Topic 2 Exercise Physiology Cardiovascular System Student

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IB
Sports,
Exercise and
Health Science
Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.1: Composition of Blood
2.2.2: Composition of Blood - Match the statements:
Red blood cells are called…..
The main function of red blood cells
In the red blood cells haemoglobin
helps….
White blood cells protects the body…
White blood cells are also called….
White blood cells are produced…
The platelets job is to…
Platelets are smaller parts…
Plasma is 90%water and makes up…
Plasma contains plasma proteins that
help…
...55% of the volume of blood
…is to transport oxygen
… by going to the source of infection.
…the transportation of oxygen to the
working muscles.
…erythrocytes
…in both the long bones and the
lymph tissues of the body.
Leukocytes.
…to clot the blood.
…the circulation between cells and
tissues
…of larger cells.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Section 2
Blood Flow Song: Go to the following link and write out the lyrics for the song.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIXcWE0bTwY
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.3 Describe the Anatomy of the heart
Using the terms at the bottom of the page, label the diagram. Once you have finished, match each one to its
correct definition.
Aorta
Pulmonary veins
Pump deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs
Prevent blood from flowing back into the heart
Vena cavae
Transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
Pulmonary artery
Bicuspid valve
Tricuspid valve
Prevent blood flowing back from the ventricles into the atria
Transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
Right atrium
Right ventricle
Pump oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Transport deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart
Semilunar valves
Transports deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.5 Outline the relationship between pulmonary and systemic circulation
Answer
Describe in detail (13 steps) a pumping cycle starting with blood, low on oxygen
coming from the upper part of the body and finishing with the oxygen rich blood
going into the aorta.
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1. Blood- low on oxygen- flows towards the right atrium via the Vena Cava inferior and
superior.
2. The tricuspid valve opens and blood is pumped into right ventricle of your heart.
3. Right Ventricle contracts and blood passes the pulmonary valve and enters the
pulmonary artery.
4. Blood goes to your lung and becomes oxygen rich.
5. The L atrium contracts and blood goes to the L ventricle through the mitral valve.
6. The L ventricle contracts and the aortic valve opens.
7. The aortic valve quickly closes (prevent blood from going back).
8. The right atrium fills with blood and when full contracts.
9. When the R ventricle is full of blood the tricuspid valve closes (prevent blood flowing
back into R atrium).
10. The pulmonary valve closes to prevent blood from going back into R ventricle.
11. This oxygen rich blood returns from lungs through pulmonary veins and fills your L
atrium.
12. The mitral valve closes when the L ventricle is full of blood.
13. Oxygen rich blood is pumped into the aorta.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.4 Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart rate and the
sequence of excitation of the heart muscle.
Define
Key Word
Definition
Myocyte
Sino-atrial node
Atrio-ventricular mode
Action Potential
Purinje fibres (Bundle of His)
Myocardial contraction
Autonomic nervous system
Annotate and Explain the stages below
2.2.4 Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart rate and the sequence of
excitation of the heart muscle.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
List the 5 steps below of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart rate and the
sequence of excitation of the heart muscle.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Past Paper Question
1. How is breathing rate regulated by the body to meet the increasing
demands of exercise during a game of netball?
Answer
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.6 Describe the relationship between heart rate, cardiac output and stroke
volume at rest and during exercise
Cardiac Output: Define the following key terms.
Term
Definition (including formula)
Unit
Symb
ol
Pulmonary
circulation
Systemic
circulation
Cardiac output
Stroke volume
Individual Activity
Show your working to calculate your personal cardiac output in the space
below
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Changes to Cardiac Output during Exercise
Individual Activity – Types of Exercise
