Learning 1. A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally

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Learning
1. A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not
naturally bring about the response of interest is
called _____.
a) a neutral stimulus
b) irrelevant
c) an unconditioned stimulus
d) an unnatural condition
2. A Vietnam veteran experiences an intense
emotional reaction to a clap of thunder. His
emotional response is an example of a(n) _____.
a) Conditioned Stimulus
b) Unconditioned Stimulus
c) Conditioned Response
d) Unconditioned Response
3. Most phobias are explained by _____.
a) personality defects
b) latent learning
c) classical conditioning
d) operant conditioning
4. An event that increases the probability that a
response will be repeated is called _____.
a) a positive operation
b) reinforcement
c) an operational directive
d) a discriminative stimulus
5. An event that decreases the likelihood that a
response will be repeated is called _____.
a) a negative operant
b) punishment
c) negative reinforcement
d) a discriminative stimulus
6. As a social worker, you are concerned about
Little Albert and want to weaken his conditioned
response to white rats. You repeatedly show Little
Albert a white rat but don’t make any loud noises.
Eventually Little Albert stops showing fear and once
again shows an interest in white rats. You have
successfully:
a. Created a higher-order condition
b. Created a new neutral stimulus
c. Used a reinforcer
d. Used extinction
7. Taking away an unpleasant stimulus that
strengthens or increases a response is called:
a) secondary punishment
b) primary punishment
c) negative reinforcement
d) primary reinforcement
8. The occurrence of a learned response only to a
specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli is
called stimulus _____.
a) inflexibility
b) recovery
c) differentiation
d) discrimination
9. This hidden learning exists without behavioral
signs until there is some reason to demonstrate it.
a) subliminal learning
b) subconscious learning
c) lucid learning
d) latent learning
10. The occurrence of a learned response to stimuli
that are similar to the original stimulus is called
stimulus ____.
a) inflexibility
b) behavior
c) generalization
d) responsiveness
11. Operant conditioning occurs when a. a neutral
stimulus is associated with an unconditioned
stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.
b. voluntary responses are controlled by their
consequences.
c. new behavior or information is learned by
watching others.
d. learning takes place but there are no behavioral
signs of learning.
12. Bartholomew the Norwegian Hooded rat has
been working in a study in which he is reinforced by
a food pellet after different amounts of time.
Bartholomew is being reinforced on a __ schedule.
a. fixed ratio
b. fixed interval
c. variable ratio
d. variable interval
13. To be effective punishment should be
a. public and painful.
b. threatened and acted upon.
c. hard and unyielding.
d. immediate and consistent.
14. The sudden understanding of a problem that
implies the solution is called a(n) _____.
a) idea
b) inspiration
c) insight
d) cognitive awakening
15. When a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a
conditioned stimulus (CS) because of pairings with
a previously created CS it is called:
a. combined conditioning.
b. higher-order conditioning.
c. response generalization.
d. stimulus generalization.
16. School grades are examples of what type of
reinforcer.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. punishing
17. Which is not one of the possible problems of
punishment?
a. extinction
b. imitating the punishing behavior
c. a climate too stressful for learning
d. increased aggression
18. Which of the following is an example of the use
of classical conditioning in everyday life?
a) Treating alcoholism with a drug that causes
nausea when alcohol is consumed
b) The use of seductive women to sell cars
c) Politicians associating themselves with home,
family, babies, and the American flag
d) all of these options
19. The reappearance of a previously extinguished
conditioned response after a period of time without
exposure to the Conditioned Stimulus is called:
a) a flashback
b) immediate recall
c) spontaneous recovery
d) sudden recall
20. Reinforcement and punishment are defined in
terms of:
a) whether they increase or decrease responses
b) whether they cause pleasure and pain
c) adaptive significance
d) intrinsic and extrinsic motives
21. The addition of a(n) _____ stimulus results in
positive reinforcement; whereas the subtraction of
a(n) _____
stimulus results in negative reinforcement.
a) desirable; painful or annoying
b) primary; secondary
c) operant; classical
d) higher order; lower order
22. Continuous reinforcement occurs when:
a) all responses are rewarded
b) all rewards are reinforcing
c) every correct response is rewarded
d) all of these options
23. When you put nickels in a gum-ball machine,
you receive a _____ schedule of reinforcement;
when you put nickels in a slot machine, you receive
a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
a) continuous; continuous
b) fixed; variable
c) variable; fixed
d) partial; partial
Development
24. At birth the least developed sensory system is
a. taste.
b. touch.
c. hearing.
d. vision.
25. This is the first stage of prenatal development
(from conception to implantation), characterized by
rapid cell division.
a) embryonic period
b) zygote stage
c) critical period
d) germinal period
26. The major body organs and systems start
taking shape during this period of pregnancy, from
implantation through the 8th week.
a) embryonic
b) fetal
c) zygotic
d) germinal
27. Studies of an infant's attachment to a parent
and an adult's love for a romantic partner have
found that:
a) insecurely attached infants become ambivalently
attached adults
b) infant attachment is closely correlated with later
patterns of romantic love in adulthood
c) securely attached infants tend to be less
attached as adolescents
d) avoidant infants tend to be obsessed with their
romantic partners as adults
28. Which of the following is NOT true regarding
infant sensory and perceptual development?
a) Vision is almost 20/20 at birth.
b) A newborn's sense of pain is highly developed at
birth.
c) An infant can recognize, and prefers, its own
mother's breastmilk by smell.
d) An infant can recognize, and prefers, its own
mother's breastmilk by taste.
