Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh, Conceptual Integrated Science

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Note on Posted Slides
• These are the slides that I intended to
show in class on Mon. Mar. 11, 2013.
• They contain important ideas and
questions from your reading.
• Due to time constraints, I was probably not
able to show all the slides during class.
• They are all posted here for completeness.
PHY205H1S
Physics of Everyday Life
Class 15: Musical Sounds
•
•
•
•
Noise and Music
Musical Sounds
Pitch
Sound Intensity and
Loudness
• Quality
• Fourier Analysis
• Digital Versatile
Discs (DVDs)
Noise and Music
• Noise corresponds to an irregular vibration of
the eardrum produced by some irregular
vibration in our surroundings, a jumble of
wavelengths and amplitudes.
• White noise is an even mixture of frequencies of
sound, all with random phases.
Time
Noise and Music
• Music is the art of sound and has a different
character.
• Musical sounds have periodic tones–or musical
notes.
• The line that separates music and noise can be
thin and subjective.
Time
A Musical tone has three characteristics:
1. Pitch
– related to the frequency of sound waves as
received by the ear
– determined by fundamental frequency,
lowest frequency heard
2. Intensity
– determines the perceived loudness of sound
3. Quality
– determined by prominence of the
harmonics, and the presence and relative
intensity of the various partials
Pitch
• Music is organized on many different levels.
Most noticeable are musical notes.
• Each note has its own pitch. We can
describe pitch by frequency.
– Rapid vibrations of the sound source (high
frequency) produce sound of a high pitch.
– Slow vibrations (low frequency) produce a low
pitch.
Pitch
• In music there are 12 distinct notes, named: C,
C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A# and B
• Each step in this sequence is separated by a
semitone, which means a multiplicative factor in
12
frequency of 2
• Multiply the frequency on any note by 2, and you
have the same note at a higher pitch in the next
octave.
Pitch
• Different musical notes are obtained by
changing the frequency of the vibrating
sound source.
• This is usually done by altering the size, the
tightness, or the mass of the vibrating
object.
Pitch
• High-pitched sounds used in music are most
often less than 4000 Hz, but the average
human ear can hear sounds with
frequencies up to 18,000 Hz.
– Some people and most dogs can hear tones of
higher pitch than this.
– The upper limit of hearing in people gets lower
as they grow older.
– A high-pitched sound is often inaudible to an
older person and yet may be clearly heard by a
younger one.
Sound Intensity and Loudness
• The intensity of sound depends on the
amplitude of pressure variations within
the sound wave.
• The human ear responds to intensities
covering the enormous range from 10–12
W/m2 (the threshold of hearing) to more than
1 W/m2 (the threshold of pain).
• Because the range is so great, intensities are scaled by
factors of 10, with the barely audible 10–12 W/m2 as a
reference intensity called 0 bel (a unit named after
Alexander Bell).
• A sound 10 times more intense has an intensity of 1 bel
(W/m2) or 10 decibels (dB)
Discussion question
• A sound level of 10 decibels has 10 times more
intensity than a sound level of zero decibels.
• A sound level of 20 decibels has ___ times more
intensity than a sound level of zero decibels.
A. 10
B. 20
C. 50
D. 100
E. 200
Clicker Discussion Question
• When you turn up the volume on your ipod, the
sound originally entering your ears at 50
decibels is boosted to 80 decibels. By what
factor is the intensity of the sound has
increased?
A. 1 (no increase)
B. 30
C. 100
D. 300
E. 1000
Sound Intensity and Loudness
• Sound intensity is a purely objective and physical
attribute of a sound wave, and it can be measured
by various acoustical instruments.
• Loudness is a physiological sensation.
– The ear senses some frequencies much better
than others.
– A 3500-Hz sound at 80 decibels sounds about
twice as loud to most people as a 125-Hz sound
at 80 decibels.
– Humans are more sensitive to the 3500-Hz
range of frequencies.
Quality
• We have no trouble distinguishing between
the tone from a piano and a tone of the
same pitch from a clarinet.
• Each of these tones has a characteristic
sound that differs in quality, the “color” of a
tone —timbre.
• Timbre describes all of the aspects of a
musical sound other than pitch, loudness, or
length of tone.
Quality
• Most musical sounds are composed
of a superposition of many tones
differing in frequency.
• The various tones are called partial
tones, or simply partials. The
lowest frequency, called the
fundamental frequency,
determines the pitch of the note.
• A partial tone whose frequency is a
whole-number multiple of the
fundamental frequency is called a
harmonic.
• A composite vibration of the
fundamental mode and the third
harmonic is shown in the figure.
Quality
• The quality of a tone is determined by the presence and
relative intensity of the various partials.
• The sound produced by a certain tone from the piano and a
clarinet of the same pitch have different qualities that the ear
can recognize because their partials are different.
• A pair of tones of the same pitch with different qualities have
either different partials or a difference in the relative intensity
of the partials.
Musical Instruments
Vibrating strings
– Vibration of stringed instruments is transferred
to a sounding board and then to the air.
Vibrating air columns
– Brass instruments.
– Woodwinds—stream of air produced by
musician sets a reed vibrating.
– Fifes, flutes, piccolos—musician blows air
against the edge of a hole to produce a
fluttering stream.
Clicker Discussion Question
• If I force a node at the middle of my guitar string,
how will it change the note?