Choose the correct words from the word bank below. There are more words than required.
Sub-maximal exercise is the average method of working out; you are not working at your
physiological __________. Heart rate is measured in __________ and relates to sub-maximal
exercise in that when you are exercising, your measured heart rate is not as _____________
as it could be.
When you reach your maximum amount of work that you are physiologically capable of
performing, your heart rate will __________. Heart rate should respond in a ________
fashion
to physical activity; however, other factors such as your medical history
and level of fitness may play a role. __________ exercise should __________ the heart rate,
but not bring it to its maximum.
Word Bank
Maximum
increase
beats per minute
slow
fast
decrease
plateau
Linear
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.6 Describe the relationship between heart rate, cardiac output and stroke
volume at rest and during exercise
Stroke Volume
Fill in the following sentences:
_____________increase during exercise- why?
At a ________rate to the speed/ intensity of the exercise (up to about
____________of maximal intensity).
Once 40-60% of maximum intensity is reached stroke volume reaches a
_________.
Therefore stroke volume reaches it’s _________during
_________exercise.
Stroke Volume
Plateau
Linear
Maximal
40-60%
sub-maximal
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
What causes stroke volume (and therefore Q) to increase?
More blood is being returned to the heart – this is called ____________.
______________; (End Diastolic Volume- EDV; the volume of blood in the
right and/or left ventricle at end load.
Increased __________________occurs, this increases the pressure and
stretches the walls of the ventricles, which means that a more forceful
contraction is produced.
This is known as ______________
(more stretch = more forceful contraction).
During maximal exercise the cardiac output will need to be increased,
however stroke volume has already reached its maximum.
Heart rate ___________.
As a result of this stroke volume starts to ____________ - the increase in
HR means that there is not as much time for the ventricles to fill up with
blood, so there is less to eject (causes the HR to increase even more).
Starling’s Law
Venous Return
decrease
Increases
Less blood left in heart
Ventricular Contraction (aka Diastolic Filling)
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Heart Rate
Before exercise
Increases above resting HR before exercise has begun – known as
____________, is as a result of the release of adrenalin which stimulates
the SA node.
Sub-maximal Exercise
Plateaus during sub-maximal exercise, called_____________, means that
the oxygen demand is being met.
Maximal Exercise
______________dramatically once exercise starts, continues to increase
as ___________________increases to meet the oxygen demand.
_____________________as exercise intensity decreases.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
After Exercise
After exercise –______________decreases dramatically, then
______________.
Steady state exercise
Heart Rate increases
Heart Rate decreases
Stroke Volume & Cardiac Output
Anticipatory response
Heart rate
gradually decreases.
Cardiac Output
_____________ directly in line with intensity from resting up to maximum.
____________ during sub maximal exercise.
Plateaus
Increases
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Data Analysis of Cardiac Output
The table below shows the cardiovascular responses during dynamic wholebody exercise for 2 adult males of similar age (20 years old) and size (1.8m,
70kg). One of the individuals is sedentary and the other one is a well- trained
endurance athlete.
The data reflects 3 levels of exercise intensity:
1. Rest
2. Sub-maximal exercise (exercise at a fixed intensity)
Measurement
Intensity
Rest
-1
Sub-max.
Heart rate (beats.min )
Max.
Rest
-1
Sub-max.
Stroke volume (ml.beat )
Max.
Rest
-1
Sub-max.
Cardiac output (L.min )
Max.
Untrained adult
male 75
110
197
60
85
120
4.6
9.4
19.7
Trained adult
male 50
80
195
90
112
190
4.5
9.0
32.2
3. Maximal exercise (exercise to the point of exhaustion)
1. Evaluate the effect of training on the cardiovascular response to
sub maximal and dynamic exercise.
2. Aside from any differences in training status, predict any
difference that you would expect if the data in the above table
were compared to an adult female.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Sub-maximal cardiovascular responses are different in children and adults.
Both boys and girls have a lower cardiac output than adults at a given
absolute sub-maximal rate of work. This lower cardiac output is attributable
to a lower stroke volume, which is partially compensated for by a higher
