Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 20 (No 3) 2014, 643-646
PROPERTIES OF NEW VARIETIES AND LINES BURLEY TOBACCO
INVESTIGATION ON CONSUMABLES
S. KIRKOVA, Y. DYULGERSKI and T. MILANOVA
Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute (TTPI), BG – 4004 Markovo, Bulgaria
KIRKOVA, S., Y. DYULGERSKI and T. MILANOVA, 2014. Properties of new varieties and lines Burley tobacco
investigation on consumables. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 20: 643-646
Consistently applied policy of the European Commission and implemented reforms affected dramatically the cultivated
areas and the amount of raw tobacco, including and group Burley, both in EU and in Bulgaria. In Bulgaria there is a mismatch
between demand and supply of preferred varieties of tobacco, which requires the creation of new varieties of Burley. Main
criterion in assessing the quality of tobacco is the result of tasting assessment. The aim of the research is to establish whether
created new varieties and lines Burley tobacco have desired and sought after features such as raw material in the manufacture
of tobacco products. Based on standardized methods for analysis and processing of the results it is found that the new variety
Burley 1344 and Line 1354 excel at consumable properties using standards Burley Pliska 2002.
Key words: tobacco, Burley tobacco, smoking properties, new varieties
Tobacco production in the European Union represents
four percent of world production, with a decreasing trend
(Eurostat). Between Member States of the Community, the
largest producer is Italy, followed by Bulgaria, Poland and
Spain (European Commission - DGAGRI/C3). Consistently
applied policy of the European Commission and implemented reforms affected dramatically the cultivated areas and the
amount of raw tobacco in the country, including and variety group Burley (Contract carde n° 30-CE-0197396/00-06).
Meanwhile, Bulgaria has an established name in the international market as a traditional producer of tobacco (Bozukov,
2012, 2012; Bozukov, 2013). On the one hand, continuing restrictions provoked and stimulated research, including and
selection. On the other, there is a certain imbalance between
demand and supply of tobacco varieties that are desired by
both producers and consumers. This requires the creation of
new varieties of burley tobacco market with estimated production and consumable features (Dyulgerski, 2011).
Tobacco is a wide range of applications, but most often
grown as raw material for tobacco products (Bozukov, 2012;
Bozukov et al., 2012). They in turn are consumption, ie taste
products. Despite the diversity of his (snuff, chewing and
E-mail: [email protected]
smoking) highest share among them take the smoking article.
Based on studies in the middle of the last century (Tanchev
et al., 1978), it is found that the taste products, sensory
parameters are critical and have a weight percent - 60. Follow
physicochemical parameters, with about 30 weight percent
and the third etc. “Complementary” with a weight up to 10
percent. For these reasons, the main criterion for evaluation
of tobacco is tasting. Tasting evaluation is based both for
research and for the production and control activities.
The chemical composition is different for different types
of tobacco. It has been shown that the smoking characteristics
of tobacco depend primarily upon the ratio of the different
groups of substances rather than absolute content (Ghiuselev,
1983). The formation of the composition will depend on many
factors, including the climatic and agronomic (Bozhinova et
al., 2002; Peksuslu et al., 2002; Zaprianova, 2005; Bozhinova
and Dyulgerski, 2006; Zaprianova, 2006, 2006; Bozhinova,
2010; Bozhinova and Dyulgerski, 2010). Many authors believe
that due to atypical environment for growing in the country
(relative humidity and temperature) Burley tobacco does not
reveal the qualities and does not meet the requirements of
the tobacco industry in the smoking properties and chemical
composition (Drachev, 1994; Popova et al., 2003; Popova et
The aim of the research is to determine whether the newly
created Burley tobacco varieties and lines have desirable and
sought-after features such as raw material in the manufacture
of tobacco products.
Material and Methods
Studied are a new variety Burley 1344 and Line 1354,
created at the of Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute
(TTPI), Markovo, Plovdiv. Tobacco conditionally marked by
a variety Burley 1344 as № 1 and line with Burley 1354 as №
2. For the control - K, we serve standard Burley Pliska 2002
enshrined in the Variety List of the Bulgaria. The database
was established for a period of three years (2009 - 2011) by
tobaccos grown in the experimental field of TTPI under the
same conditions (agricultural activities, drying, fermentation).
Samples were tested on basic physical parameters - nicotine,
sugars, total nitrogen and ash, and the smoking properties.
Smoking initiation of the samples was carried out according to
BDS 8389-85 of laboratory-made cigarettes without filter and
all other conditions: moisture 12.5; mass of cigarettes – 0.970 g
and air permeability of cigarette paper - 43 CU. For processing
and analysis of results are used standardized methods.
Results and Discussion
Burley tobacco grown in the country is characterized by
the content of basic chemicals, as follows: nicotine maximum
2.5, ammonia - about 1.0; sugars - to 3.0 and ashes - to 17.
