind
beaches.” By the end of the day, nearly 35,000
American troops had landed at Omaha, and another
23,000 had landed at Utah. Over 75,000 British and
Canadian troops were on shore as well. The invasion
had succeeded.
Reading Check Summarizing What conditions had
to be met before Eisenhower could order D-Day to begin?
Driving the Japanese Back
While the buildup for the invasion of France was
taking place in Britain, American military leaders
were also developing a strategy to defeat Japan. The
American plan called for a two-pronged attack. The
Pacific Fleet, commanded by Admiral Nimitz, would
advance through the central Pacific by hopping from
one island to the next, closer and closer to Japan.
Meanwhile, General MacArthur’s troops would
advance through the Solomon Islands, capture the
north coast of New Guinea, and then launch an invasion to retake the Philippines.
GEOGRAPHY
Island-Hopping in the Pacific
By the fall of 1943,
the navy was ready to launch its island-hopping
campaign, but the geography of the central Pacific
posed a problem. Many of the islands were coral reef
atolls. The water over the coral reef was not always
deep enough to allow landing craft to get to the
shore. If the landing craft ran aground on the reef, the
troops would have to wade to the beach. As some
5,000 United States Marines learned at Tarawa Atoll,
wading ashore could cause very high casualties.
Tarawa, part of the Gilbert Islands, was the
Navy’s first objective in the Pacific. When the landing craft hit the reef, at least 20 ships ran aground.
The marines had to plunge into shoulder-high water
and wade several hundred yards to the beach. Raked
by Japanese fire, only one marine in three made it
ashore. Once the marines reached the beach the battle was still far from over. As reporter Robert
Sherrod wrote, the marines faced savage hand-tohand fighting:
A Marine jumped over the seawall and began
“
throwing blocks of fused TNT into a coconut-log
pillbox. . . . Two more Marines scaled the seawall, one
of them carrying a twin-cylindered tank strapped to
their shoulders, the other holding the nozzle of the
flame thrower. As another charge of TNT boomed
inside the pillbox, causing smoke and dust to billow out,
a khaki-clad figure ran out the side entrance. The flame
thrower, waiting for him, caught him in its withering
stream of intense fire. As soon as it touched him, the
[Japanese soldier] flared up like a piece of celluloid. He
was dead instantly . . . charred almost to
nothingness.
”
1. What might have happened if the weather had not
changed and the troops had landed amidst fog and
rain?
2. What if the invasion had been delayed and the element
of surprise lost?
—from Tarawa: The Story of a Battle
Over 1,000 marines died on Tarawa. Photos of bodies lying crumpled next to burning landing craft
shocked Americans back home. Many people began to
wonder how many lives it would cost to defeat Japan.
Although many troops died wading ashore, one
vehicle had been able to cross the reef and deliver its
troops onto the beaches. The vehicle was the LVT—a
boat with tank tracks. Nicknamed the “Alligator,” the
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
759
Island-Hopping in the Pacific, 1942–1945
Japanese Empire
and conquests
Farthest extent of
Japan's conquests,
July 1942
Allied forces
Allied victory
Atomic bombing
1. Interpreting Maps Where did the first major battle
between the American and Japanese forces in the
South Pacific take place?
2. Applying Geography Skills Why do you think
Americans adopted the policy of island-hopping?
amphibious tractor, or amphtrac, had been invented
in the late 1930s to rescue people in Florida swamps.
It had never been used in combat, and not until 1941
did the navy decide to buy 200 of them. Had more
been available at Tarawa, the number of American
casualties probably would have been much lower.
The assault on the next major objective—
Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands—went much
more smoothly. This time all of the troops went
ashore in amphtracs. Although the Japanese resisted
fiercely, the marines captured Kwajalein and nearby
Eniwetok with far fewer casualties.
After the Marshall Islands, the navy targeted the
Mariana Islands. American military planners wanted
to use the Marianas as a base for a new heavy bomber,
the B-29 Superfortress. The B-29 could fly farther than
any other plane in the world. From airfields in the
760
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
Marianas, B-29s could bomb Japan. Admiral Nimitz
decided to invade three of the Mariana Islands:
Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. Despite strong Japanese
resistance, American troops captured all three by
August 1944. A few months later, B-29 bombers began
bombing Japan.
MacArthur Returns to the Philippines
As the
forces under Admiral Nimitz hopped across the central Pacific, General MacArthur’s troops began their
own campaign in the southwest Pacific. The campaign began with the invasion of Guadalcanal in
August 1942. It continued until early 1944, when
MacArthur’s troops finally captured enough islands
to surround Rabaul, the main Japanese base in the
region. In response the Japanese withdrew their
ships and aircraft from the base, although they left
100,000 troops behind to hold the island.
Worried that the navy’s advance across the central
Pacific was leaving him behind, MacArthur ordered
his forces to leap nearly 600 miles (966 km) past
Rabaul to capture the Japanese base at Hollandia on
the north coast of New Guinea. Shortly after
securing New Guinea, MacArthur’s troops seized
the island of Morotai—the last stop before the
Philippines.
To take back the Philippines, the United States
assembled an enormous invasion force. In October
1944, more than 700 ships carrying over 160,000
troops sailed for Leyte Gulf in the Philippines. On
October 20, the troops began to land on Leyte, an
island on the eastern side of the Philippines. A few
hours after the invasion began, MacArthur headed to
the beach. Upon reaching the shore, he strode to a
radio and spoke into the microphone: “People of the
Philippines, I have returned. By the grace of Almighty
God, our forces stand again on Philippine soil.”
To stop the American invasion, the Japanese sent
four aircraft carriers toward the Philippines from the
north and secretly dispatched another fleet to the
west. Believing the Japanese carriers were leading
the main attack, most of the American carriers protecting the invasion left Leyte Gulf and headed north
to stop them. Seizing their chance, the Japanese warships to the west raced through the Philippine
Islands into Leyte Gulf and ambushed the remaining
American ships.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf was the largest naval
battle in history. It was also the first time that the
Japanese used kamikaze attacks. Kamikaze means
“divine wind” in Japanese. It refers to the great
storm that destroyed the Mongol fleet during its
invasion of Japan in the thirteenth century.
