Myers AP - Unit 03B

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Unit 3B:
Biological Bases of Behavior:
The Brain
Unit Overview
• The Tools of Discovery: Having Our Head
• Older Brain Structures
• The Cerebral Cortex
• Our Divided Brain
• Right-Left Differences in the
Intact Brain
• The Brain and Consciousness
Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
The Tools of Discovery:
Having Our Head Examined
• Lesion
Recording the Brain’s Electrical
• Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Neuroimaging Techniques
• CT (Computed Tomography) scan
• PET (Positron Emission
Tomography) scan
• MRI (Magnetic
Resonance Imaging)
• fMRI (Functional MRI)
Older Brain Structures
The Brainstem
• Brainstem
–Reticular formation
The Thalamus
• Thalamus
–All the senses
EXCEPT smell
The Cerebellum
• Cerebellum
–“Little brain”
The Limbic System
• Limbic System
The Limbic System
The Amygdala
• Amygdala
and fear
The Limbic System
The Hypothalamus
• Hypothalamus
–Influence on the pituitary gland
–Reward Centers
–Reward deficiency
The Cerebral Cortex
• Cerebrum
–Cerebral cortex
Structure of the Cortex
• Glial cells (“glue cells”)
• Lobes
–Frontal lobes
–Parietal lobes
–Occipital lobes
–Temporal lobes
Functions of the Cortex
Motor Functions
• Motor Cortex
• Mapping the
Motor Cortex
• Neural
Functions of the Cortex
Sensory Functions
• Sensory
Functions of the Cortex
Functions of the Cortex
Association Areas
• Association areas
–Frontal lobes
• Phineas Gage
–Parietal lobes
–Temporal lobes
• Aphasia
–Broca’s area
–Wernicke’s area
The Brain’s Plasticity
• Brain Damage
Our Divided Brain
Splitting the Brain
• Vogel and Bogen
–Split brain
–Myers and Gazzaniga
A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual
field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a
picture of a boy is flashed in the right visual field. In
identifying what she saw, the patient would be most
likely to
a. use her left hand to point to a picture of a dog.
b. verbally report she saw a dog
c. use her left hand to point to a picture of a boy.
d. verbally report she saw a boy
e. communicate she saw a picture of a dog with a
Right-Left Differences in the
Intact Brain
Right-Left Brain Differences
• Hemispheric Specialization
–Perceptual tasks
–Sense of self
The Brain and Consciousness
• Consciousness
Cognitive Neuroscience
• Cognitive neuroscience
Dual Processing
• Dual Processing
–Conscious left brain
–Intuitive right brain
The Two-Track Mind
• Two-Track Mind
–Visual perception track
–Visual action track
The End
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Teacher Information
• Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks
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• Continuity slides
– Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that
build on one another. These are included for three purposes.
• By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and
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about “what might come next” in the series of slides.
• Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with
any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these
Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Germantown, WI 53022
[email protected]
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Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete
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Definition Slide
= add definition here
= tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a
naturally or experimentally caused
destruction of brain tissue.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
= an amplified recording of the waves of
electrical activity that sweep across the
brain’s surface. These waves are
measured by electrodes placed on the
CT (computed tomography)
= a series of X-ray photographs taken from
different angles and combined by
computer into a composite representation
of a slice through the body.
• Also called CAT scan.
PET (positron emission
tomography) Scan
= a visual display of brain activity that
detects where a radioactive form of
glucose goes while the brain performs a
given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance
= a technique that uses magnetic fields and
radio waves to produce computergenerated images of soft tissue. MRI
scans show brain anatomy.
fMRI (functional MRI)
= a technique for revealing bloodflow and,
therefore, brain activity by comparing
successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show
brain function.
= the oldest part of the central core of the
brain, beginning where the spinal cord
swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem
is responsible for automatic survival
= the base of the brainstem; controls
heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular Formation
= a nerve network in the brainstem that
plays an important role in controlling
= the brain’s sensory switchboard, located
on top of the brainstem; it directs
messages to the sensory receiving areas
in the cortex and transmits replies to the
cerebellum and medulla.
= the “little brain” at the rear of the
brainstem; functions include processing
sensory input and coordinating movement
output and balance.
Limbic System
= doughnut-shaped neural system (including
the hippocampus, amygdala, and
hypothalamus) located below the cerebral
hemispheres; associated with emotions
and drives.
= two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the
limbic system; linked to emotion.
= a neural structure lying below (hypo) the
thalamus; it directs several maintenance
activities (eating, drinking, body
temperature), helps govern the endocrine
system via the pituitary gland, and is
linked to emotion and reward.
Cerebral Cortex
= the intricate fabric of interconnected neural
cells covering the cerebral hemispheres;
the body’s ultimate control and
information-processing center.
Glial Cells
= cells in the nervous system that support,
nourish, and protect neurons.
Frontal Lobes
= portion of the cerebral cortex lying just
behind the forehead; involved in speaking
and muscle movements and in making
plans and judgments.
Parietal Lobes
= portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the
top of the head and toward the rear;
receives sensory input for touch and body
Occipital Lobes
= portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the
back of the head; includes areas that
receive information from the visual fields.
Temporal Lobes
= portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly
above the ears; includes the auditory
areas, each receiving information primarily
from the opposite ear.
Motor Cortex
= an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that
controls voluntary movements.
Sensory Cortex
= area at the front of the parietal lobes that
registers and processes body touch and
movement sensations.
Association Areas
= areas of the cerebral cortex that are not
involved in primary motor or sensory
functions; rather, they are involved in
higher mental functions such as learning,
remembering, thinking, and speaking.
= impairment of language, usually caused by
left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s
area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s
area (impairing understanding).
Broca’s Area
= controls language expression that directs
the muscle movements involved in
Wernicke’s Area
= controls language reception – a brain area
involved in language comprehension and
expression; usually in the left temporal
= the brain’s ability to change, especially
during childhood, by reorganizing after
damage or by building new pathways
based on experience.
= the formation of new neurons.
Corpus Callosum
= the large band of neural fibers connecting
the two brain hemispheres and carrying
messages between them.
Split Brain
= a condition resulting from surgery that
isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by
cutting the fibers (mainly those of the
corpus callosum) connecting them.
= our awareness of ourselves and our
Cognitive Neuroscience
= the interdisciplinary study of the brain
activity linked with cognition (including
perception, thinking, memory and
Dual Processing
=the principle that information is often
simultaneously processed on separate
conscious and unconscious tracks.

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