Burley is generally high nicotine tobacco loose structure and
high filling power. Unprotonated contains nicotine, which results in spasm (sharpness) high rate and nitrogen compounds.
The specific chemical composition determines the peculiarities of the smoking properties. Paradoxically, the unpleasant
aroma of Burley tobacco, the high degree of physiological
strength and sharpness, even bitter taste manifested determine its level of quality.
The main indicators of the chemical composition of the
samples is displayed on figures with 1, 2 and 3 and K is chemical composition of control - Burley Pliska 2002, № 1 of the
variety Burley 1344 and № 2 - Burley line 1354.
From the results it is apparent that the reference period for
the control was characterized by unacceptable levels of indicators of Burley tobacco. It is the lower values for the nicotine, which is in the range from 2.3 to a maximum value 3.00.
The lowest are values for total nitrogen - from 2.86 to 3.9. At
the same time, report the highest values for sugars.
In general, the chemical composition of the control during
the research covers the classical notions of Burley tobacco
grown in the country (Figure 1).
S. Kirkova, Y. Dyulgerski and T. Milanova
Sample №1 is with the best performance. Nicotine reaches 3.48 in 2010, a slight decline in 2011. Also shows higher
values for total nitrogen. Sugars are low. Sample № 2 is in
lesser degree retreat from № 1. Nicotine and total nitrogen
are distinctly higher values than achieved under control (Figures 2 and 3).
All three studied tobacco report low rates of indicators for
2009. This can be explained by the adverse weather conditions during the crop year.
The results of the tasting evaluation are displayed in Figures
3, 4 and 5, where 3 is the user’s control over the study period,
4 is a new variety Burley 1344 and 5 Line Burley 1354.
When the control is clearly atypical and balanced smoking
tobacco Burley in 2009 this trend continued in 2010. The
results were confirmed in 2011 - the control is unusually
smooth taste of tobacco Burley type. Untypical for the type
of event is burning sensation. Taxing is not clean (occurrence
of aftertaste). Physiological force is insufficient to Burley.
Lacking sharpness. Basic perceptions in the aroma reach
below average degree. Lacking the necessary purity and
density. Expression or typicality of the type of tobacco is
also a degree of manifestation below average. The taste is
unusually balanced (Figure 4)
In the new variety Burley 1344appears bitterness in lesser
degree, harassment is elevated, physiological force is above
average extent by the presence of sharpness. In 2009, the
sample superior control on main elements of evaluation aroma, taste and force. In 2010, this trend continued. In 2011,
the new variety Burley 1344 is significantly different and
superior control to the typicality of the taste and aroma of
complex of tobacco Burley. The fragrance is characterized by
the typical nature, purity and density. Taste prevailed irritation
and completeness. Taxation is clean. Lacking burning in
above average degree of force physiological manifestation is
a distinct sharpness (Figure 5).
Line 1354 is similar in character to the new variety Burley 1344. In less to its inferior elements of perception, but is
typically reveals the smoking properties. The sample excels
in the control by taste-aroma complex. Here, the worst score
is 2009, but retained the character of the type of tobacco. The
smoking properties of the line are revealed in 2010. In 2011,
the results are best. Characterized is by typical and clean,
solid and pleasant to type Burley flavor. The taste is dominated irritation and completeness. Lacking burning. Taxation
is clean. Physiological force reaches above average degree of
manifestation. There is sharpness (Figure 6).
Result of the research shows that 2009 is not favorable for
the formation of the utility properties of Burley tobacco. Control - Burley Pliska 2002 does not reveal typical of Burley tobacco smoking and properties. New variety Burley 1344 and
Properties of New Varieties and Lines Burley Tobacco Investigation on Consumables
Line 1354 are much superior line utility properties of the control. Moreover, they exhibit the stability of expression over
time. However, that Line 1354 less to retreat from the new
s n s. n s th ss
n e y
idittensit resio pur ensitternesaxatiog sen itatio ulnestreng rpne
f s sha
t nin irr
s in exp
Fig. 4. Tasting evolution – control
Nicotine, % Sugars, %
Fig. 2. Chemical composition – new varieties Burley 1344
variety Burley 1344, both variants fully meets the requirements of industry in chemical composition and especially the
Fig. 1. Chemical composition – control
Fig. 3. Chemical composition – Line 1354
n ns. n s th ss
n e ty s
idittensi presio purdensi ternesaxationg se ritatio ulnestreng rpne
f s sha
s i ex
Fig. 5. Tasting evolution – new variety Burley 1344
0 y y
n ns. n s th ss
n e ty s
idit nsi esio purdensi ternesaxationg se ritatio ulnestreng rpne
f s sha
sap inte expr
Fig. 6. Tasting evolution – Line 1354
2009 was not favorable for the formation of the utility properties of Burley tobacco. The control does not reveal typical
of Burley tobacco smoking and properties. New variety
Burley 1344 and Line 1354 are much superior line utility
properties of control by showing the stability of expression
over time. However, that Line in 1354 less to retreat from
the new variety Burley 1344, both variants fully meets the
requirements of the industry in the smoking properties.