Kamikaze pilots would deliberately crash their
planes into American ships, killing themselves but
also inflicting severe damage. Luckily for the
Americans, just as their situation was becoming
Checking for Understanding
1. Define: amphtrac, kamikaze.
2. Identify: Casablanca Conference,
Operation Overlord, D-Day, Omar
Bradley, Guadalcanal.
3. Explain why D-Day’s success was so
vital to an Allied victory.
desperate, the Japanese commander, believing more
American ships were on the way, ordered a retreat.
Although the Japanese fleet had retreated, the
campaign to recapture the Philippines from the
Japanese was long and grueling. Over 80,000
Japanese were killed; less than 1,000 surrendered.
MacArthur’s troops did not capture Manila until
March 1945. The battle left the city in ruins and over
100,000 Filipino civilians dead. The remaining
Japanese retreated into the rugged terrain north of
Manila, and they were still fighting when word came
in August 1945 that Japan had surrendered.
Reading Check Describing What strategy did the
United States Navy use to advance across the Pacific?
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
5. Analyzing What made the invasion of
Normandy so important?
6. Organizing Use a graphic organizer to
explain the significance of each leader
listed below.
7. Examining Photographs Study the
photograph on this page. What effect
do you think MacArthur’s return had on
Philippine morale?
Leader
Reviewing Themes
4. Geography and History How did the
geography of the Pacific affect
American strategy?
A Triumphant Return In October 1944, Douglas MacArthur fulfilled his
promise and returned to the Philippines.
Dwight Eisenhower
George Patton
George Marshall
Omar Bradley
Douglas MacArthur
Significance
Writing About History
8. Expository Writing Using library or
Internet resources, find more information on one of the battles discussed in
this section. Use the information to write
a report detailing the importance of the
battle. Share your report with the class.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
761
Geography&History
Cottun
916th
to BAYEUX
Blay
Line planned for
first-day advance
by American forces
Vaucelles
18th
Mandeville
MIDNIGHT SECOND DAY
26th
916th
18th
115th
Mosles
Enemy pulling
back from this
area, midnight,
June 8, 1944
26th
Bellefontaine
26th
Canchy
Surrain
Formigny
18th
16th
Le Grand Hameau
18th
Colleville
Huppain
115th 115th
Ra
vin
e
26th
e
vin
Ra
18th
16th
16th
Port-enBessin
e
vin
Ra
Rocky shore
16th
L
F
I
F
E
E
McCook
St. Laurent
116th
18th
E E
E
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vin
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16th
26th
116th
Rn.
k
F
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it
HA
LD
CHAPTER 25
Le Havre
St.-Lo Caen
ne
i
50
Hardin
E
ow
Glasg
Normandy
FRANCE
R.
Paris
America and World War II
Allied planners had hoped that American
forces landing at Omaha early on June 6,
1944, would advance 5 to 10 miles after 24
hours of fighting. Stiff German resistance,
however, stopped the invaders cold on the
beach. Progress inland was excruciatingly
W
E
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g
SLOW GOING
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0 km
I R
S U P P O
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h Cha n n el
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50
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St
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GO
Dartmouth O
MA
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F
UNITED
KINGDOM
Southampton
(Pointe de la Percee
to Port-en-Bessin
7.75 miles)
Emm
ons
A
DO
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RE
EN
Second wave
landing craft
London
Portland
Thompson
Beach landing
subsectors
BO
American
British
Canadian
Pointe de la Percee
F
D E REEN DOG
P A RED
RT
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175th
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F
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L
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115th 116th
116th
DESTROYER FIRE SUPP
OR
T
Deux
Jumeaux
Montigny
26th
Rav
ine
MT. CAVALIER
115th
Extended arrows
represent advances
on June 8, 1944
MIDNIGHT D-DAY
Carmic
Longueville
18th
16th
Arkans
as
115th
Ecrammeville
18th
VIN
MT. CAU
726th
Flooded plain
Trevieres
slow and painful. The Americans reached
their first-day objective (dotted blue line on
map) only after more than two days of bloody
fighting. Despite terrible losses, American
forces successfully carried out one of the
most crucial missions of the war.
N
A Day for
Heroes
to
ISIGNY
916th
Osmanville
St. Germain
du Pert
175th
La Cambe
Cardonville
116th
to MOISY
116th
Rn.
914th
Grandcamp
St. Pierre
116th
Rn.
Rn.
German
cannon set up, Estuary
later removed
Pointe du Hoc
Satterlee
Talybont
D-Day Forces
A-L
U.S. Company — 200 men
116th U.S. Battalion — 900 men
Rn.
U.S. Rangers
916th German infantry — forces associated
with German battalion
German
resistance point
German coastal
defense
Battleship
Cruiser
Transport
U.S. stronghold
Landing craft
Hedgerows
Landing craft — sunk
Town
T
he selection of a site for the
largest amphibious landing
in history was one of the
biggest decisions of World
War II. Allied planners
needed a sheltered location with flat,
firm beaches and within range of
friendly fighter planes based in
England.
There had to be enough roads
and paths to move jeeps and trucks
off the beaches and to accommodate
the hundreds of thousands of
American, Canadian, and British
troops set to stream ashore following
the invasion. An airfield and a seaport
that the Allies could use were also
needed. Most important was a
reasonable expectation of achieving
the element of surprise.
Five beaches on the northern
coast of Normandy, France, met all the
criteria and were chosen as invasion
sites. On D-Day the attack on four
beaches—Utah in the west and Gold,
Juno, and Sword in the east (inset,
opposite page)—went according to
plan. But at Omaha Beach (map),
between Utah and Gold, the bravery
and determination of the U.S. 1st
Infantry Division was tested in one of
the fiercest battles of the war.
Surrounded at both ends by
cliffs that rose wall-like from the sea,
Omaha was only four miles long. It
was the only sand beach in the area,
however, and thus the only place for
a landing. Unless the Allies were to
leave a 20-mile gap between Utah
and Gold, they would have to come
ashore at Omaha Beach.
Troops crowd into a landing craft to head across
the English Channel to Omaha Beach.
