Mountain Building Journal

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Mountain
Building
Journal
Teacher’s Guide
Name:
Class:
Table of Contents
LESSON 1: WHY DO MOUNTAINS LOOK THE WAY THEY DO? ................................... 4
ACTIVITY 1: WHAT DO I KNOW? WHAT DO I WANT TO KNOW? ..........................................................................4
LESSON 2: HOW TO MAKE A MOUNTAIN .......................................................... 6
ACTIVITY 1: INESTIGATING SHAPE ...........................................................................................................................6
ACTIVITY 2: FOLDED MOUNTAINS ............................................................................................................................7
ACTIVITY 3: FAULT BLOCK MOUNTAINS ...................................................................................................................9
ACTIVITY 3 (OPTIONAL EXTENSION): PAPER FAULT MODELS .............................................................................. 10
ACTIVITY 4: HOT THICK IS IT? VISCOSITY AND VOLCANOES .............................................................................. 13
LESSON 3: EROSION: WHAT GOES UP MUST COME DOWN .................................... 14
ACTIVITY 1: EROSION DRAWINGS........................................................................................................................... 14
LESSON 4: WHAT ARE YOU MADE OF? ROCK COMPOSITION AND THE ROCK CYCLE ....... 16
ACTIVITY 1: ROCK TYPES ........................................................................................................................................... 16
ACTIVITY 2: ROCK CYCLE JOURNEY ......................................................................................................................... 19
LESSON 5: LOCATION AND SETTING: PLATE TECTONICS AND MOUNTAINS .............. 26
ACTIVITY 1: MAP IT! ................................................................................................................................................. 26
ACTIVITY 2: PLATE BOUNDARIES AND MOUNTAIN FORMATION .......................................................................... 28
LESSON 6 MOUNTAIN HISTORIESL A CULMINATING ACTIVITY .............................. 34
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Congratulations!
You have just landed a summer internship working for National Geographic
magazine. Your assignment is to create an informative photo essay about
Mountains. How will you make the story of these mountain come alive for the
magazine’s readers? What would they want to know about these mountains?
What kinds of questions do you have about mountains? What do you need to
know in order to write about mountains?
During the course of this unit you will be investigating mountains, including:
•
•
•
•
•
What they look like.
How they are made.
What they are made of.
Where they form.
Why they form.
You will need to gather all this information on the mountains pictured in the
Mountain Photo Archive in order to complete your National Geographic
assignment.
Summer Internship Department
National Geographic Society of
America
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Lesson 1: Why do mountains look the way they do?
Activity 1: What do I know? What do I want to know?
What do I know?
Answers will vary.
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What do I want to know?
Answers will vary.
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Lesson 2: How to make a mountain
Activity 1: Investigating shape
Think about what mountains look like. What is the difference between a mountain and
any other geologic formation? Look at the Mountain Photo Archive and group the
mountains into several categories based on shape or size. Mountains can only be listed
in one category. In the table below, list your categories in the left column and the
mountain photos that you placed in that category in the right column.
Categories
Mountains
Answers will vary.
What, if anything, was difficult about assigning the mountains to their groups?
Answers will vary.
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Activity 2: Folded Mountains
Unfolded Layers (side view)
Folded layers – showing upward and downward folds (side view)
Top cut off to model surface erosion:
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Student’s choice:
Review and Reflection
Answer the following questions in the space below.
1. How does the model you made illustrate processes at work in the Earth’s crust?
Compression can produce folds in surface rocks
2. What is the name of the force at work in the Earth’s crust that makes folded
mountains?
Compression
3. Look at the Mountain Photo Archive. Which, if any, of these mountains look like
they are made of folded layers?
Student answers will vary. Folded mountains are Flat Iron, Zagros
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Activity 3: Fault block mountains
Illustrate the formation of Fault Block Mountains using the book model here:
Fault block model before stretching of
the crust
____________________________
Width of the crust from left to right.
Fault block model after stretching of the
crust
______________________________
Width of the crust from left to right.
