Section 2–1 The Nature of Matter

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BIO_ALL IN1_StGd_tese_ch02
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Date ______________
Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life
Section 2–1 The Nature of Matter
(pages 35–39)
TEKS FOCUS: 3D Connection between biology and careers
This section identifies the three particles that make up atoms. It also explains
how atoms of the same element can have a different number of neutrons and
describes the two main types of chemical bonds.
Atoms
(page 35)
1. The basic unit of matter is called a(an)
atom
.
2. Describe the nucleus of an atom. It is the center of an atom, made up of protons and
neutrons.
3. Complete the table about subatomic particles.
SUBATOMIC PARTICLES
Particle
Charge
Location in Atom
Proton
Positive
Nucleus
Neutron
Neutral
Nucleus
Electron
Negative
Surrounding nucleus
4. Why are atoms neutral despite having charged particles? Atoms have equal numbers of
electrons and protons, and these subatomic particles have equal, but opposite, charges.
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Elements and Isotopes
(page 36)
5. What is a chemical element? A chemical element is a pure substance that consists entirely of
one type of atom.
6. What does an element’s atomic number represent? It represents the number of protons in
an atom of the element.
7. Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are
known as
isotopes
.
8. How are isotopes identified? Isotopes are identified by their mass number.
9. Why do all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties? They have the
same chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons.
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Chemical Compounds
(page 37)
10. What is a chemical compound? A chemical compound is a substance formed by the
chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
11. What does the formula for table salt indicate about that compound?
The formula for table salt, NaCl, indicates that the elements from which table salt
forms—sodium and chlorine—combine in a 1:1 ratio.
Chemical Bonds
(pages 38–39)
12. What holds atoms in compounds together? Chemical bonds
13. Complete the table about the main types of chemical bonds.
CHEMICAL BONDS
Type
Formed when . . .
Covalent bond
Electrons are shared between atoms
Ionic bond
One or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
14. What is an ion? An ion is an atom that is positively or negatively charged because it has lost or
gained electrons.
charge.
false
16. The structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called
a(an)
molecule
.
17. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about covalent bonds.
a. When atoms share two electrons, it is called a double bond.
b. In a water molecule, each hydrogen atom forms a single
covalent bond.
c. Atoms can share six electrons and form a triple bond.
d. In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons.
18. The slight attractions that develop between oppositely charged regions of nearby
molecules are called
190
van der Waals forces
.
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15. Is the following sentence true or false? An atom that loses electrons has a negative
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Section 2–2 Properties of Water
Date ______________
(pages 40–43)
TEKS FOCUS: 2B Collect data and make measurements with precision; 2C Organize data
This section describes the makeup of water molecules. It also explains what
acidic solutions and basic solutions are.
The Water Molecule
(pages 40–41)
1. Is the following sentence true or false? A water molecule is neutral.
true
2. What results from the oxygen atom being at one end of a water molecule and the
hydrogen atoms being at the other end? The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative
charge and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge.
3. Why is a water molecule polar? There is an uneven distribution of electrons between the
oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
4. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about hydrogen bonds.
a. A hydrogen bond is stronger than an ionic bond.
b. The attraction between the hydrogen atom on one water
molecule and the oxygen atom on another water molecule is
an example.
c. A hydrogen bond is stronger than a covalent bond.
d. They are the strongest bonds that form between molecules.
5. Complete the table about forms of attraction.
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FORMS OF ATTRACTION
Form of Attraction
Definition
Cohesion
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion
Attraction between molecules of different substances
6. Why is water extremely cohesive? It is very cohesive because of hydrogen bonding.
7. The rise of water in a narrow tube against the force of gravity is called
capillary action
.
8. How does capillary action affect plants? Capillary action is one of the forces that draws
water out of the roots of a plant and up into its stems and leaves.
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Solutions and Suspensions
(pages 41–42)
9. What is a mixture? A mixture is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds
that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.
10. A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are
solution
evenly mixed is called a(an)
.
water
11. The greatest solvent in the world is
.