To repel the Allies at the water’s
edge, the Germans built a fortress atop
the cliffs at Pointe du Hoc overlooking
Omaha from the west.They dug
trenches and guns into the 150-foot
bluffs lining the beach and along five
ravines leading off it (see map).
Wading into the surf, the Americans
advanced toward Omaha Beach. Many
men were cut down as the doors of
their landing craft opened.The survivors had to cross more than 300 yards
across a tidal flat strewn with manmade obstacles.Winds and a current
pushed landing craft into clumps as the
men moved ashore.As a result, soldiers
ran onto the beach in groups and
became easy targets. Of the more than
9,000 Allied casualties on D-Day, Omaha
accounted for about one-third.Although
many died, the Americans took control
of the beach and fought their way
inland.As General Omar Bradley later
wrote, “Every man who set foot on
Omaha Beach that day was a hero.”
Scale varies in this perspective
LEARNING FROM GEOGRAPHY
1. Why did the Allies choose Normandy
as the site of the invasion?
Bandaged and shell-shocked,
infantrymen from the American 1st
Division wait to be evacuated after
landing on Omaha Beach.
2. Why was the landing at Omaha
Beach so much more difficult than
U.S. leaders expected?
763
The War Ends
The Main Idea
Reading Strategy
Reading Objectives
The ferocious military campaigns of 1945
finally convinced the Axis powers to surrender and the Allies to set up organizations to prevent another global war.
Taking Notes As you read about the end
of World War II and the organizations set
up to maintain global peace, use the
major headings of the section to create
an outline similar to the one below.
• Explain the tactics the Allies used to
invade Germany and to defeat Japan.
• Outline the reasons the Allies created
the United Nations and held war crimes
trials.
Key Terms and Names
hedgerow, Battle of the Bulge, V-E Day,
Harry S Truman, Curtis LeMay, napalm,
Manhattan Project, V-J Day, United
Nations, charter
The War Ends
I. The Third Reich Collapses
A.
B.
II.
A.
B.
✦1944
Section Theme
Groups and Institutions Allied leaders
forged plans for an international organization to prevent future wars.
✦1945
December 16, 1944
Battle of the Bulge begins
February 19, 1945
American troops
invade Iwo Jima
April 12, 1945
Franklin Roosevelt dies; Harry
Truman becomes president
✦1946
May 7, 1945
Germany
surrenders
August 15, 1945
V-J Day, Japan
surrenders
In 1945 Captain Luther Fletcher entered the German concentration camp at Buchenwald
with a group of Germans who were being forced to see what their country had done. In his
diary Fletcher described what they witnessed:
They saw blackened skeletons and skulls in the ovens of the crematorium. In the yard
“
outside, they saw a heap of white human ashes and bones. . . . [The] dead were stripped
of their clothing and lay naked, many stacked like cordwood waiting to be burned at
the crematory. At one time 5,000 had been stacked on the vacant lot next to the crematory. . . . At headquarters of the SS troops who ran the place were lamp shades made
from human skin. . . . Often, the guide said, the SS wished to make an example of
someone in killing him. . . . They used what I call hay hooks, catching him under the
chin and the other in the back of the neck. He hung in this manner until he died.
Jewish prisoners at a German
concentration camp
”
—quoted in World War II: From the Battle Front to the Home Front
The Third Reich Collapses
Well before the war ended, President Roosevelt and other Allied leaders were
aware that the Nazis were committing atrocities. In 1943 the Allies officially declared
that they would punish the Nazis for their crimes after the war. Meanwhile,
Roosevelt was convinced that the best way to put an end to the concentration camps
was to destroy the Nazi regime. To do that, he believed the Allies had to dedicate
their resources to breaking out of Normandy, liberating France, and conquering
Germany.
764
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
Although D-Day had been a success, it was only the
beginning. Surrounding many fields in Normandy
were hedgerows—dirt walls, several feet thick, covered in shrubbery. The hedgerows had been built to
fence in cattle and crops, but they also enabled the
Germans to fiercely defend their positions. The battle
of the hedgerows ended on July 25, 1944, when 2,500
American bombers blew a hole in the German lines,
enabling American tanks to race through the gap.
As the Allies broke out of Normandy, the French
Resistance—French civilians who had secretly organized to resist the German occupation of their country—staged a rebellion in Paris. When the Allied
forces liberated Paris on August 25, they found the
streets filled with French citizens celebrating their
victory. Three weeks later, American troops were
within 20 miles (32 km) of the German border.
The Battle of the Bulge
As the Allies closed in on
Germany, Hitler decided to stage one last desperate
offensive. His goal was to cut off Allied supplies
coming through the port of Antwerp, Belgium. The
attack began just before dawn on December 16, 1944.
Six inches (15 cm) of snow covered the ground, and
the weather was bitterly cold. Moving rapidly, the
Germans caught the American defenders by surprise.
As the German troops raced west, their lines bulged
outward, and the attack became known as the Battle
of the Bulge.
Part of the German plan called for the capture of the
town of Bastogne, where several important roads converged. If the Allies held Bastogne, it would greatly
delay the German advance. American reinforcements
raced to the town, arriving just ahead of the Germans.
The Germans then surrounded the town and
demanded that the Americans surrender. The American
commander sent back a one-word reply: “Nuts!”
Shortly after the Germans surrounded the
Americans, Eisenhower ordered General Patton to
rescue them. Three days later, faster than anyone
expected in the midst of a snowstorm, Patton’s
troops slammed into the German lines. As the
weather cleared, Allied aircraft began hitting German
fuel depots. On Christmas Eve, out of fuel and weakened by heavy losses, the German troops driving
toward Antwerp were forced to halt. Two days later,
Patton’s troops broke through to Bastogne.
Although fighting continued for three weeks, the
United States had won the Battle of the Bulge. On
January 8, the Germans began to withdraw. They had
suffered more than 100,000 casualties and lost many
tanks and aircraft. They now had very little left to
prevent the Allies from entering Germany.
V-E Day: The War Ends in Europe
While American
and British forces fought to liberate France, the Soviet
Union began a massive attack on German troops in
Russia. By the time the Battle of the Bulge ended, the
Soviets had driven Hitler’s forces out of Russia and
back across Poland. By February 1945, Soviet troops
had reached the Oder River. They were only 35 miles
(56 km) from Berlin.