Review and Reflection
Answer the following questions in the space below.
1. Look at your "before" and "after" drawings. How did the measurements change?
Why do you think this happened?
The width increased due to expansion of the surface area.
2. Now look at the picture of the Basin and Range Province in Nevada. Based on what
you have just learned how do you think these mountains were formed?
The Basin and Range Province was formed in the same way, by
stretching of the earth’s crust.
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Activity 3 (Optional Extension): Paper fault models
1. Draw and Label each type of paper model fault in a box. Label the hanging wall (A)
and the Foot Wall (B), and use arrows to show the relative motion of each side of
the fault. Use the line beneath the box to label the type of fault.
Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
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Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
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Type of Fault _____________________________________________________
Review and Reflection
Answer the following questions in the space below.
1. Which types of faults are produced by tension, compression and shear?
Tension: Normal Faults
Compression: Thrust Faults
Shear: Transverse or Lateral Faults
2. In looking at the paper fault models, which types of faults do you think could
contribute to mountain building. Why?
All can. They all move large blocks of the earth and this can result in
mountain formation. Typically tension and compression form mountains.
Examples: Normal - Sierra Nevada, Thrust - Rocky Mtns,
3. Look at the Mountain Photo Archive. Which, if any, of these mountains look like
they could have some faulting associated with them?
Answers will vary. Ruby Mtn. and Franklin Mtn.
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Activity 4: How thick is it? Viscosity and Volcanoes
Data Table
Viscosity
Speed of Flow
Area of the Base
Height
slow
Comparatively
small
Comparatively
tall
Intermediate
Intermediate
intermediate
Fast
Very wide
Very low
High
Medium
Low
Review and Reflection
Use the observations you made during the experiment to answer the following
questions.
1. What viscosity of lava produces low, flat volcanic mountains? High viscosity
2. What viscosity of lava produces high, steep-sided volcanic mountains? Low viscosity
3. What viscosity of lava produces volcanic mountains with a wide base? High viscosity
4. What viscosity of lava produces volcanic mountains with a narrower base? Low
viscosity
5. Based on your observations, what can you say about how viscosity affects the shape of
volcanoes?
High viscosity lava produces narrow, steep-sided volcanoes. Intermediate lava
produces large volcanoes with higher, steep-sided, stratovolcanoes, and Low
viscosity lava produces very broad, gently sloping volcanic shields
6. Look at the Mountain Photo Archive. Which mountains do you think might be volcanoes?
Explain why you think they are volcanoes.
Answers will vary. Volcanoes are Iliamna, Avacha, Mauna Loa, and Frenandina
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Lesson 3: Erosion: What goes up must come down
Activity 1: Erosion Drawings
Draw before and after pictures of each of the four kinds of mountains.
Before Erosion
After Erosion
1
2
3
4
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Review and Reflection
Use complete sentences to answer the following questions in the space provided.
1. Did some mountain models erode more easily or more completely than others?
Which ones and why?
The ones with more sand erode more easily. Sand is less consolidated
and therefore washes away more easily.
2. Real mountains aren’t usually made of sand, so how can these models illustrate the
erosion and shaping of real mountains?
The sand and other materials can be used to represent how different
materials erode at different rates.
3. Look at the Mountain Photo Archive. Do any of these mountains appear to be made
by erosion of surrounding materials rather than the uplift of new material? Name
them and explain your reasoning.
Answers will vary. Mitten Buttes and Hopi Butte
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Lesson 4: What are you made of? Composition and the rock cycle
Activity 1: Rock Composition
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Canopy/1080/
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/rocks_intro.html
http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/create/index.html
Use these websites to research the rocks listed in data table. Information on rock
composition is useful when determining how a mountain was made.