12. What is a suspension? A suspension is a mixture of water and nondissolved substances that
are so small they do not settle out.
13. Complete the table about substances in solutions.
SUBSTANCES IN SOLUTIONS
Substance
Definition
Saltwater Solution
Solute
Substance that is dissolved
Table salt
Solvent
Substance in which the solute dissolves
Water
Acids, Bases, and pH
(pages 42–43)
ions
14. Two water molecules can react to form
.
15. Why is water neutral despite the production of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions?
It is neutral because the number of positive hydrogen ions produced is equal to the number of
negative hydroxide ions produced.
+
16. What does the pH scale indicate? It indicates the concentration of H ions in solution.
Increasingly acidic
Increasingly basic
Neutral
2
4
5
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Bleach
Soap
7
Sea water
6
Human blood
Lemon juice
Stomach acid
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3
Pure water
1
Normal rainfall
0
Guided Reading and Study Workbook/Chapter 2
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17. On the pH scale below, indicate which direction is increasingly acidic and which is
increasingly basic.
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18. How many more H+ ions does a solution with a pH of 4 have than a solution with a
pH of 5?
10 times
19. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about acids.
a. Acidic solutions have pH values below 7.
b. An acid is any compound that forms H+ ions in solution.
c. Strong acids have pH values ranging from 11 to 14.
d. Acidic solutions contain higher concentrations of H+ ions than
pure water.
20. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about bases.
a. Alkaline solutions have pH values below 7.
b. A base is a compound that produces OH– ions in solution.
c. Strong bases have pH values ranging from 11 to 14.
d. Basic solutions contain lower concentrations of H+ ions than
pure water.
21. What are buffers? Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to
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prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
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Section 2–3 Carbon Compounds
Date ______________
(pages 44–48)
TEKS FOCUS: 9A Structures and functions of different types of biomolecules
This section explains how the element carbon is able to form millions of
carbon, or organic, compounds. It also describes the four groups of organic
compounds found in living things.
The Chemistry of Carbon
(page 44)
1. How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have? Each carbon atom has four
electrons.
2. What gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length?
A carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms.
Macromolecules
(page 45)
3. Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are known as
macromolecules
.
4. What is the process called by which macromolecules are formed? Polymerization
5. When monomers join together, what do they form? Polymers
6. What are four groups of organic compounds found in living things?
a. Carbohydrates
b. Lipids
c. Nucleic acids
d. Proteins
Carbohydrates
(pages 45–46)
7. What atoms make up carbohydrates? Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms make up
carbohydrates.
a. Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates.
b. Living things use them as their main source of energy.
c. The monomers in sugar polymers are starch molecules.
d. Plants and some animals use them for strength and rigidity.
9. Single sugar molecules are also called
monosaccharides
.
10. Circle the letter of each monosaccharide.
a. galactose
b. glycogen
c. glucose
d. fructose
11. What are polysaccharides? They are large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides.
12. How do plants and animals store excess sugar? Plants use a polysaccharide called plant
starch, whereas animals use a polysaccharide called glycogen.
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8. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about carbohydrates.
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Lipids
Class __________________
Date ______________
(pages 46–47)
13. What kinds of atoms are lipids mostly made of? They are made mostly of carbon and
hydrogen atoms.
14. What are three common categories of lipids?
a. Fats
b. Oils
c. Waxes
15. Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds
called
fatty acids
.
16. Circle the letter of each way that fats are used in living things.
a. As parts of biological membranes
b. To store energy
c. To give plants rigidity
d. As chemical messengers
17. Complete the table about lipids.
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LIPIDS
Kind of Lipid
Description
Saturated
Each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chain is joined to another
carbon atom by a single bond.
Unsaturated
There is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid.
Polyunsaturated
A lipid’s fatty acids contain more than one double bond.
Nucleic Acids
(page 47)
18. Nucleic acids contain what kinds of atoms? They contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
carbon, and phosphorus atoms.