As the Soviets crossed Germany’s eastern border,
American forces attacked Germany’s western border.
By the end of February 1945, American troops had
fought their way to the Rhine River, Germany’s last
major line of defense in the west. Then on March 7,
American soldiers captured the heights above the
town of Remagen. Gazing down at the town, platoon
leader Emmet J. Burrows was amazed at what he
saw. The Ludendorf Bridge across the Rhine was still
intact. The Germans had not blown it up. The
American troops raced across the bridge, driving
History
Soldiers and Friends The Americans and the Soviets join forces in a longawaited meeting. The alliance is symbolized here by Lieutenants William D.
Robertson of the U.S. First Army and Alexander Sylvashko of the First Ukrainian
Army, in a meeting near Torgau on the Elbe River. What was the Allied strategy during the closing days of the war?
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
765
World War II in Europe and Africa, 1939–1945
20°W
°N
IC
ICELAND
10°W
CI R
0°
10°E
N
R
E
S
O
N
IRELAND
Atlantic
Ocean
DENMARK
UNITED
KINGDOM
London
NETH.
BELG.
lti
c
Major Axis powers
Greatest extent of Axis control
Allied or Allied-controlled
Neutral powers
Allied advance
Supply line
International boundary, Jan. 1938
Moscow
LATVIA
SOVIET UNION
LITH.
EAST
PRUSSIA
Ger.
German central
armies destroyed
May-July, 1944
Warsaw
C ZE
C H O SL
OVA
Vienna KIA
C
as
pi
BULGARIA
ALBANIA
SPANISH
MOROCCO
TURKEY
IRAN
GREECE
LEVANT
STATES
Sp.
Fr.
ALGERIA
TUNISIA
Fr.
Me d i t
CHAPTER 25
IRAQ
PALESTINE
KUWAIT
TRANSJORDAN
Oct. 23, 1942
U.K. mandate
Cairo
L I B YA
It.
back the German defenders. By the end of the day,
American tanks were across the Rhine. Hearing the
news, General Bradley yelled, “Hot dog . . . this will
bust them wide open.”
As German defenses crumbled, American troops
raced east, closing to within 70 miles (113 km) of
Berlin. On April 16, Soviet troops finally smashed
through the German defenses on the Oder River. Five
days later, they reached the outskirts of Berlin.
Deep in his Berlin bunker, Adolf Hitler knew the
end was near. On April 30, 1945, he put a pistol in his
mouth and pulled the trigger. His secretary, Martin
Bormann, carried Hitler’s body outside, doused it
in gasoline, and set it on fire. Before killing himself,
Hitler chose Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz to be
his successor. Doenitz tried to surrender to the
766
U.K.
Supply line to Soviet Union
from the Middle East
U.K. mandate
500 miles
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Fr. mandate
CYPRUS
e r r a n e a n Se a
Fr.
0
It.
July 10, 1943
FRENCH
MOROCCO
a
Naples
Bl ack Se a
Se
YUGOSLAVIA
an
RO MAN I A
Aug. 15, 1944 Rome
Nov. 8, 1942
Aral
Sea
Stalingrad
POLAN D
IT A LY
N
SPAIN
60°E
SWITZ. AUSTRIA HUNGARY
40°
PORTUGAL
50°E
Leningrad
ESTONIA
Berlin
Paris
F R A NC E
Ba
GERMANY
LUX.
D-Day
June 6, 1944
40°E
a
North
Sea
Se
50
°N
30°E
CLE
W
Supply lines
from U.S.
20°E
FIN
LAND
60
CT
W
A
S W
Y
E D
E
N
AR
America and World War II
EGYPT
SAUD I ARAB I A
Americans and British while continuing to fight the
Soviets, but Eisenhower insisted on unconditional
surrender. On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered
unconditionally. The next day—May 8, 1945—was
proclaimed V-E Day, for “Victory in Europe.”
Reading Check Explaining Why was the Battle of
the Bulge such a disastrous defeat for Germany?
Japan Is Defeated
Unfortunately, President Roosevelt did not live to
see the defeat of Germany. On April 12, 1945, while
vacationing in Warm Springs, Georgia, he suffered a
stroke and died. His vice president, Harry S Truman,
became president during this difficult time.
Rise and Fall of Axis Powers
0°
20°W
20°E
1939
40°E
20°W
N
W
50°
N
E
S
40°
0°
20°E
20°W
40°E
1942
W
50°
N
Axis-controlled
territory
N
1,000 miles
1,000 kilometers
0
Bi-Polar Oblique projection
Axis Expansion The Axis powers
included Germany, Italy, Austria, and
the Sudetenland.
USSR
Military Deaths
30°N
1,000 kilometers
0
Bi-Polar Oblique projection
30°N
Axis Control At their height, the Axis
controlled almost all of Europe and
North Africa.
Civilian Deaths
6,700,000
Germany
3,250,000
2,350,000
Japan
1,740,000
393,000
China
1,400,000
8,000,000
Poland
110,000
5,300,000
United States
405,000
2,000
Great Britain
306,000
61,000
Italy
227,000
60,000
France
122,000
470,000
Source: World War II: A Statistical Survey. (Figures are approximate.)
The next day, Truman told reporters: “Boys, if
you ever pray, pray for me now. . . . When they
told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like
the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen
on me.” Despite feeling overwhelmed, Truman
began at once to make decisions about the war.
Although Germany surrendered a few weeks later,
the war with Japan continued to intensify, and
Truman was forced to make some of the most difficult decisions of the war during his first six months
in office.
On November 24,
1944, bombs fell on Tokyo for the first time since
the 1942 Doolittle raid. Above the city flew 80 B-29
1,000 miles
1,000 kilometers
0
Bi-Polar Oblique projection
Axis Collapse The Allies invaded
Germany from the east and the west.
WW I
11,000,000
Uncommon Valor on Iwo Jima
0
1,000 miles
0
Military and Civilian Deaths
in World War II
Country
S
40°
N
0
E
W
50°
N
S
40°E
N
E
40°
N
20°E
0°
1945
N
WW II
Military
86%
Civilian
14%
Military
46%
Civilian
54%
War Casualties World War II took more lives than
any other war in history. More civilians than soldiers
died in the war.
