old shandon/lower waverly

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Design Guidelines are criteria and standards that the Design/Development Review
Commission must consider in determining the appropriateness of proposed work within a
historic district. Appropriateness of work must be determined in order to accomplish the
goals of historic zoning, which are:
1. Protect the beauty of the City and improve the quality of its environment through
identification, recognition, conservation, maintenance and enhancement of areas, sites
and structures which constitute or reflect distinctive features of the economic, social,
cultural or architectural history of the city and its distinctive physical features;
2. Foster appropriate use and wider public knowledge and appreciation of such features,
areas, sites, and structures;
3. Resist and restrain environmental influences adverse to such purposes;
4. Encourage private efforts in support of such purposes; and
5. By furthering such purposes, promote the public welfare, strengthen the cultural and
educational life of the city, and make the city a more attractive and desirable place to
live and work.
The main strength of this predominantly residential Historic Protection Area is the harmonious
way that many diverse housing styles fit together to create a pleasant living environment.
This fit or cohesiveness among the varying styles is achieved because most buildings
subscribe to similar ideas of mass, scale, rhythm and proportion of openings, while
approaching these ideas from different points and with different architectural features.
Another strength and important quality of this area is the aesthetically pleasing and
pedestrian friendly streetscape. This pleasing environment is achieved through the design
of individual structures, the relationship of these structures to the street and their
relationship to one another.
The goal of these guidelines and of the district is to maintain this relationship, not to
require restoration to a certain historical period. This task must be accomplished with
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
an appreciation of the diversity of the area, which is critical to its character. Because of
this diversity, these guidelines must be administered in a flexible manner so that that the
historic integrity and feel can be maintained with minimal technical restrictions.
For the above reasons, the Old Shandon/Lower Waverly District is designated as a
Protection Area and establishes the following design guidelines so as to apply general
design control to those selected characteristics that are necessary to maintain the health
and continued vitality of this important residential neighborhood and discourage those
elements that may threaten these goals or the goals set forth in Section I.
The Old Shandon/Lower Waverly neighborhoods are significant historically for being
part of the first suburban expansion outside the planned limits of Columbia. At the turn of
the twentieth century, Columbia, like cities across America, experienced an increase in
middle class residential growth. The Old Shandon and Lower Waverly neighborhoods
were developed in response to a growing demand for prestigious but affordable
residential space situated close to the urban center, but distanced from it’s congestion. In
1890, the Columbia Land Development Company (CLDC) purchased 305 acres of the
Klienbeck farm, directly southeast of Columbia’s original grid. To this parcel was added
115 acres of the former Newsome farm tract, which was also the site of the former
Columbia Racetrack. In 1894, the town of Shandon, reportedly named for CLDC
president Robert Shand, was bounded roughly by Millwood, Devine, Green and Sims.
During the next five years the CLDC divided the tracts into lots separated by wide streets,
sidewalks and parks.
The catalyst for the area’s growth was the Columbia electric trolley line, which provided
a quick and convenient transportation route for urban commuters. In 1895 the CLDC
partnered with the Columbia Electric and Suburban Railway & Electric Power Company
to extend the line from Gervais Street down Heidt Street to Pavilion in order to facilitate
the purchase of newly laid out home lots. To further entice would be suburbanites, the
companies also collaborated on the construction of a public entertainment pavilion in
Valley Park (now Martin Luther King Jr. Park) that lay at the terminus of the line. The
Shandon Pavilion hosted dances and other public entertainment and helped to develop
Shandon into one of Columbia’s more desirable locales.
Convenient access to the Pavilion helped to showcase the nearby lots, but it was an 1898
extension that provided the greatest stimulus for settlement. The new line traveled east
from the Pavilion on Devine Street and turned up Maple to Millwood Avenue (then
known as Garner’s Ferry). By 1913, the Maple Street area had become the center of
Shandon, boasting the largest concentration of homes, a brick schoolhouse, and three
stores located at the intersection of Maple and Devine. Today the Maple Street area is
characterized by many of these original turn-of-the-century houses.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
Through the first decade of the century Shandon grew tremendously, and in 1913 it
boasted 128 houses, five stores, one public school and two churches. The success of this
suburban experiment encouraged the formation of sub-neighborhoods, the largest being
South Waverly, which lay to the northwest of Shandon, bound by Green, Millwood,
Gervais and Harden. Lower Waverly’s development had also benefited from the trolley
line, but its lots were laid out later than those of Shandon. Early construction clustered
primarily along Oak Street, on which many older homes still stand. This area served to
receive the expansions of both Shandon and Waverly, a planned suburb north of Gervais
Street. In 1913 both neighborhoods were annexed to the City of Columbia. Commercial
development in the area expanded around Five Points during the 1920s and 30s, which
further promoted the suburban expansion that extended far beyond the original
Today, the Old Shandon / Lower Waverly area reveals its developmental heritage
through its architecture. The district is characterized by a diversity of historic house
styles from Late-Victorians to Colonial Revival, all of which were fashionable during the
time of greatest development (1895-1940) and the district period of significance. Many
of the homes reflect the Bungalow Style, predominant in suburban residential areas from
1910 to 1930. The automobile has replaced the trolley and some of the names have
changed, but the neighborhoods retain the inviting ambience and layout that was planned
over a century ago. This is what historic designation is striving to preserve.
The Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Historic District is generally comprised of two districts
identified by Dr. John M. Bryan in his City-wide Architectural Survey and Historic
Preservation Plan (1994). They have been combined into one designation due to their
proximity and the social history that overlaps their separate boundaries. Bounded on four
sides by major commercial arteries (Harden Street, Gervais Street, Milwood Avenue, and
Devine Street) the area is vulnerable to commercial structure encroachment that may
degrade the character of the district as well as to inappropriate residential development.
The district has been divided into two distinct areas: Area A is the main district, which closely
mirrors Dr. Bryan’s recommendations. Area B is a series of border/buffer areas on the periphery
that will serve to protect the more cohesive portion of the district from adverse influences. Area
B is identified because it is residential in character, is adjacent to the main district, and does not
abut a major traffic artery (Millwood, Devine, Gervais, or Harden Streets). Within areas A and B
are lots that are vacant or contain non-contributing structures. These lots are included to ensure
that proposed new construction will be compatible with the district and not undermine its
residential character or the intent of these guidelines. See Attachment A for a listing of TMS
parcels included in Protection Areas A (Main) and B (Buffer).
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
AREA A – Main District
1. New construction
2. Additions/Enclosures
3. Exterior changes
4. Fences and walls in front and secondary front yards
5. Demolition or relocation.
AREA B - Buffer
New Construction
Additions in excess of 500 sq. ft.
Fences and walls
AREA A – Main District
General Maintenance and Repair (using matching materials)
Painting and Color
Work not visible from the public right-of-way
Interior work
AREA B - Buffer
Additions/Enclosures smaller than 500 sq. ft.
Exterior renovations
Interior work
General Maintenance and Repair (using like materials)
Painting and Color
1. Principles
Within the Old Shandon/Lower Waverly district, there are numerous vacant lots
and non-contributing structures. The construction of new or replacement
structures on these lots will greatly affect the district by either reinforcing or
undermining existing historic patterns. New construction should be consistent
with existing buildings along a street in terms of height, scale, proportion and
rhythm of openings, setbacks, orientation and spacing. However, new buildings
need not imitate past architectural styles; they may reflect the era of their own
construction to carry on the tradition of diversity in building styles present.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
a. Height: Construct new buildings to a height that is compatible with the
height of surrounding buildings.
New construction shall not vary greatly in height from older
buildings in the vicinity
b. Size & Scale: The size and scale of a new building shall be visually
compatible with surrounding buildings
Although much larger than its neighbors in terms
of square footage, the building shown maintains
the same scale and rhythm as the existing
Do not construct buildings that disrupt the
existing scale of the area. The new building
shown here disrupts the scale and rhythm of
the streetscape.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
c. Massing: Arrange the mass of a new building (the relationship of solid
components (ex. walls, columns, etc.) to open spaces (ex. windows, doors,
arches)) so that it is compatible with existing historic buildings on the block or
Breaking up uninteresting boxlike forms into
smaller, varied masses is essential to
maintaining the character of the streetscape.
Do not construct single, monolithic forms
that are not relieved by variations in massing.
d. Directional Expression: Site the entrance of the building so that it is
compatible with surrounding buildings.
Horizontal buildings can be made to relate to
more vertical adjacent structures by breaking
the façade into smaller masses that conform
to the primary expression of the streetscape.
Do not construct strongly horizontal or
vertical façade expressions. This building
does not relate well to its neighbors or the
rhythm of the streetscape because of its
unbroken façade.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
e. Setback: Locate the new building on the site so that the distance of the
structure from the right of way is similar to
adjacent structures.