19. The monomers that make up nucleic acids are known as
nucleotides
.
20. A nucleotide consists of what three parts? It consists of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate
group, and a 5-carbon sugar.
21. What is the function of nucleic acids in living things? Nucleic acids store and transmit
hereditary, or genetic, information.
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22. What are two kinds of nucleic acids?
a. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
b. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Proteins
(pages 47–48)
23. Proteins contain what kinds of atoms? They contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen atoms.
24. Proteins are polymers of molecules called
amino acids
.
25. What are four roles that proteins play in living things?
a. Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.
b. Some are used to form bones and muscles.
c. Some transport substances into or out of cells.
d. Some help to fight diseases.
Reading Skill Practice
You can often increase your understanding of what you’ve read by making
comparisons. A compare-and-contrast table helps you to do this. On a separate
sheet of paper, make a table to compare the four groups of organic compounds you
read about in Section 2–3. You might use the heads Elements, Functions, and
Examples for your table. For more information about compare-and-contrast tables,
see Organizing Information in Appendix A.
Students’ tables should include the basic information about carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and
proteins.
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Section 2–4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
Date ______________
(pages 49–53)
TEKS FOCUS: 1A Safe lab practices; 1B Conserve resources; 2A Plan investigations; 2B Measure
precisely; 2C Make inferences; 2D Communicate valid conclusions; 3A Analyze scientific explanations;
4B Cellular processes
This section describes what happens to chemical bonds during chemical reactions. It also
explains how energy changes affect chemical reactions and describes the importance of enzymes.
Chemical Reactions
(page 49)
1. What is a chemical reaction? It is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another
set of chemicals.
2. Complete the table about chemicals in a chemical reaction.
CHEMICALS IN A CHEMICAL REACTION
Chemicals
Definition
Reactants
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
Products
The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
3. Chemical reactions always involve changes in chemical
Energy in Reactions
bonds
.
(page 50)
4. What is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or are broken?
Energy
5. What do chemical reactions that absorb energy need to occur? They need a source of
energy.
6. Chemists call the energy needed to get a reaction started the
activation energy
.
Energy-Releasing Reaction
Energy
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7. Complete the graph of an energy-releasing reaction by adding labels to show the energy
of the reactants, the energy of the products, and the activation energy.
Activation
energy
Reactants
Products
Course of Reaction
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Enzymes
(pages 51–52)
8. What is a catalyst? A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.
9. Proteins that act as biological catalysts are called
enzymes
.
10. What do enzymes do? Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
11. From what is part of an enzyme’s name usually derived? It is derived from the reaction it
catalyzes.
Enzyme Action
(pages 52–53)
12. The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as
substrates
.
13. Why are the active site and the substrates in an enzyme-catalyzed
reaction often compared to a lock and key? The active site and the substrates have
complementary shapes, and the fit is very precise.
14. The binding together of an enzyme and a substrate forms a(an)
enzyme-substrate complex
.
15. How do most cells regulate the activity of enzymes? Most cells contain proteins that help
turn key enzymes “on” or “off” at critical stages in the life of the cell.
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WordWise
Answer the questions by writing the correct vocabulary term in the blanks.
Use the circled letter(s) in each term to find the hidden vocabulary word.
Then, write a definition for the hidden word.
Clues
Vocabulary Terms
What is a negatively charged subatomic particle?
e
l
e
c
What is the basic unit of matter?
a
t
o
m
p
o
l
l
i
What is an element or compound called that is
produced by a chemical reaction?
p
What is the type of mixture whose components are
evenly distributed throughout?
What is an atom called that has a positive or negative
charge as a result of gaining or losing electrons?
What is a large compound formed from
combinations of many monomers?
What is an organic compound called that is used
to store energy and forms important parts of
biological membranes?
What is a monomer of nucleic acids called?
Hidden Word: c
Definition:
o
m
p
o
u
n
t
r
o
n
y
m
e
r
p
i
d
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
i
o
n
n
u
c
l
e
o
t
i
d
e
d
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite
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proportions
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