1. Interpreting Maps Which European countries
remained neutral during the war?
2. Applying Geography Skills How did the Soviet Union
receive supplies during the war?
Superfortress bombers that had traveled over 1,500
miles (2,414 km) from new American bases in the
Mariana Islands.
At first the B-29s did little damage because they
kept missing their targets. Japan was simply too far
away: By the time the B-29s reached Japan, they did
not have enough fuel left to fix their navigational
errors or to adjust for high winds. The solution was
to capture an island closer to Japan, where the B-29s
could refuel. After studying the problem, American
military planners decided to invade Iwo Jima.
Iwo Jima was perfectly located, roughly halfway
between the Marianas and Japan, but its geography
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
767
was formidable. At its southern tip was Mount
Suribachi, a dormant volcano. The terrain was
rugged, with rocky cliffs, jagged ravines, and dozens
of caves. Volcanic ash covered the ground. Even
worse, the Japanese had built a vast network of caves
and concrete bunkers connected by miles of tunnels.
On February 19, 1945, 60,000 U.S. Marines landed
on Iwo Jima. As the troops leapt from the amphtracs,
they sank up to their ankles in the soft ash. Meanwhile,
Japanese artillery began to pound the invaders. Robert
Sherrod, who had been on Tarawa, was shocked: “[The
marines] died with the greatest possible violence.
Nowhere in the Pacific have I seen such badly mangled
bodies. Many were cut squarely in half. Legs and arms
lay 50 feet (15 m) away from any body.”
Inch by inch, the marines crawled inland, using
flamethrowers and explosives to attack the Japanese
bunkers. More than 6,800 marines were killed before
the island was captured. Admiral Nimitz later wrote
that on Iwo Jima, “uncommon valor was a common
virtue.”
Firebombing Devastates Japan
While American
engineers prepared airfields on Iwo Jima, General
Curtis LeMay, commander of the B-29s based in the
Marianas, decided to change strategy. To help the
B-29s hit their targets, he ordered them to drop bombs
filled with napalm—a kind of a jellied gasoline. The
bombs were designed not only to explode but also to
start fires. Even if the B-29s missed their targets, the
fires they started would spread to the intended targets.
The use of firebombs was very controversial
because the fires would also kill civilians; however,
LeMay could think of no other way to destroy Japan’s
war production quickly. Loaded with firebombs, B-29s
attacked Tokyo on March 9, 1945. As strong winds
fanned the flames, the firestorm grew so intense that it
sucked the oxygen out of the air, asphyxiating thousands. As one survivor later recalled:
The fires were incredible . . . with flames leaping
“
hundreds of feet into the air. . . . Many people were
gasping for breath. With every passing moment the
air became more foul . . . the noise was a continuing
crashing roar. . . . Fire-winds filled with burning
particles rushed up and down the streets. I watched
people . . . running for their lives. . . . The flames
raced after them like living things, striking them
down. . . . Wherever I turned my eyes, I saw
people . . . seeking air to breathe.
”
—quoted in New History of World War II
“uncommon valor
was a common
virtue”
—Admiral Chester W. Nimitz
History
Planting the Flag Photographer Joe Rosenthal
won the Pulitzer Prize for this photo of five marines
and a navy medical corpsman raising the flag on
Iwo Jima. How do you think photographs such
as this one affected American morale? Why?
The Tokyo firebombing killed over 80,000
people and destroyed more than 250,000 buildings. By the end of June 1945, Japan’s six most
important industrial cities had been firebombed,
destroying almost half of their total urban area.
By the end of the war, the B-29s had firebombed
67 Japanese cities.
The Invasion of Okinawa Despite the massive damage the firebombing caused, there were
few signs in the spring of 1945 that Japan was
ready to quit. Many American officials believed
the Japanese would not surrender until Japan
had been invaded. To prepare for the invasion,
the United States needed a base near Japan to
stockpile supplies and build up troops. Iwo Jima
was small and still too far away. After much discussion, military planners chose Okinawa—
only 350 miles (563 km) from Japan.
American troops landed on Okinawa on
April 1, 1945. Instead of defending the beaches,
the Japanese troops took up positions in the
island’s rugged mountains. To dig the Japanese
out of their caves and bunkers, the Americans
had to fight their way up steep slopes against
constant machine gun and artillery fire. More
than 12,000 American soldiers, sailors, and
marines died during the fighting, but by June 22,
1945, Okinawa had finally been captured.
History
Ship Attacks Kamikaze attacks intensified in 1945, hitting the USS Bunker Hill and many
other American ships. Why do you think these Japanese kamikaze pilots were willing
to fly suicide missions?
The Terms for Surrender Shortly after the United
States captured Okinawa, the Japanese emperor
urged his government to find a way to end the war.
The biggest problem was the American demand for
unconditional surrender. Many Japanese leaders
were willing to surrender but on one condition—the
emperor had to stay in power.
American officials knew that the fate of the emperor
was the most important issue for the Japanese. Most
Americans, however, blamed the emperor for the war
and wanted him removed from power. President
Truman was reluctant to go against public opinion.
Furthermore, he knew the United States was almost
ready to test a new weapon that might force Japan to
surrender without any conditions. The new weapon
was the atomic bomb.
The Manhattan Project In 1939 Leo Szilard, one of
the world’s top physicists, learned that German scientists had split the uranium atom. Szilard had been
the first scientist to suggest that splitting the atom
might release enormous energy. Worried that the
Nazis were working on an atomic bomb, Szilard convinced the world’s best-known physicist, Albert
Einstein, to sign a letter Szilard had drafted and send
it to President Roosevelt. In the letter Einstein
warned that by using uranium, “extremely powerful
bombs of a new type may . . . be constructed.”
Roosevelt responded by setting up a scientific
committee to study the issue. The committee
remained skeptical until 1941, when they met with
British scientists who were already working on an
atomic bomb. The British research so impressed the
Americans that they convinced Roosevelt to begin a
program to build an atomic bomb.