Do not violate the existing setback pattern by
placing buildings in front of or behind existing
façade lines.
f. Sense of Entry: Place the main entrance and the associated architectural
elements (porches, steps, etc.) so that they are
compatible to surrounding structures. The
main entrance shall be constructed with
covered porches, porticos or other
architectural forms that are found on historic
structures on the block or street.
Do not construct facades with no strong
sense of entry.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
g. Rhythm of Openings: Construct new buildings so that he relationship of
width to height of windows and
doors, and the rhythm of solids
(walls) to voids (door & window
openings) is visually compatible
with historic buildings on the block
or street. Maintain a similar ratio of
height to width in the bays of the
Do not introduce incompatible façade
patterns that upset the rhythm of
openings established in surrounding
h. Roof Shape: Use roof shapes, pitches, and materials that are visually
compatible with those of surrounding
buildings. (ex. when a majority of the
buildings in an area use a hip or gable roof
form, a hip or gable roof should be used).
Do not introduce roof shapes or pitches that
are not found in the area.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
Outbuildings Construct garage and storage buildings so that they reflect
the character of the existing house and are compatible in terms of height,
scale, and roof shape. Place such buildings away from the primary façade
of the building. Do not allow outbuildings to obscure character-defining
features of a building.
Materials, Texture, Details Use materials, textures, and architectural
features that are visually compatible with those of historic buildings on the
block or street.
1. Principles
It is often necessary to increase the space of a building in order for it to continue
to adapt to the owner's needs. Over time, a family's space needs change and in
order to accommodate this circumstance a building may need to be enlarged.
While these additions/enclosures are permitted they should serve to reinforce and
not detract from the existing architectural form and design of the building and not
disrupt the rhythm of the streetscape.
a. Additions
b. Enclosures
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
Site additions so that they do not detract from or obstruct important
architectural features of the existing building or others around it,
especially the principle façade.
Design additions to be compatible with the original structure in
materials, style and detailing.
Limit the size and scale of additions so that the integrity of the
original structure is not compromised.
Additions are also subject to the guidelines for new construction
Enclose front porches only when all other expansion options have
been studied and found to be infeasible.
Design the enclosure in a manner that retains the historic fabric
and details of the porch – placing the framing and/or screening
behind the columns or balustrade.
Use materials that allow the original structure to be distinguished,
minimizing the visual impact of the enclosure.
Install the enclosure so that it can be removed in the future without
damage to the historic building.
– Adopted 9/01
1. Principles
While the Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Protection Area includes a diverse array
of building styles, there are common elements of a structure which, when
changed, have the effect of either reinforcing or degrading the proper proportion
and detailing of a structure. The intent in reviewing these elements in this district
is not to require restoration to a historic period, but to assure that changes do not
result in the loss of integrity of the structure or the district.
When possible, plan projects so that the least amount of change to the historic
fabric of the structure is required. Design necessary changes so that they will not
impact the significant character defining features of a building.
Guidelines for Change or Relocation of Openings (doors & windows)
Install new openings so that they carry on the same rhythm of existing
openings and are compatible in size, materials and design.
When removing an opening, fill the void with materials that are
compatible with that on the building.
When replacing a window or door unit use a design similar to the original
(ex. use a window with a 2/2 pane configuration if the original was a 2/2
3. Guidelines for Change in Roof Pitch and Shape
Retain the original roof form, pitch and overhang. However, where it is
shown that a proposed change will maintain the appropriate relationship of
scale, mass, and proportion it shall be considered as an alternative.
Replace roofing materials with materials that are similar in appearance.
4. Guidelines for Change in Siding Material
Preserve the form, size and details of exterior siding.
b. Permitted materials include:
i. Horizontal wood, aluminum, vinyl, Hardi-plank™ or other synthetic
ii. Brick
ii. Stucco
iv. Stone or decorative cast concrete block
c. Prohibited materials include:
i. T-1-11 or other vertical siding
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
ii. Concrete block
iii. Plywood or other similar surface.
1. Principle
Fences and walls are important structures that help define the context of a
building. Historically, fences or walls in the front and secondary front yards are
low in height (2’ – 4’). Fences usually follow the property line perimeter.
a. Install a fence or wall so that it does not detract from its associated structure.
b. Design a fence or wall so that it is compatible with the associated structure in
design and materials.
c. Materials like the following are not permitted for fences or walls in the front
or secondary front yard:
i. chain link unless it supports screening plant material
ii. concrete block unless painted, stuccoed or veneered in brick
iii. artificial siding material (ex. T-111, corrugated metal)
1. Principle
The demolition of an historic building should be an action of last resort. When a
structure is demolished, the community loses a part of its history, which cannot be
replaced. Accordingly, such requests are reviewed very deliberately and require
detailed information.
