Ch 1 Intro PPT - Lorain City Schools

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-1
Forensic Science =
• application of science to criminal and
civil laws.
• What is the difference between criminal
law and civil law?
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-2
Criminal versus Civil Law
•
•
•
•
Criminal Law:
designed to prevent citizens
from deliberately harming
each other
involves actions that have
been declared illegal (murder,
theft, assault, etc)
litigation is always filed by the
government called the
prosecution
a guilty defendant is punished
by:
– incarceration in a jail or
prison
– fine paid to the
government
– exceptional cases, the
death penalty
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
Civil Law:
•
•
•
•
•
deals with disagreements
between private individuals
(commercial or personal injury
disputes, for example).
one person will claim that the
other person’s actions caused
him harm
the private party filing the
lawsuit is called the plaintiff
defendant in civil litigation is
never incarcerated and never
executed
losing defendant in civil litigation
only reimburses the plaintiff for
losses caused by the defendant's
behavior
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-3
2 Types of Crimes
• Felonies have a maximum possible
sentence of more than one year
incarceration
• Misdemeanors have a maximum possible
sentence of less than one year
incarceration
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-4
• The subject matter of this book emphasizes the
application of science to those criminal and
civil laws that are enforced by police agencies
in a criminal justice system.
• Forensic science owes its origins to individuals
such as Bertillon, Galton, Lattes, Goddard,
Osborn, and Locard, who developed the
principles and techniques needed to identify or
compare physical evidence.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-5
History
• Mathieu Orfila—the father of
forensic toxicology.
• Alphonse Bertillion—devised the first
scientific system of personal identification
in 1879.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-6
History
• Sir Arthur Conan Doyle – wrote Sherlock
Holmes books
– Popularized forensics
• Francis Galton—conducted the
first definitive study of fingerprints
and their classification.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-7
History
• Hans Gross—wrote the first
treatise describing the application
of scientific principles to the field
of criminal investigation.
• Karl Landsteiner – determined
that human blood has different
types (A, B, AB, O)
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-8
History
• Edmond Locard -incorporated Gross’
principles within a workable crime
laboratory.
– Developed Locard’s Exchange Principle: when a criminal
comes in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of
evidence occurs.
• Leone Lattes—developed a procedure
to determine blood type from dried bloodstains.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-9
History
• Calvin Goddard—used a
comparison microscope to
determine if a particular gun
fired a bullet. Pioneer in field
of ballistics.
• Albert Osborn—developed the
fundamental principles of
document examination.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-10
History
• Walter McCrone—utilized
microscopy to examine evidence
– Father of Modern Microscopy
• Sir Alec Jeffreys—developed the first
DNA profiling test in 1984.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-11
The Crime Lab
• The development of crime laboratories in
the United States has been characterized
by rapid growth accompanied by a lack
of national and regional planning and
coordination.
• At present, approximately 350 public
crime laboratories operate at various
levels of government—federal, state,
county, and municipal.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-12
The Crime Lab
• The ever increasing number of crime
laboratories is partly the result of the
following:
– Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s
responsible for police placing greater
emphasis on scientifically evaluated
evidence.
– Crime laboratories inundated with drug
specimens due to accelerated drug abuse.
– The advent of DNA profiling.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-13
Technical Support
• The technical support provided by crime
laboratories can be assigned to five basic
services.
– Physical Science Unit incorporates the
principles of chemistry, physics, and geology
to identify and compare physical evidence.
– Biology Unit applies the knowledge of
biological sciences in order to investigate
blood samples, body fluids, hair, and fiber
samples.
– Firearms Unit investigates discharged
bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and
ammunition.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-14
Technical Support
– Document Unit provides the skills needed for
handwriting analysis and other questioneddocument issues.
– Photographic Unit applies specialized
photographic techniques for recording and
examining physical evidence.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-15
Technical Support
• Optional Services by Full-Service Labs
– Toxicology Unit examines body fluids and organs for
the presence of drugs and poisons.
– Latent Fingerprint Unit processes and examines
evidence for latent fingerprints.
– Polygraph Unit conducts polygraph or lie detector
tests.
– Voiceprint Analysis Unit attempts to tie a recorded
voice to a particular suspect.
– Evidence-Collection Unit dispatches specially
trained personnel to the crime scene to collect and
preserve physical evidence.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-16
The Scientific Method
• Formulate a question worthy of
investigation.
• Formulate a reasonable hypothesis to
answer the question.
• Test the hypothesis through
experimentation.
• Upon validation of the hypothesis, it
become suitable as scientific evidence.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-17
Skills of a Forensic Scientist
• A forensic scientist must be skilled in applying
the principles and techniques of the physical
and natural sciences to the analysis of the many
types of evidence that may be recovered during
a criminal investigation.
• A forensic scientist may also provide expert
court testimony.
• An expert witness is an individual whom the
court determines possesses knowledge relevant
to the trial that is not expected of the average
person.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-18
Skills of a Forensic Scientist
• The expert witness is called on to
evaluate evidence based on specialized
training and experience that the court
lacks the expertise to do.
• The expert will then express an opinion
as to the significance of the findings.
• Forensic scientists also participate in
training law enforcement personnel in
the proper recognition, collection, and
preservation of physical evidence.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-19
The Frye Standard
• The Frye v. United States decision set guidelines
for determining the admissibility of scientific
evidence into the courtroom.
• To meet the Frye standard, the evidence in
question must be “generally accepted” by the
scientific community.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-20
Frye Not Absolute
• However, in the 1993 case of Daubert v.
Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc., the
U.S. Supreme Court asserted that the
Frye standard is not an absolute
prerequisite to the admissibility of
scientific evidence.
• Trial judges were said to be ultimately
responsible as “gatekeepers” for the
admissibility and validity of scientific
evidence presented in their courts, as well
as all expert testimony.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-21
Daubert Criteria For Admissibility
• Whether the scientific technique or
theory can be tested.
• Whether the technique has been subject
to peer review and publication.
• The techniques potential rate of error.
• Existence and maintenance of standards .
• Whether the scientific theory or method
has attracted widespread acceptance
within a relevant scientific community.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-22
Special Forensic Science Services
• A number of special forensic science
services are available to the law
enforcement community to augment the
services of the crime laboratory.
• These services include forensic pathology,
forensic anthropology, forensic
entomology, forensic psychiatry, forensic
odontology, computer science, and
forensic engineering.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-23
Special Forensic Science Services
• Forensic Psychiatry is an area in which the relationship
between human behavior and legal proceedings is
examined.
• Forensic Odontology involves using teeth to provide
information about the identification of victims when a
body is left in an unrecognizable state. Also
investigates bite marks.
• Forensic Engineering is concerned with failure analysis,
accident reconstruction, and causes and origins of fires
or explosions.
• Forensic Computer Science involves the examination of
digital evidence.
FORENSIC SCIENCE
An Introduction
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2008 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-24
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