The American program to build an atomic bomb
was code-named the Manhattan Project and was
headed by General Leslie R. Groves. The project’s
first breakthrough came in 1942, when Szilard and
Enrico Fermi, another physicist, built the world’s
first nuclear reactor at the University of Chicago.
Groves organized a team of engineers and scientists
to build an atomic bomb at a secret laboratory in Los
Alamos, New Mexico. J. Robert Oppenheimer led the
team. On July 16, 1945, they detonated the world’s
first atomic bomb near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
The Decision to Drop the Bomb Even before the
bomb was tested, American officials began to debate
how to use it. Admiral William Leahy, chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, opposed using the bomb because
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
769
it killed civilians indiscriminately. He believed that an
economic blockade and conventional bombing would
convince Japan to surrender. Secretary of War Henry
Stimson wanted to warn the Japanese about the bomb
while at the same time telling them that they could
keep the emperor if they surrendered. Secretary of
State James Byrnes, however, wanted to drop the
bomb without any warning to shock Japan into
surrendering.
President Truman later wrote that he “regarded
the bomb as a military weapon and never had any
doubts that it should be used.” His advisers had
warned him to expect massive casualties if the
United States invaded Japan. Truman believed it was
his duty as president to use every weapon available
to save American lives.
The Allies threatened Japan with “prompt and
utter destruction” if the nation did not surrender
unconditionally, but the Japanese did not reply.
Truman then ordered the military to drop the bomb.
On August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber named the Enola
Gay dropped an atomic bomb, code-named “Little
Boy,” on Hiroshima, an important industrial city. The
bomb was dropped at 8:15 A.M. Forty-three seconds
later, it exploded. Heat, radiation, and an enormous
shock wave slammed into Hiroshima.
The bomb destroyed 76,000 buildings—about 63
percent of the city. Somewhere between 80,000 and
120,000 people died instantly, and thousands more
died later from burns and radiation sickness.
Everywhere, as witness Nozaki Kiyoshi recalled,
were “horrific scenes”:
The center of the city was still burning bright red,
“
like live charcoal. Roof tiles were popping. We passed
numerous war dead who had been carbonized. . . .
We found five or six half-burned roofless streetcars.
Inside were piles of corpses smoldering under white
smoke. . . . A young mother lay face down, her baby
tucked under her breast. They looked more like pink
wax dolls than human beings.
”
—quoted in Senso: The Japanese
Remember the Pacific War
A historian opposes Truman’s decision:
Dropping the Atomic Bomb:
Was It the Right Decision?
More than half a century later, people continue to debate
what some historians have called the most important event
of the twentieth century—President Truman’s order to drop
the atomic bomb on Japan. Did his momentous decision
shorten the war and save lives on both sides, or was it
prompted by Truman’s fear that the Soviet Union, poised to
invade, would gain control of Japan after the war?
Historian Gar Alperovitz maintains that Truman possessed
alternatives to the atomic bomb but chose to use the weapon
in order to force Japan’s surrender before the Soviet Union
could mount an invasion and subsequently occupy Japanese
territory.
“Quite simply, it is not true that the atomic bomb was used
because it was the only way to save the ‘hundreds of thousands’ or ‘millions’ of lives as was subsequently claimed. The
readily available options were to modify the surrender terms
and/or await the shock of the Russian attack.
Perhaps it is here, most poignantly, that we
confront our own reluctance to ask the difficult
questions—for even if one were to accept the
most inflated estimates of lives saved by the
atomic bomb, the fact remains that it was an act
of violent destruction aimed at large concentrations of noncombatants.”
—quoted in The Decision to Use the Atomic
Bomb, and the Architecture of an American
Myth
Hiroshima in the aftermath of the atomic bomb
The bombing stunned the Japanese. Three days
later, on August 9, the Soviet Union declared war on
Japan. Later that same day, the United States
dropped another atomic bomb, code-named “Fat
Man,” on the city of Nagasaki, killing between 35,000
and 74,000 people.
Faced with such massive destruction and the
shock of the Soviets joining the war, the Japanese
emperor ordered his government to surrender. On
August 15, 1945—V-J Day—Japan surrendered. On
the other side of the world, Americans celebrated.
For American soldiers the news was especially good.
As one veteran recalled: “We would not be obliged to
run up the beaches near Tokyo assault firing while
being mortared and shelled. For all the fake manliness of our facades, we cried with relief and joy. We
were going to live. We were going to grow up to
adulthood after all.” The long war was finally over.
Reading Check Analyzing What arguments did
Truman consider when deciding whether to use the atomic
bomb?
A historian defends Truman’s decision:
Historian Herbert Feis argues that Truman’s desire to
avoid an invasion of Japan, thus saving thousands of lives
on both sides, motivated his decision to drop the bomb.
“Our right, legal and historical, to use the bomb may
thus well be defended; but those who made the decision to
use it were not much concerned over these considerations,
taking them for granted. Their thoughts about its employment were governed by one reason which was deemed
imperative: that by using the bomb, the agony of war might
be ended more quickly.
The primary and sustaining aim from the start of the
great exertion to make the bomb was military, and the
impelling reason for the decision to use it was military—
to end the war victoriously as soon as possible.”
—quoted in Japan Subdued: The Atomic Bomb and the
End of the War in the Pacific
Learning From History
1. Which of the above interpretations
do you think is the most valid? Why?
2. Using the internet or other
resources, find an account of the
bombing from the point of a
Japanese citizen. How does it differ
from the accounts above, and why?
Family Sacrifices Millions of American homes
proudly displayed banners such as these during the
war. The blue star on the
flag indicated that a family
member was serving in the
military. A gold star proclaimed that an individual
had been killed. Many
homes displayed banners
with several stars, indicating the family had sent
many members off to war.
Building a New World
Well before the war ended, President Roosevelt
had begun to think about what the world would be
like after the war. The president had wanted to
ensure that war would never again engulf the world.
Creating the United Nations President Roosevelt
believed that a new international political organization could prevent another world war. In 1944, at the
Dumbarton Oaks Estate in Washington, D.C., delegates from 39 countries met to discuss the new
organization, which was to be called the United
Nations (UN).