Composition Data Table
Rock Name
Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
Granite
Rock Type
Description
How it Formed
Erodability
Extrusive igneous rock
No crystals to very
small crystals
usually light in color
with lots of quartz
and feldspars
Volcanic
eruptions, thick
lavas that tend
to build domes
Medium –
moderately
erodable
Extrusive igneous rock
Grey groundmass
with visible larger
crystals of olivine,
hornblende,
pyroxenes
Volcanic
eruption,
medium
viscosity;
forms
stratovolcanoes
Medium to
hard
Extrusive igneous rock
Black to dark grey;
very small crystals
may not be visible
with the nake eye
Volcanic
eruption, low
viscosity;
forms shield
volcanoes
Medium to
hard
Intrusive igneous
Salt and pepper;
large inter-grown
crystals of
feldspar, quartz,
hornblende, and
micas
Plutons,
crystallize
large magma
chambers
Hard
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Rock Name
Conglomerate
Sandstone
Shale
Limestone
Rock Type
Sedimentary
Sedimentary
Sedimentary
Sedimentary
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Description
Large pebbles to
boulders
cemented in
lithified sand or
mud matrix
All-tends
resistant minerals
(quartz, feldspars,
magnetite)
Fine grains of
sediment,
cemented
together
White, chalky,
soft, can have
fossils
How it Formed
Erodability
Near shore
or river
environments
Medium to
Easy
Near shore,
river, lakes
Medium to
Easy
Continental
shelf and
lake
environments
Ocean
Easy
Variable
medium to
hareddepends on
climate
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Rock Name
Slate
Marble
Schist
Gneiss
Rock Type
Metamorphic
Metamorphic
Metamorphic
Metamorphic
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Description
How it Formed
Erodability
Fine grained with
the grains aligned
to form parallel
sheets
Medium
depth burial
and moderate
temperature
Medium
White crystalline,
can have fossils
Medium
depth burial
and moderate
temperature
Medium
Layers of micas,
can have
secondary
minerals like
garnet
Medium deep
burial and
medium to
high
temperatures
Medium to
hard
Layered with
crystals and micas
Can have
secondary
minerals like
garnet
Deep burial
high
temperature
Hard
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Activity 2: Rock cycle journey
Background:
The rock cycle is a dynamic process that drives the formation and destruction of mountains
and affects entire continents, global weather and ultimately all life on Earth. In this game
you will model what can happen to a bit of rock or sediment as it moves through the rock
cycle.
Directions:
In this game, rock cycle stages and types of rocks, such as melting, cooling or metamorphic,
are located at 11 different stations. Each station has a “die” – a box that is labeled on each of
its six sides. The sides of the dice are marked to reflect the relative likelihood of materials
actually moving through the stages. For example, rock material may remain in a molten state
inside the earth for long periods of time. To show this, the die at station # 10, “Magma,” has
four sides that say “magma (stay as you are)” and only two sides that say “cooling and
hardening.” If you roll the “magma (stay as you are)” side of the die, you will stay at station
#10 and roll again when it is your turn. If you roll one of the sides that say “cooling and
hardening” you would move to station #9, the “Cooling and Hardening (crystallization)”
station.
1. Begin by choosing one station to start at. There are 11 stations so there should be two or
three students at each station at the beginning of the game. It does not matter where
you start; you probably will have a chance to visit most of the other stations during the
game.
2. Use you data table to record the # of the station you begin at in the column marked
“station #.” Record the name of your station in the column marked “station name.”
3. Now you get to roll the die. Since this is your first roll, put a 1 in the data column box for
“roll #.” After rolling the die, record what the die instructed you to do in the “what
happened” column of the data table.
4. In reality there is no set formula for how long rocky material spends at each stage of the
rock cycle. It may speed through in just 200,000 years or so, or it may stay at the same
point in the cycle for millions of years. For the purposes of this game, count each roll of
the die as 200,000 years. Even if you end up staying at the same place for multiple turns,
every time you roll the die you add another 200,000 years to the age of your rock.
5. Record each of these pieces of information in your data table each time you have a
turn. It is important to keep careful records, as you will need the information to
complete a “data summary” and answer some questions at the end of the game.
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Sample Data Table
ROLL
#
STATION
#
STATION NAME
WHAT HAPPENED
(Stay as _____ or change into ____?)