A. It will halve the frequency
B. The frequency will decrease slightly
C. It will not change the frequency
D. The frequency will increase slightly
E. It will double the frequency
Fourier Analysis
• The sound of an oboe
displayed on the screen
of an oscilloscope looks
like this.
• The sound of an clarinet
displayed on the screen
of an oscilloscope looks
like this.
• The two together look like
this.
Fourier Analysis
• Fourier discovered a mathematical regularity to
the component parts of periodic wave motion.
• He found that even the most complex periodic
wave motion can be disassembled into simple
sine waves that add together.
• Fourier found that all periodic waves may be
broken down into constituent sine waves of
different amplitudes and frequencies.
• The mathematical operation for performing this
is called Fourier analysis.
Fourier Analysis
• When these pure tones are
sounded together, they
combine to give the tone of
the violin.
• The lowest-frequency sine
wave is the fundamental
and determines the pitch.
• The higher-frequency sine
waves are the partials that
determine the quality.
• Thus, the waveform of any
musical sound is no more
than a sum of simple sine
waves.
Clicker Discussion Question
• An MP3 is a file format which compresses large
amounts of sound data. Once the file is
uncompressed for playback, what about music
does an MP3 file for a song actually store?
A. Pressure versus time.
B. Pitch, loudness and quality, all as functions of
time.
C. Frequency and loudness versus time.
D. The parameters for all the musical instruments
and voices, so they can be played back later
using a computer simulation.
Audio Recording
• The output of phonograph records was signals like those
shown below.
• This type of continuous
waveform is called an
analog signal.
• The analog signal can be
changed to a digital signal
by measuring the
numerical value of its
pressure during each split
second.
Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs)
• Microscopic pits about one-thirtieth
the diameter of a strand of human
hair are imbedded in the CD or DVD
– The short pits corresponding to 0.
– The long pits corresponding to 1.
• When the beam falls on a short
pit, it is reflected directly into the
player’s optical system and
registers a 0.
• When the beam is incident upon
a passing longer pit, the optical
sensor registers a 1.
• Hence the beam reads the 1 and
0 digits of the binary code.
Discovering Electricity: Experiment 1
 Take a plastic rod that
has been undisturbed
for a long period of time
and hang it by a thread.
 Pick up another
undisturbed plastic rod
and bring it close to the
hanging rod.
 Nothing happens to
either rod.
 No forces are observed.
 We will say that the original objects are neutral.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discussion Question
 Rub two plastic rods
with wool.
 Hang one from a string
 Place the other near it.
 What will happen?
A. Nothing: no force observed
B. The hanging rod will be
repelled, and move to the
left
C. The hanging rod will be
attracted, and move to the
right
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovering Electricity: Experiment 2
 Rub both plastic rods
with wool.
 Now the hanging rod tries
to move away from the
handheld rod when you
bring the two close
together.
 Two glass rods rubbed with
silk also repel each other.
There is a long-range repulsive force, requiring no contact,
between two identical objects that have been charged in
the same way.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discussion Question
 Rub a plastic rod with
wool, and hang it from a
string.
 Rub a glass rod with silk,
and place it near the
hanging rod.
 What will happen?
A. Nothing: no force observed
B. The hanging rod will be repelled,
and move to the left
C. The hanging rod will be
attracted, and move to the right
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovering Electricity: Experiment 3
 Bring a glass rod that
has been rubbed with
silk close to a hanging
plastic rod that has been
rubbed with wool.
 These two rods attract
each other.
These particular two types of rods are different materials,
charged in a somewhat different way, and they attract each
other rather than repel.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discussion Question  Rub two plastic rods with
wool, hang one from a string,
place the other near it so it
repels the hanging rod.
 What happens if you
increase the distance
between the two rods?
A. Nothing: no change in force
B. The repulsive force will
decrease
C. The repulsive force will
increase
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovering Electricity: Experiment 4
 Rub rods with wool or
silk and observe the
forces between them.
 These forces are greater
for rods that have been
rubbed more vigorously.
 The strength of the
forces decreases as the
separation between the
rods increases.
The force between two charged objects depends on the
distance between them.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discussion Question
Neutral
Object
 Hang a neutral object from
a string.
 Rub a glass rod with silk,
and place it near the
hanging object.
 What will happen?
A. Nothing: no force observed
B. The hanging object will be
repelled, and move to the left
C. The hanging object will be
attracted, and move to the right
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Discovering Electricity: Experiment 5
 Hold a charged (i.e., rubbed)
plastic rod over small pieces
of paper on the table.
 The pieces of paper leap up
and stick to the rod.
 A charged glass rod does the same.
 However, a neutral rod has no effect on the pieces
of paper.
There is an attractive force between
a charged object and a neutral
(uncharged) object.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 25-23
Discovering Electricity: Experiment 6
 Rub a plastic rod with
wool and a glass rod
with silk.
 Hang both by threads,
some distance apart.
 Both rods are attracted
to a neutral object that
is held close.
There is an attractive force between a charged object
and a neutral (uncharged) object.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 25-24
Before class on Wednesday
• Electricity! For the next four classes we
will be talking about the electricity and
magnetism.
• Please read Chapter 22, or at least
watch the 10-minute pre-class video for
class 16.
• Something to think about:
• The electric force can be attractive or repulsive –
but a balloon always sticks to the wall after you’ve
rubbed it on your head.
• Why doesn’t the balloon sometimes repel the
wall?
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