29. An environmental agent that causes damage
during prenatal development is known as a
a. critical period.
b. scaffolding.
c. embryo.
d. teratogen.
30. According to Baumrind, what are the three
major parenting styles?
a) permissive, authoritative, authoritarian
b) securely attached, avoidant, and
anxious/ambivalent
c) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational
d) none of the above
31. Tesia said, "The rain quit falling because I
wanted to go out to play." This is an example of
____, which indicates that Tesia is in the _____ of
cognitive dvelopment.
a) animism; sensorimotor stage
b) subjective permanence; preoperational
c) egocentrism; preoperational stage
d) conservation; concrete operational stage
32. Once a child can perform mental operations on
concrete objects, and understand the principles of
conservation and reversibility, she has reached
Piaget's _____ stage.
a) post-operational
b) operational
c) formal operational
d) concrete operational
33. The ability to think abstractly or hypothetically
occurs in Piaget's _____ stage.
a) egocentric
b) post-operational
c) formal operational
d) concrete operational
34. _____ refers to a young child's inability to
experience anyone else's point of view.
a) Preoperational egocentrism
b) Social egoism
c) Preoperational ethnocentrism
d) Preoperational ego-fantasy
35. Conception occurs when a(n) _____.
a) fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining
b) ovum undergoes its first cell division
c) ejaculation occurs
d) sperm cell unites with an ovum (egg)
36. Menopause is _____.
a) another name for the onset of the menstrual
cycle
b) a time of wild mood swings for all women due to
fluctuations in hormones
c) the cessation of the menstrual cycle
d) the result of increases in estrogen levels
37. The physical and psychological changes
associated with middle age in men are called:
a) testosterone crisis
b) andropause
c) reproductive decline
d) male refractory period
38. Roberta refuses to go to school today because
she's afraid everyone will notice that she is having
a really bad hair day. Her fears most clearly
illustrate _____.
a) formal operational thinking
b) peer pressure
c) adolescent ethnocentrism
d) imaginary audience
39. According to Baumrind, the _____ parenting
style is most likely to produce self-reliant and high
achieving
children.
a) permissive
b) autonomous
c) authoritative
d) authoritarian
40. Eric is demanding and disobedient, has no
respect for the property or rights of others, and is
impulsive, immature, and out of control. According
to Baumrind , it is MOST likely that his parents are
engaged in _____ parenting.
a) abusive
b) authoritarian
c) authoritative
d) permissive
Anxiety Disorders
41. Chronic, uncontrollable, excessive worrying
about nothing in particular is associated with
_____.
a. panic attack
b. hysteria
c. generalized anxiety disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
42. Sudden inexplicable episodes of intense fear
with an impending sense of doom is associated
with _____.
a. hysteria
b. general anxiety disorder
c. panic disorder
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
43. This is characterized by an intense, irrational
fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
a. panic attack
b. panic disorder
c. hysterical disorder
d. phobia
44. This is characterized by anxiety caused by
intrusive thoughts or urges to perform repetitive,
ritualistic behaviors.
a. obsessive-compulsive disorder
b. generalized anxiety disorder
c. agoraphobia
d. ritual abuse
45. Which of the following MOST clearly illustrates
an obsessive-compulsive disorder?
a. Morgan washes her hands 10 times after
learning that the patient she just treated has
hepatitis B.
b. Kendrick is so anxious about his speech for
tomorrow that he reviews his notes 20
times.
c. Jake constantly thinks about germs and
infections and repeats to himself the steps
in avoiding the flu before entering any room.
He washes his hands every time he feels
anxious because he feels that he has to,
which is at least 30 times a day.
d. Mason's house was burglarized last week.
He now checks the locks on his doors and
windows 5 times a night, and listens to the
radio to stop worrying about his safety.
46. This is a biological explanation for the
development of anxiety disorders.
a. There may be an evolutionary
predisposition to fear what is dangerous.
b. Some individuals may have a genetic
predisposition for becoming easily aroused
or unable to relax.
c. Biochemical disturbances due to
substances like caffeine, lactic acid, or
hyperventilation may play a role.
d. all of these options
ANSWERS
1. A Learning
2. C
3. C
4. B
5. B
6. D
7. C
8. D
9. D
10. C
11. B
12. D
13. D
14. C
15. B
16. B
17. A
18. D
19. C
20. A
21. A
22. C
23. B
24. D Development
25. D
26. A
27. B
28. A
29. D
30. A
31. C
32. D
33. C
34. A
35. A
36. C
37. B
38. D
39. C
40. D
41. C Anxiety
42. C
43. D
44. A
45. C
46. D
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