The delegates at the conference agreed that the UN
would have a General Assembly, where every member nation in the world would have one vote. The UN
would also have a Security Council with 11 members.
Five countries would be permanent members of the
Security Council: Britain, France, China, the Soviet
Union, and the United States—the five big powers
that had led the fight against the Axis. These five permanent members would each have veto power.
On April 25, 1945, representatives from 50 countries came to San Francisco to officially organize the
United Nations and design its charter, or constitution. The General Assembly was given the power to
vote on resolutions, to choose the non-permanent
members of the Security Council, and to vote on the
UN budget. The Security Council was responsible
for international peace and security. It could investigate any international problem and propose settlements to countries that had disputes with each other.
It could also take action to preserve the peace,
including asking its members to use military force to
uphold a UN resolution.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
771
History
V-J Day Photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt captured this image in Times
Square during the victory celebration on V-J Day. No one knows the identities of the sailor and the nurse in the photo. Why did this photograph
become so famous?
Putting the Enemy on Trial
Although the Allies
had declared their intention to punish German and
Japanese leaders for their war crimes, they did not
work out the details until the summer of 1945. In
early August, the United States, Britain, France, and
the Soviet Union created the International Military
Checking for Understanding
1. Define: hedgerow, napalm, charter.
2. Identify: Battle of the Bulge, V-E Day,
Harry S Truman, Curtis LeMay,
Manhattan Project, V-J Day, United
Nations.
3. List the major campaigns on the
European and Pacific fronts in 1945.
4. Explain how the United States developed the atomic bomb.
5. Describe the war crimes trials.
CHAPTER 25
Reading Check Describing How is the United
Nations organized?
Critical Thinking
Analyzing Visuals
7. Analyzing If you had been an adviser
to President Truman, what advice
would you have given him about dropping the atomic bomb? Give reasons
why you would have given this advice.
8. Categorizing Using a graphic organizer like the one below, fill in the structure of the United Nations.
9. Examining Photographs Study the
photograph on page 770 of Hiroshima
after the atomic bomb was dropped.
What effect do you think this photograph may have had on the American
public? Why?
Reviewing Themes
6. Continuity and Change Why do you
think the goal of world peace has yet to
be achieved?
772
Tribunal (IMT). At the Nuremberg trials in Nuremberg, Germany, the IMT tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes.
Twenty-two leaders of Nazi Germany were prosecuted at Nuremberg. Three were acquitted and
another seven were given prison sentences. The
remaining 12 were sentenced to death by hanging.
Trials of lower-ranking government officials and military officers continued until April 1949. Those trials
led to the execution of 24 more German leaders.
Another 107 were given prison sentences.
Similar trials were held in Tokyo for the leaders of
wartime Japan. The IMT for the Far East charged 25
Japanese leaders with a variety of war crimes.
Significantly, the Allies did not indict the Japanese
emperor. They feared that any attempt to put him
on trial would lead to an uprising by the Japanese
people. Eighteen Japanese defendants were sentenced
to prison. The rest were sentenced to death by hanging.
The war crimes trials punished many of the people
responsible for World War II and the Holocaust, but
they were also part of the American plan for building
a better world. As Robert Jackson, chief counsel for
the United States at Nuremberg, observed in his
opening statement to the court: “The wrongs we seek
to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so
malignant and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated.”
America and World War II
United Nations
Branch
Branch
Responsibilities
Responsibilities
Writing About History
10. Descriptive Writing Imagine you are
on the staff of the International Military
Tribunal in Nuremberg after the war.
Write a letter to a family member in the
United States explaining why the tribunal is conducting trials and what you
hope the trials will accomplish.
frombyFarewell
to Manzanar
Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston
The following excerpt describes Jeanne Wakatsuki's first impressions as she and her
family arrived at the internment camp.
Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston
was born in Inglewood, California. In 1942, when she was
seven years old, her family was
uprooted from their home and
sent to live at the Manzanar
internment camp in California.
The detainees had committed
no crimes. They were detained
simply because of their heritage.
Farewell to Manzanar is the
story of the Wakatsuki family’s
attempt to survive the indignities of forced detention and living behind barbed wire in the
United States.
Read to Discover
How does Jeanne Wakatsuki
Houston describe the internment camp that is to be her new
home? What does her description remind you of?
Reader’s Dictionary
barracks: plain and barren
lodgings usually used to
house soldiers
milling: wandering
savory: seasoned with spices
We drove past a barbed-wire fence,
through a gate, and into an open
space where trunks and sacks and
packages had been dumped from the
baggage trucks that drove out ahead
of us. I could see a few tents set up,
the first rows of black barracks, and
beyond them . . . rows of barracks
that seemed to spread for miles across
the plain. People were sitting on cartons or milling around . . . waiting to
see which friends or relatives might
be on this bus. . . .
We had pulled up just in time for
dinner. The mess halls weren’t completed yet. . . . They issued us army
mess kits, the round metal kind that
fold over, and plopped in scoops of
canned Vienna sausage, canned
string beans, steamed rice that had
been cooked too long, and on top of
the rice a serving of canned apricots.
The caucasian servers were thinking
that the fruit poured over rice would
make a dessert. Among the Japanese,
of course, rice is never eaten with
sweet foods, only with salty or
savory foods. . . .
After dinner we were taken to
Block 16, a cluster of fifteen
barracks. . . . The shacks were built
of one thickness of pine planking
covered with tarpaper. . . . We were
assigned two of these for the twelve
people in our family group; and
our official family “number” was
enlarged by three digits—16 plus the
number of this barracks. We were
issued steel army cots, two brown
army blankets, each, and some mattress covers, which my brothers
stuffed with straw.
Analyzing Literature
1. Recall and Interpret How did the
food served at the camp show a lack
of understanding of Japanese culture?
2. Evaluate and Connect Why do you
think the families in the camps were
assigned numbers?
Interdisciplinary Activity
Art and Architecture Draw plans for a
community memorial for remembering
Japanese Americans who were treated
unfairly during World War II.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
773
Reviewing Key Terms
Critical Thinking
On a sheet of paper, use each of these terms in a sentence.
