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Name: _________________________________________________ Date: Due Wednesday 11/12 Period _____ HOMEWORK WORKSHEET A – The Civilization of Sumer (Pages 110 – 117) I. Key terms: Define Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia irrigate city-­‐state barter polytheism ziggurat a region with good conditions for growing crops that stretches from the Mediterranean coast east through Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf wide, flat plain in between the Tigris and Euphrates river in present-­‐day Iraq to supply water to independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory trading system in which people exchange goods directly without using money worship of many gods or deities brick, pyramid-­‐shaped Mesopotamian temple II. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: On the back of this sheet, answer each question with 1-­‐2 complete sentences. Skip a line between each response. 1. What is cuneiform? What shape is used to create cuneiform? Cuneiform is the Sumerian system of writing that uses triangular-­‐shaped symbols to stand for ideas or things. 2. Which people held the most power in Sumer? Sumerians developed a social order with three classes. The upper class included the ruler, his top officials, powerful priests, wealthy merchants, and owners of large plots of land. 3. Name two advances that helped Sumerian civilization expand. Sumerian farmers used a plow and a seed funnel, making planting faster and easier. The plow, irrigation, the wheel, bronze tools weapons, and the sail increased trade, promoting Sumer’s spread to other lands. 4. How did the priests and kings of Sumer support one another? Sumerian priests and kings helped one another stay in power. The kings respected the priests’ rights and powers. The priests declared that the gods had chosen the king to rule. Together, kings and priests created religious ceremonies that supported royal power. 5. How did irrigation affect Sumer? Two advances that helped Sumerian civilization expand were irrigation canals to bring water from the rivers to their fields. Irrigation meant farmers could still plant during the hot, dry summer. 6. How did Sumerians produce bronze? Identify two artifacts Sumerian craftspeople created. Sumerians made bronze by mixing copper and tin. Bronze is better for making tools and weapons. Sumerian art includes bronze sculptures, jewelry, and weapons. Sumerian Social Class Structure Ruler Officials & priests Merchants Lg. landowners Farmers Skilled workers Slaves 

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