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Grammar Summary
Spanish 1 Unidad 4 Etapa 2
Stem-Changing Verbs (o --> ue)
Remember "boot" verbs like pensar, where the spelling in the stem
alternates between e and ie? There is also a group of verbs in which the
spelling alternates between o and ue.
ALMORZAR (o--> ue) - to eat
I eat lunch = Almuerzo
We eat lunch = Almorzamos
You (fam.) eat lunch = Almuerzas
You ( eat lunch
= Almorzáis
He, she, you (formal) eat(s) lunch
= Almuerza
They, you (pl.) eat lunch
= Almuerzan
Other (o--> ue) verbs in this unit are: devolver - to return an
item, encontrar - to find, to meet, recordar - to remember, poder - to be
able to, can, volver - to return, to go back
Indirect Object Pronouns
A "direct object" is a word that receives the action of a verb
directly. (In the sentence "Paco buys shoes" the action of buying
goes directly from Paco to the shoes.) An "indirect object" is a
word that indirectly receives the action of a verb. (In the
sentence "Paco buys shoes for us" the action of buying goes
directly from Paco to the shoes and then indirectly to us, because
we end up wearing them!) You have already learned about direct
object pronouns. In this unit you learn how to use indirect object
An indirect object tells "to whom/what" or "for whom/what" an
action is performed. Notice that indirect object pronouns use the
same words as direct object pronouns, except
for le and les. (Trivia question: What are the direct object
pronoun equivalents of le and les? See the answer at the
bottom of the page)
Indirect Object Pronouns
(to/for) me = me
(to/for) us = nos
(to/for) you (fam.) = te
(to/for) you ( = os
(to/for) him, her, you (formal) = le
(to/for) them, you (pl.) = les
An indirect object pronoun can replace or accompany an indirect object
Rosa le compra una olla a su
Rosa le compra una olla.
Rosa buys her mother a pot.
Rosa buys her a pot.
Since the pronouns le and les can refer to different indirect objects (him,
her, you) they are often accompanied by a + name, noun, or pronoun in
order to clarify the meaning: Yo le compro flores=I
buy her flowers. Yo le compro flores a mi novia= I buy my
girlfriend flowers (and not that other girl-big trouble if the meaning is not
To add emphasis, you can add the phrase a + pronoun to a sentence that
uses an indirect object pronoun: A mi me compro un carro rojo = I'm
buying myself a red car.
Placement of Indirect Object Pronouns
How do you know where indirect object pronouns go in a sentence? They
work just like direct object pronouns.
The indirect object pronoun is placed before the conjugated verb OR after
the infinitive if there is one: Yo me compro la blusa.
Yo voy a
comprarme la blusa/Yo me voy a comprar la blusa. If there are both
an indirect and a direct object pronoun, the indirect object pronoun goes
first. Yo me la compro. Yo voy a comprármela/ Yo me la voy a

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