24. Interpreting Primary Sources Many historians believe that
the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s had its
roots in the Double V campaign and the March on
Washington. Alexander Allen, a member of the Urban
League during the war, believed that World War II was a
turning point for African Americans. Read the excerpt and
answer the questions that follow.
1. cost-plus
6. Sunbelt
11. hedgerow
2. Liberty ship
7. rationing
12. napalm
3. disfranchise
8. victory garden
13. charter
4. periphery
9. amphtrac
5. convoy system
10. kamikaze
Up to that point the doors to industrial and eco“
nomic opportunity were largely closed. Under the pres-
Reviewing Key Facts
14. Identify: Selective Service and Training Act, Chester Nimitz,
Douglas MacArthur, George Patton, E bond, Casablanca
Conference, D-Day, Manhattan Project, United Nations.
15. What was the “Double V” campaign?
16. How did the war change patterns of population movement
and settlement in the United States?
17. How did the war effort change employment opportunities for
women and African Americans?
18. Why was the Doolittle raid so important to Americans?
19. How did the American government ensure that there were
enough necessities to supply the war effort?
20. Why did the United States adopt a policy of island-hopping in
the Pacific?
21. What was problematic about the Allied invasion at Omaha
Beach?
22. Why were the victories on Iwo Jima and Okinawa so vital to
the Allies?
23. What did the Allies do to punish Axis leaders after the war?
sure of war, the pressures of government policy, the
pressures of world opinion, the pressures of blacks
themselves and their allies, all this began to change. . . .
The war forced the federal government to take a
stronger position with reference to discrimination, and
things began to change as a result. There was a tremendous attitudinal change that grew out of the war. There
had been a new experience for blacks, and many
weren’t willing to go back to the way it was before.
”
—quoted in Wartime America
a. How did the war change the status of African Americans
in American society?
b. Why do you think the war forced the government to take
a stronger position on discrimination in the workplace?
25. Analyzing Themes: Global Connections How did World
War II underscore the importance of an international organization such as the United Nations?
1941
The Pacific
1942
1943
1944
1945
Japan attacks Pearl
Harbor on December 7.
The United States defeats
Japan in the Battles of the
Coral Sea and Midway.
The United States
launches its islandhopping campaign.
The United States retakes
the Philippines.
The United States
drops atomic bombs;
Japan surrenders on
August 15.
The Allies turn the tide
in the Battle of the
Atlantic.
The Allies invade Italy;
Germans surrender at
Stalingrad.
The Allies invade
Normandy on June 6.
Germany surrenders
unconditionally on
May 7.
WAAC is established;
Japanese American
relocation is ordered.
OWM is established;
Detroit and Zoot Suit Riots
occur.
The case of Korematsu v.
United States is decided.
The UN charter is
signed.
Europe and North Africa
The Home Front
President Roosevelt
forbids race discrimination
in defense industries.
Battle of the Bulge,
December 1944–January 1945
HISTORY
15 miles
0
NETH.
5°E
R.
use
Me
December 25
Europe
the
ur
Stavelot
Ciney
Dinant
Celles
N
A
29. Reading a Thematic Map Study the map of migration patterns on page 751. Then use the steps you learned about
reading thematic maps on page 748 to answer the following
questions.
a. Interpreting Maps Which regions had a net loss of
residents to other regions during this period?
b. Synthesizing Information How were the locations of the
four fastest growing cities similar?
Pr¨um
D
Clervaux
Bastogne
Wiltz
Libramont
Neufchˆateau
Arlon
FRANCE
S
GERMANY
Houffalize
E
E
W
La Roche N
American units at Bastogne
were encircled on Dec. 19,
and relieved on Dec. 26.
Practicing Skills
N
Vielsalm E
Rochefort
R
December 16
R.
Huy
Vianden
O
ur
R.
Echternach
LUXEMBOURG
6°E
R.
Namur
St. Hubert
Pacific
January 16
Li`ege
BELGIUM
O
26. Analyzing Effects Do you think the opportunities that
opened up for women during World War II would have
developed if the United States had stayed out of the war?
Explain your answer.
27. Synthesizing Why do you think the United States was able
to successfully fight a war on multiple fronts?
28. Categorizing Use a concept web similar to the one below
to list the major campaigns in the Pacific and in Europe.
Aachen
15 kilometers
0
Albers Conic Equal-Area projection
Front line at
date shown.
Trier
Mose
lle
Visit the American Vision Web site at tav.glencoe.com
and click on Self-Check Quizzes—Chapter 25 to
assess your knowledge of chapter content.
U.S. forces
British forces
German forces
S
Self-Check Quiz
Luxembourg
Geography and History
33. The map above shows troop movements at the Battle of the
Bulge. Study the map and answer the questions below.
a. Interpreting Maps At what location did the Germans
surround American forces on December 25?
b. Applying Geography Skills What geographic features
did the Germans encounter as they attacked? What information on the map shows you this?
Chapter Activities
30. Research Project Use library or Internet resources to find
information on the United Nations today. Use what you find
to design an illustrated brochure highlighting the organization’s work.
31. Analyzing Geographic Patterns and Distributions Look at
the chart on Military and Civilian Deaths in World War II
found on page 767. Create a thematic map indicating each
country and the deaths that occurred there. Then write a
quiz based on the chart about the distribution of casualties
around the world and the patterns this suggests.
Writing Activity
32. Persuasive Writing Assume the role of an immigrant who
fled Fascist Europe in 1933 and who has become a U.S. citizen. You have just read about the proposed United Nations,
and you want to write your senator to urge that the United
States join the organization or boycott it. Choose which position you support, and write a letter trying to convince the senator to support your position.
Standardized
Standardized
Test
TestPractice
Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the
following question.
Why did Britain and France finally declare war in 1939?
A Because Germany annexed part of Czechoslovakia
B Because Germany invaded Poland
C Because Italy invaded France
D Because of the non-aggression pact between Russia and
Germany
Test-Taking Tip: Use the process of elimination to rule out
answers you know are wrong. For example, it is unlikely that
a non-aggression pact between Russia and Germany would
cause Britain and France to declare war, so this answer can
be eliminated.
CHAPTER 25
America and World War II
775
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