heart rate.
The table below shows the data from a study comparing cardiovascular
responses to cycling and treadmill running in 7-9 year old children versus
18-26 year old adults.
Exercise
Cycle 60W
Run 3 mph
Cardiac output (L.min )-1
Child
Adult
9.4
12.4
6.7
12.3
Stroke volume (ml.beat-1
Child
Adult
61.9
126.8
57.3
135.7
Heart rate (beats.min-1)
Child
Adult
153.1
97.8
11.6
92.0
1. Compare the cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate
between the child and the adult.
2. Explain the cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate
between the child and the adult.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Adaptations of the Heart to Exercise
Physiological Adaptation
Heart Size
Stroke Volume (SV)
Resting Heart Rate
(RHR)
Cardiac Output (Q)
Blood Pressure (BP)
http://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/adaptationsto-exercise/chronic-cardiovascular-adaptations-to-exercise
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Past Paper Questions
1. Explain how it is possible for a trained performer and an untrained
performer to have the same cardiac output for a given workload. (4)
2. Describe the relationship between heart rate, stroke volume and
cardiac output during rest, sub-maximal rowing and maximal rowing. (2)
3. Briefly explain the terms ‘cardiac output’ and ‘stroke volume’, and the
relationship between them. (3 marks)
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.9 Systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Read the passage below and highlight key terms and ideas
Blood flow changes dramatically once exercise commences. At rest, only 1520% of cardiac output is directed to skeletal muscle (the majority of it goes to
the liver and the kidneys. Blood is redirected to areas where it is needed most.
This is known as shunting or accommodation. When exercising, the increased
metabolic activity increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and lactic acid
in the blood. This is detected by chemoreceptors and sympathetic nerves
stimulate the blood vessel size to change shape.
Vasodilation will then allow a greater blood flow, bringing the much needed
oxygen and flushing away the harmful waste products of metabolism. The
redistribution of blood is controlled primarily by the vasoconstriction and
vasodilation of arterioles. They react to chemical changes of the local tissue.
For example, vasodilation will occur when arterioles sense a decrease in oxygen
concentration or an increase in acidity due to higher CO2 and lactic acid
concentrations.
Sympathetic nerves also play a major role in redistributing blood from one area
of the body to another.
The smooth muscle layer (tunica media) of the blood vessels is controlled by the
sympathetic nervous system, and remains in a state of slight contraction. By
increasing sympathetic stimulation, vasoconstriction occurs and blood flow is
restricted and redistributed to areas of greater need.
When stimulation by
sympathetic nerves decreases, vasodilation is allowed which will increase blood
flow to that body part.
Define the terms systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Function
Diastolic
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Systolic
Define:
Vasodilation
Vasoconstriction
Blood Pressure
Measured in blood vessels (_____________)
Blood pressure is the ____________ applied to _______________.
Narrower vessels (_________________)
Wider vessels (______________)
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Measurement of force
artery
artery walls
vasodilation
vasoconstriction
2.2.10
Analyse systolic and diastolic blood pressure data at rest
and during exercise
Complete the table below using the word bank below:
Describe
Explain
Skeletal muscle – massive increase in
blood flow (26 fold) to working muscle. At
maximum effort muscle takes 88% of blood
flow
Coronary vessels – blood vessels that
serve cardiac muscle (which needs oxygen
and respiratory substrates). Nearly a 5 fold
increase in blood flow during exercise.
Skin – small increase in blood flow to
the skin during exercise.
Kidneys – significant reduction in
blood flow during exercise.
Liver & gut - significant reduction in
blood flow during exercise
Brain – blood flow is maintained at
the same level during exercise
Whole body – the volume of blood
pumped per minute is the same measure as
cardiac output
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2.2.11
Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
How does Systolic and diastolic blood pressure respond to
dynamic and static exercise.
Complete the paragraphs below using terms for the word bank provided
The heart muscle contracts in two stages to squeeze blood out of the heart.
This is known as ______________.