1
10
Magma
Stay as magma
2
10
Magma
Stay as magma
3
10
Magma
Change to cool and hardened rock
4
9
Cooling and
heating
Cool and harden stay crystalline
5
9
Cooling and
heating
Change to igneous rock
6
4
Igneous rock
Change! Weathering and erosion
7
11
Weathering and
erosion
Weathering and erosion stay here
8
11
Weathering and
erosion
Stay as weathering and erosion
9
11
Weathering and
erosion
Stay a weathering and erosion
10
11
Weathering and
erosion
Change to sediments
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Data Table
ROLL
#
STATION
#
STATION NAME
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WHAT HAPPENED
(Stay as _____ or change into ____?)
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Data Summary
Total Number of Visits to Each Station
Station
Total # of Visits to this Station
Each time you are told to “go”
or “stay” at a station it counts
as a visit.
compaction and cementation
high temperature and pressure
sediments
igneous rock
to the surface
metamorphic rock
sedimentary rock
melting
cooling and hardening
(crystallization)
magma
weathering and erosion
Total number of stations visited altogether: ______________________________
Which station, or stations, did you “visit” more than 3 times?__________________
Total visits to station # 4: ________ What type of rock is this?_______________
Total visits to station # 6: ________ What type of rock is this?_______________
Total visits to station # 7: ________What type of rock is this?________________
How many different turns (rolls of the die) did you have?_____________________
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Review and Reflect
Answer the following questions in the space below.
1. Did you get “stuck” for more than 10 turns at any particular station? Which one
and for how long?
Answers will vary
2. How many total rolls of the die did you spend as each rock type ?
Example:
METAMORPHIC: 8
3. If you did not become one of the following rocks, put a zero in that space.
METAMORPHIC:________ IGNEOUS:________ SEDIMENTARY:________
Answers will vary
4. How long did it take your rock to move through the rock cycle? Each roll of the
dice is a turn and each turn is equal to 200,000 years of geologic time. Find the
age of your rock by multiplying your total number of turns 200,000. Write the
answer below.
Answers will vary
Compare your journey through the rock cycle with at least two other students. Is
there only one path through the rock cycle? Explain.
Answers will vary
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Optional extension: Cartoon Challenge
Use this sheet as a kind of journey log to help plan your cartoon strip. Record your steps as you
traveled to new stations during your rock cycle journey. Describe your experience at each station and
say what kind of rock or material you were (igneous, sediments, magma, etc.). It is okay if you did not
actually go to new stations 12 times; just fill out what you did.
1. I began my adventure as ___________________________________________ at this station:
_____________________________________. 2. The next station I went to after that was
_______________________________________ where I became ________________________.
3. After that station, I became __________________________________________at station:
_____________________________________. 4. Next, I went to this station________________
______________________________ and turned into __________________________________.
After that, I found myself at station: __________________________________ where I became
____________________________________________________________________________.
Next, I went to _________________________________________________ and turned into
________________________________________. 8. The next station I went to after that was
_________________________________ where I became ______________________________.
9. After my experiences there, I became ________________________________________at this
station ______________________________________________________________________.
10. Next, I went to ______________________________________________ and turned into
_______________________________________________________. 11. Following that, I went to
___________________________________ where I became ____________________________.
12. Finally, after that last station I ended up as ________________________________________
at this station_________________________________________________________________.
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Cartoon Strip
Create a comic strip story of your journey through the rock cycle.
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Lesson 5: Location and setting: Plate tectonics and mountains
Activity 1: Map it!
Mountain Information Table
Use this data to locate each mountain on the map on the next page. Since the map is
small, you can just use the number of each mountain for labeling.