2. Guidelines
a. Demolition of contributing buildings is not permitted if one of the
following exists:
The building or major portion of a building is of such architectural
interest and value that its removal would be detrimental to the
public interest; or
The building, or major portion of a building, is of such old or
unusual or uncommon design and materials that it could not be
b. Demolition is permitted in the following situations:
The structure is not judged to contribute significantly to the
historic or architectural character of the district and its removal
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
will result in a more historically appropriate visual effect on the
district; or
The building has irretrievably lost its architectural and historical
integrity and its removal will result in a more historically
appropriate visual effect.
[ NOTE: Additionally, demolition requests are subject to the standards set forth in the City
of Columbia Code of Ordinances and the Rules and Regulations of the
Design/Development Review Commission.]
1. Principles
a. Much of a building’s value is in its context: the street on which it sits, the
buildings that surround it, the landscape. Therefore a building should
remain in its context unless its existence is threatened by encroachment or
cannot be preserved in the original location.
b. Moving a historic building from its original site should not occur.
c. Moving a non-historic building, or a building, which has irretrievably lost its
architectural and historical integrity, may be appropriate.
d. Moving a building into the district is permitted if it is compatible with the
2. Guidelines
Moving a building into the district is permitted if the building will be
compatible with the historic buildings surrounding the new location in
terms of height, scale, setback, and rhythm of spacing, materials, texture,
details, roof shape, orientation, and proportion and rhythm of openings.
Moving a building out of the district is not premitted unless the building
does not contribute to the district's historical or architectural significance,
or has irretrievably lost its architectural and historical integrity.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
Please also see the Land Development ordinance for additional definitions.
Addition: 1. Construction that increases the living or working space of an existing structure, and
is capable of being mechanically heated or cooled. (ex. porch enclosures, room additions, etc.)
2. An alteration which changes the exterior height of any portion of an existing building. 3. Any
extension of the footprint of the structure, including porches and decks.
Appropriate: Suitable for, or compatible with, a structure or district, based upon accepted
standards and techniques for historic preservation and urban design as set forth in the Secretary
of the Interior’s Standards and these guidelines.
Architectural feature/element: Any of the component parts that comprise the exterior of a
building, structure or object that convey the style of a building. (ex. Victorian, Bungalow, etc…)
Character-defining feature: a detail or part of a structure that imparts style or design and
distinguishes it from other structures (ex. porch railings, decorative windows,
Compatible: to conform or be in harmony with the components of the style of a building or the
character of a district.
Contributing (building/structure/site): A building, structure or site that reinforces the visual
integrity or interpretability of a historic district. A contributing building is not necessarily
"historic" (50 years old or older). A contributing building may lack individual distinction but
may add to the historic district's status as a significant and distinguishable entity.
Demolition: Active deconstruction in whole or in part of a building, object, or site.
Elevation: 1. Height in terms of distance from grade; 2. an exterior wall of a building, usually
used in referring to portions other than the façade.
Enclosure: To close off a previously open space, through the installation of walls or other
Exterior Change: An action that would alter the appearance of a structure. ex. change in roof
pitch or form, or replacing or covering exterior siding with substitute material, reducing,
enlarging, closing or relocating window or door openings
Façade: An exterior side of a building; usually the of front elevation of the building.
General maintenance and repair: Work meant to remedy damage due to deterioration of a
structure or its appurtenances or general wear and tear, which will involve no change in
materials, dimensions, design, configuration, color, texture or visual appearance.
Major: Substantive; substantial; as in considerable amount of.
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01
New Construction: The construction of any freestanding structure on a lot that ordinarily
requires a permit. This may apply to a variety of activities such as storage buildings, carports &
garages, secondary dwellings, etc.
Non-contributing (building/ structure/site) A building, structure or site which no longer
reinforces the visual integrity of the district either because it is a vacant parcel, it is a structure
that was built outside of the period of significance of the district or it is an historic structure that
has lost its integrity through inappropriate additions or the loss of two or more of its original
character defining features i.e. porch, windows, siding.
Secondary Front Yard: The non-primary side of a building on a corner lot.
Shall: What must happen
Should: What must happen unless evidence is presented to illustrate why an alternative is more
Old Shandon/Lower Waverly Guidelines
– Adopted 9/01

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