In the first stage, the _______________ (atria) contract at the same time,
pushing blood down into the _____________ (ventricles).
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System

Blood is pumped from the ___________ down into the right ventricle and
from the left atrium down into the _________________.

In the second stage, the lower chambers contract to push this blood out
of the heart to either the body via your main __________ (aorta) or to the
lungs to pick up ______________.
The heart then relaxes – known as ____________. Blood fills up the heart
again, and the whole process, which takes a fraction of a second, is repeated.
(i)
Blood pressure is the ______________ applied to artery walls. It
increases during exercise because more blood is pumped around the
body, increasing pressure in the _____________.
(ii)
____________: The blood pressure when the heart is ______________. It
is specifically the maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left
ventricle of the heart. The time at which _____________ contraction
occurs is called systole.
In a blood pressure reading, the systolic pressure is typically the
___________ number recorded. For example, with a blood pressure of
120/80 ("120 over 80"), the systolic pressure is 120. By "120" is meant
120 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury).
(iii)
The _______________ pressure is specifically the minimum arterial
pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the heart
when the _______________ fill with blood.
In a blood pressure reading, the diastolic pressure is typically the
___________ number recorded. For example, with a blood pressure of
120/80 ("120 over 80"), the diastolic pressure is 80. By "80" is meant 80
mm Hg (millimeters of mercury).
Word Bank
Right atrium
Artery
Lower chambers
Systole
Systolic
measurement of force
contracting
ventricular
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Upper chambers
Left ventricle
Oxygen
Blood vessels
Diastole
Diastolic
Ventricles
Second
first
2.2.11: Data analysis questions
80kg healthy
male
100 kg
unhealthy male
Activity
Rest
Running
Lifting
Diastolic pressure
(mmHg) 75
80
150
Rest
95
Systolic Pressure
(mmHg) 11
6
18
0
24
0
15
0
The table above presents data for a healthy trained 80kg male at rest and
performing two different actions (running fast, a dynamic activity, trying to lift
a very heavy object, static but very high forces), as well as resting data for
another untrained and unhealthy individual.
Answer the following questions
1. Compare the effect of dynamic exercise and static exercise on blood
pressure?
Answer
2. Explain why one is higher than the other?
Answer
3. Describe the difference between the two participants at rest.
Answer
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.12: Redistribution of blood during exercise
Factors affecting blood pressure
Factor
Cardiovascular centre
Smoking
Diet
Adrenaline
Increase in blood viscosity
2.2.12
Explanation
Compare the distribution of blood at rest and during exercise
Compare the values.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
2.2.8: Cardiovascular Drift
Explain in detail what is Cardiovascular Drift
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2.2.13 Describe the cardiovascular adaptations resulting from aerobic
training
Please read and highlight the following, which you think is important.
2.2.13 Cardiovascular adaptations resulting from endurance exercises
Acute cardiovascular (circulatory system) responses to exercise
1. When you begin to exercise, your HR increases to
O2 to the
working muscles. If you exercise at a constant pace, your HR will level off &
remain constant until you go faster or stop. This is ‘steady state’, and
indicates that the muscles are receiving enough blood & O2 to keep working
at that pace. (O2 supply = O2 demand).
2. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of the L ventricle with
each heart beat (contraction). Your SV depends on the size of your left
ventricle, which is determined by a combination of genetics & training. When
you begin to exercise, your heart muscle contracts more forcefully to increase blood (& hence O2 ) supply to your muscles. This causes a more
complete emptying of your ventricles, so SV increases.
3. Cardiac Output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart’s left
ventricle in 1 minute.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
4. CO = SV x HR
When you exercise, your Cardiac Output increases in an effort to increase the
blood supply (& hence O2 delivery) to the working muscles.
5. Blood Pressure is a measure of the pressure produced by the blood being
pumped into the arteries.
Systolic B.P. - pressure as the LV ejects the blood into the aorta during heart
contraction.
Diastolic B.P. - pressure in the arteries during relaxation of the heart.
Blood Pressure increase’s during exercise because SV, HR & CO all increase,
more blood is pumped into the arteries more quickly.
Blood Pressure is the measurement of force applied to artery walls.
During exercise, blood flow to the working muscles increases because of increased Cardiac Output & a greater distribution of blood away from nonworking areas to active muscles. 80-85% of Cardiac Output goes to working
muscles, because muscle capillaries dilate to allow more blood flow to the
muscles called vasodilation. Blood flow to kidneys, stomach & intestines ¯
decreases because the capillaries constrict - called vasoconstriction.
Blood flow to the lungs increases, as the right ventricle increases its activity
during exercise. To allow for this increased blood flow to the muscles, there
must be an accompanying increase in venous return (blood flow back to heart
through the veins).
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Due to an increase in sweating, the blood plasma volume decreases during
strenuous exercise, especially in hot weather.
Acute Muscular Responses to Exercise

contraction rate

recruitment of muscle fibres & motor units to produce more force

muscle temperature
 Depletion of fuel stores used to produce energy for contractions

blood flow to muscles (blood vessels dilate)