Latitude
Longitude
1. Avacha
53.25 N
158.83 E
2. El Capitan
37.73 N
119.64 W
3. Fernandina
0.37 S
91.55 W
4. Flat Irons
39.99 N
105.29 W
31.9 N
106.49 W
6. Hopi Butte**
35.50 N
111.00 W
7. Iliamna
60.03 N
153.09 W
8. Mauna Loa
19.48 N
155.6 W
9. Mitten Buttes
36.92 N
110.07 W
10. Ruby Mountains*
45.31 N
122.23 W
11. Torres Del Paine*
53.0 S
72.5 W
12. Zagros Mountains*
27.3 N
54.5 W
5. Franklin Mountains*
* mountain ranges
** volcanic field
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Blank map with plate boundaries
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Plate Boundary Proximity Data Table
Mountain
1. Avacha
3. El Capitan
4. Fernandina
5. Flat Irons
12. Franklin
Mountains
6. Hopi Butte
7. Iliamna
8. Mauna Loa
9. Mitten Buttes
2. Ruby Mountains
10. Torres Del Paine
11. Zagros Mountains
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Proximity to Plate Boundary
(near or far)
Near
Near
Near
Far
Far
Far
Near
Far
Far
Far
Near
Near
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Review and Reflect
Based on your completed map answer the following questions.
1. Name the mountains (or their numbers) that are located on a convergent plate
boundary.
Avacha, Ilimna, El Capitan, Torres Del Paine, Zagros
2. What kinds of mountains are created at or near convergent plate boundaries?
Folded, volcanic, batholiths
3. Name the mountains (or their numbers) that are located on a divergent plate
boundary.
Fernandina, Ruby Mtns and Franklin Mtns
4. What kinds of mountains form at divergent boundaries?
Fault block mountains
5. Name the mountains (or their numbers) that are not located near a plate
boundary.
Mauna Loa, Mitten Buttes, and Hopi Butte, Flat Irons
6. What could explain the presence of mountains that are far away from plate
boundary?
Plate tectonics; the plates move over time and mountains that formed
near a boundary can carried far from their origin.
Optional:
7. What do you notice about the relationship between plate boundaries, volcanoes,
and mountains?
Mountains and volcanoes form at or near plate boundaries.
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Batholiths
Using what you know about rock composition and the appearance of the mountains in
the Mountain Photo Archives, do you think any of them could be batholiths? If so,
which ones? You know that El Capitan is a batholith but there is one other. Describe
what it is about the appearance of these two mountains that characterize them as
batholiths.
Notes on batholiths:
Comparison:
El Capitan
Rock type
Appearance
(Massive or Layered)
Proximity to
Boundary
Type of Boundary
Other
?: Torres Del Paine
Granite
Granite
Massive
Massive
Near
Near
Convergent
Convergent
Boundary type has changed
from convergent to
transform and moved west.
Boundary has not
changed over time nor
has it moved over time.
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Mesas and Buttes
Can you tell if any of the mountains in the Mountain Photo Archives are mesas or
buttes? If so, which one(s)? Mitten Buttes is one of them. Can you find the other?
Describe what it is about the appearance of these two mountains that characterize
them as a mesa or a butte.
Notes on Mesas and Buttes:
Comparison:
Mitten Buttes
Rock type
Appearance
(Massive or Layered)
Proximity to
Boundary
Type of Boundary
Other
?: Hopi Butte
Sandstone
Sandstone capped by a
lava flow
Layered
Layered
Far
Far
None
None
Arid climate
Arid climate
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Shield
shaped; low
dome
Tipped layers.
Irregular,
blocky
Lava-capped
column..
Cone.
Low, flat
shiled.
Flat-topped
column.
Irregular;
blocky.
Massive.
Fernandina
Flat Irons
Franklin
Hopi Butte
Iliamna
Mauna Loa
Mitten Buttes
Ruby Mountains
Torres del Paine
Folded.
Massive.
El Capitan
Zagros
Mountains
Cone
Topography
(Shape)
Avacha
Name of
Mountain
Sedimentary.
Granite.
Metamorphic
rocks.
Sandstone.
Basalt.
Andesite.
Basalt over
sandstone.
Sedimentary.
Sandstone.
Basalt.
Granite.
Andesite
Composition
Folded.
Batholith.
Fault block.
Butte.
Volcano.
Volcano.
Butte.
Fault block.
Folded and
faulted
Volcano.