Consistently applied restrictions to tobacco largely regulate supply and demand of raw materials with certain characteristics. The selection is limitless possibilities in this respect,
and selection in TTPI it has proven repeatedly. To keep the
country, as a traditional world-renowned producer of tobacco, is necessary, new look and rearrangements of priorities
in research and selection and introduction of new varieties
Bozukov, Ch., S. Kirkova and P. Zaprianova, 2012. Study of
technologically unusable tobacco waste and practical solutions
for their recovery. Tobacco, 62 (7-12): 109-114 (Bg).
Bozukov, Ch., 2012. Status and Prospects of Tobacco in Bulgaria. Report-presentation of the First Agricultural Business Forum “Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects for the sector”, Sofia (Bg).
Bozukov, Ch., 2012. Tobacco as an energy crop with high environmental potential. Report on Business Forum with International
Participation Organized by ALDE «New Technologies for Environmental Protection”, Sofia (Bg).
Bozukov, Ch., 2012. Status and Prospects of Tobacco in Bulgaria.
Report-presentation of the first agricultural business forum “Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects for the Sector”, Sofia (Bg).
Bozukov, Ch., 2012. Tobacco as an Energy Crop. Agriculture, (
7-8): 41-43 (Bg).
Bozukov, Ch., 2013. Future Development of the Tobacco Sector in
Bulgaria. Farmer (Bg).
Bozhinova, R., P. Zapryanova and Y. Dyulgerski, 2002. Soil and
climate conditions, farming practices and varietals composition
of tobacco Burley type in Bulgaria. Second Balkan Conference
“Quality and Efficiency of Production, Handling and Processing of Tobacco”, Plovdiv, pp. 208-213.
Bozhinova, R. and Y. Dyulgerski, 2000. Study the growth char-
S. Kirkova, Y. Dyulgerski and T. Milanova
acteristics of domestic and foreign Burley type varieties depending on weather conditions. First International Symposium
“Ecological Approaches to the Production of Safe Food”, Plovdiv, 19-20 October, pp. 221-226.
Bozhinova, R., 2010. Mineral composition of burley tobacco depending on the nitrogen fertilizer rate and variety. Soil Science,
Agrochemistry and Ecology, 44 (2): 35-40 (Bg).
Bozhinova, R., 2010. Evaluation of nitrogen nutrition of burley
tobacco by the results of soil and plant analysis. Soil Science,
Agrochemistry and Ecology, 44 (4): 43-48 (Bg).
Bozhinova, R. and Y. Dyulgerski, 2010. Influence of genotype
and some agronomic factors on yield and quality of tobacco
Burley type. Scientific Conference on “Science and Society”,
13-14 October Kardzhali, pp. 230-234 (Bg).
Contract carde n° 30-CE-0197396/00-06, Evaluation des
measures de la PAC relatives au secter du tabac brut.
Drachev, D., 1994. Physical and technological characteristics of
Burley tobacco. Bulgarian Tobacco, (5): 22-25 (Bg).
Dyulgerski, Y., 2011. Selection and Genetic Research of Burley
Eurostat, 2012, Manufacturing statistics European Commission
Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development,
Raw Tobacco-Production statistics-2011-2003.
Gyuzelev, L., 1983. Commodity Science of tobacco. Plovdiv
Peksuslu, A., C. O. Sabanci, R. Kücüközden and S. Sekin, 2002.
Genotype x environment interactions and heritabilities of some
important agronomic traits in tobacco. The Second Balkan
Scientific Conference Quality and Efficiency of the Tobacco
Production, Treatment and Processing, Plovdiv, pp. 80-85.
Popova, V., D. Drachev and V. Nicolova, 2006. Investigation on
the burning properties of Burley tobacco grown in different
regions of Bulgaria. Tobacco, 56 (7-8 ): 159 – 164 (Bg).
Popova, V., D. Drachev and K. Omar, 2003. Basic chemical and
technological characteristics of burley tobacco, N. Tr. UFT, 50
Tanchev, St. et al., 1978. Sensory analysis and appraisal of food
Zaprianova, P., 2005. Agrochemical evaluation of soils from
tobacco-growing regions in South Bulgaria. Ecology and
Future, (4): 48-51.
Zaprianova, P., 2006. Soil and climate conditions in the areas of
production of Oriental tobacco. Scientific Journal Agricultural
and Forest Science, (2): 68-76.
Zaprianova, P., 2006. Soil and climate conditions in the regions
for growing large leaf. Scientific Journal Agricultural and
Forest Science, (1): 11-17.
Received March, 20, 2013; accepted for printing February, 2, 2014.