O2 attraction at the muscle
During exercise & recovery, more O2 must be delivered from the lungs to the
working muscles, & excess O2 must be removed from the working muscles.
Acute respiratory responses to exercise
During exercise & recovery, more O2 must be delivered from the lungs to the
working muscles, & excess O2 must be removed from the working muscles.
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
 respiratory rate

tidal volume

ventilation
 
lung diffusion
 
O2 uptake, or volume of O2 consumed



Respiratory rate
At rest, you breathe about 12-15 times each minute. When you begin to
exercise, the CO2 level in the blood ’s, because CO2 is a waste product of
energy production. This triggers the respiratory centre in your brain & you
breathe faster.

tidal volume- is the size of each breath taken and during heavy
exercise, tidal volume can increase to 2.5L per breath as the body tried to
increase the oxygen supply to the blood.

ventilation- the amount of air breathed in 1 minute dependent on the
number of breaths and the size of each breath.

lung diffusion- increase in in O2 diffucion from the alveoli to the
blood because of a massive increase in blood flow to the lungs and
dilation of the capillaries surrounding the alveoli.

O2 uptake, or volume of O2 consumed- When you begin to exercise,
your VO2 increase’s as your body absorbs more O2 & uses it to produce
more aerobic energy.
Chronic Training Adaptations
When we discuss chronic adaptations to training, we are assuming that
training has been occurring for a minimum of 6-8 weeks, training at least
3 sessions per week.
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2.2.14 Explain maximal oxygen consumption.
VO2max
Maximum oxygen consumption, also referred to as VO2max. Fitness can be
measured by the volume of oxygen you can consume while exercising at
your maximum capacity. Maximal Oxygen Consumption is sometimes referred
to as maximal aerobic power or aerobic capacity. Those who are ‘fitter’
have higher VO2 max values and can exercise more intensely than those who
are not as well conditioned.
2.2.14: Definition - VO2 Max
IB:
VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen in milliliters that
an individual can utilize whilst performing dynamic exercise.
Q1. Why is VO2 expressed as mL kg-1 per minutes?
Answer
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Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Q2: State the different factors that affect VO2 max/aerobic
capacity?
Answer
Read Below
Training can have the effect of making the CVR system more efficient and
improving your Vo2 max scores. The effects depend on the type of training,
its intensity and its duration. Recent research suggests that you can
increase your VO2 max by working out at an intensity that raises your
heart rate to between 65 and 85% of its maximum for at least 20
minutes three to five times a week. Interval training has also been
indentified as an effective training method (high intensity + rest periods) with
your HR recovering to at least 120bpm.
Effects can include improved or increased ability:
o to metabolise fat
o of the blood to ‘pick up’ and
transport oxygen from the
lungs
o of the muscles to use oxygen
o to remove waste products
o to increase VO2 max
o to work at a higher
percentage of VO2 max
o to recover, both during and
after exercise
o to regulate body temperature
o to work faster/harder for
longer
o to reduce risk of coronary
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heart disease/diabetes/health
disorders.
Past Exam Q: How can specific training increase an athlete’s VO2
Max?
Answer:
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2.2.15
Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Discuss the variability of maximal oxygen consumption in selected
groups
Question: List the factors that VO2 max depends on.
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Factor
Explanation
See Keynote and fill in the table below:
Question: List the factors that VO2 max depends on.
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2.2.15:
Topic 2: Exercise Physiology: Cardiovascular System
Discuss the variability (data) of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2)
in the different groups above (6)
 Untrained v Trained
 Young v Old
 Male v female
You will need to also look at (1) heart rate levels, (2) SV output, and
(3) cardiac output to gain extra discussion points and apply to the
above groups (2.2.7)
2.2.16:
Outline the different tests/modes of exercise which can test
Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max )?
Key point is that data generated from the different tests/exercise is reflected
by the quantity of activated muscle mass.
Answer
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