Batholith.
volcano
Type of
Mountain
27.3 N
53.0 S
45.31 N
36.92 N
19.48 N
60.03 N
35.5 N
31.9 N
39.99 N
0.37 S
37.73 N
53.25 N
Latitude
54.5 W
72.5 W
122.23 W
110.07 W
155.6 W
153.09 W
111 W
106.49 W
105.29 W
91.55 W
119.64 W
158.83 E
Longitude
Convergent
.
Convergent
.
None.
None.
None.
Convergent
.
None.
None.
None.
Divergent.
Convergent
.
Convergent
.
Type of
Plate
Boundary
Near
Near
Far
Far
Far
Near
Far
Far
Far
Near
Near
Near
Proximity
to Active
Boundary
Compressi
on
Subduction
Tension or
extension
Erosion
Hot spot
Subduction
Erosion
Tension or
extension
Compressi
on
Hot spot
Subduction
Subduction
Geologic
Origin
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Horizontal
layers
Does not
need to be
near plate
boundary
No layers
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Near ancient
convergent
plate
boundaries
Type of Plate
Boundary
Divergent
Tilted layers
Relatively
triangular
Flat topped
with steep
sides
Layer
Description
Fault Block
Mountains
Mesas &
Buttes
Craggy,
steep-sided
mountains
Batholiths
Topography/
Shape
Type of
Mountain
Convergent
Folded layers
Can have
many shapes
Folded
Mountains
Any, or at
hotspot
No layers
Either shield
shaped or
cone shaped
Volcanoes
Mountain Diagnostic Table
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Lesson 6: Mountain histories: National Geographic Photo Journal
Write your photo captions in the space provided. Be sure to include all of the details shown
below when writing your captions for each mountain. You will need to use your Mountain
Building Journal and you will need to do some research on-line or in the library.
Details, Details!
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
name
location (country, state, latitude and longitude)
elevation
geologic origin (faulting, folding, volcanism)
composition (layered, basalt, etc.)
shape (low and rounded, jagged, etc.)
EXAMPLE
Mount Rushmore
Mt. Rushmore is located in the Black Hills of
South Dakota (43°52’N, 103°28’W). The Black
Hills were formed approximately 1.5 billion years
ago by folding and thrust faulting. The mountains
were originally as high as 15,000 ft. Mt.
Rushmore now stands at 5725 ft. Mount
Rushmore is a massive body of granite and is part
of the Harney Peak Batholith. Mount Rushmore
is not currently on an active plate boundary. It
was formed by compression of the North
American Plate.
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Avacha
Photo courtesy of Tatyana Rashidova
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Ruby Mountains
Photo courtesy of Larry Morales
35
El Capitan
Photo credit: copyright © Bryan Law;
Image courtesy Earth Science World Image Bank
http://www.earthscienceworld.org/images
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Fernandina
Photo courtesy of Chuck Wood, 1979
36
Flat Irons
Photo courtesy of Deborah Trimble
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Franklin Mountains
Photo courtesy of Scott M. Cutler,9 Mar, 1998
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Hopi Butte
Photo credit: copyright © Louis Maher;
Image courtesy Earth Science World Image Bank
http://www.earthscienceworld.org/images
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Iliamna
Photo courtesy of R. G. McGimsey, Alaska Volcano
Observatory/U.S. Geological Survey, May 6, 1986
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Mauna Loa
Photo courtesy of J.D. Griggs, Hawaiian Volcano
Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey, January 10, 1985
Mountain Building Journal
DLESE Mountain Building Teaching Box
Mitten Buttes
Photo credit: copyright Bruce Molnia, Terra
Photographics; Image courtesy Earth Science World
Image Bank http://www.earthscienceworld.org/images
39
Torres Del Paine
Photo credit: copyright Louis Maher, University of
Wisconsin; Image courtesy Earth Science World Image
Bank http://www.earthscienceworld.org/images
Mountain Building Journal
DLESE Mountain Building Teaching Box
Zagros Mountains
Photo courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey
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