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Entropy Rate Balance for Closed Systems Example: An inventor claims that the device shown generates electricity at a rate of 100 kJ/s while receiving a heat transfer of energy at a rate of 250 kJ/s at a temperature of 500 K, receiving a second heat transfer at a rate of 350 kJ/s at 700 K, and discharging energy by heat transfer at a rate of 500 kJ/s at a temperature of 1000 K. Each heat transfer is positive in the direction of the accompanying arrow. For operation at steady state, evaluate this claim. Q1 250 kJ/s T1 = 500 K Q 2 350 kJ/s + – T2 = 700 K T3 = 1000 K Q 3 500 kJ/s Entropy Rate Balance for Closed Systems ► Applying an energy rate balance dE 0 0 Q1 Q 2 Q 3 W e at steady state dt Solving We 250 kJ/s 350 kJ/s 500 kJ/s 100 kJ/s The claim is in accord with the first law of thermodynamics. ► Applying an entropy rate balance dS 0 Q1 Q 2 Q 3 0 dt T1 T2 T3 at steady state Solving 250 kJ/s 350 kJ/s 500 kJ/s 700 K 1000 K 500 K kJ/s kJ/s 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 K K Since σ∙ is negative, the claim is not in accord with the second law of thermodynamics and is therefore false. Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes ► Like mass and energy, entropy can be transferred into or out of a control volume by streams of matter. ► Since this is the principal difference between the closed system and control volume entropy rate balances, the control volume form can be obtained by modifying the closed system form to account for such entropy transfer. The result is (Eq. 6.34) i si and m e se account, respectively, for rates of entropy where m transfer accompanying mass flow at inlets i and exits e. Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes ► For control volumes at steady state, Eq. 6.34 reduces to give (Eq. 6.36) ► For a one-inlet, one-exit control volume at steady state, Eq. 6.36 reduces to give (Eq. 6.37) where 1 and 2 denote the inlet and exit, respectively, and is the common mass flow rate at these locations. m Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes Example: Water vapor enters a valve at 0.7 bar, 280oC and exits at 0.35 bar. (a) If the water vapor undergoes a throttling process, determine the rate of entropy production within the valve, in kJ/K per kg of water p1 = 0.7 bar vapor flowing. (b) What is the source of T1 = 280oC entropy production in this case? (a) For a throttling process, there is no significant heat transfer. Thus, Eq. 6.37 reduces to 0 Q j s1 s2 cv 0 m s1 s2 cv → 0 m Tj j p2 = 0.35 bar h2 = h1 Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes Solving cv m s 2 s1 p1 = 0.7 bar T1 = 280oC p2 = 0.35 bar h2 = h1 From Table A-4, h1 = 3035.0 kJ/kg, s1 = 8.3162 kJ/kg∙K. For a throttling process, h2 = h1 (Eq. 4.22). Interpolating in Table A-4 at 0.35 bar and h2 = 3035.0 kJ/kg, s2 = 8.6295 kJ/kg∙K. cv (8.6295 – 8.3162) kJ/kg∙K = 0.3133 kJ/kg∙K Finally m (b) Selecting from the list of irreversibilities provided in Sec. 5.3.1, the source of the entropy production here is the unrestrained expansion to a lower pressure undergone by the water vapor. Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes Comment: The value of the entropy production for a single component such as the throttling valve considered here often does not have much significance by itself. The significance of the entropy production of any component is normally determined through comparison with the entropy production values of other components combined with that component to form an integrated system. Reducing irreversibilities of components with the highest entropy production rates may lead to improved thermodynamic performance of the integrated system. p = 0.7 bar p = 0.35 bar Calculating Entropy Change ►The property data provided in Tables A-2 through A-18, similar compilations for other substances, and numerous important relations among such properties are established using the TdS equations. When expressed on a unit mass basis, these equations are (Eq. 6.10a) (Eq. 6.10b) (Eq. 6.10a) (Eq. 6.10b) (Eq. 6.10a) (Eq. 6.10b) (Eq. 6.23) Calculating Entropy Change ► As an application, consider a change in phase from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at constant pressure. ► Since pressure is constant, Eq. 6.10b reduces to give dh ds T ► Then, because temperature is also constant during the phase change (Eq. 6.12) This relationship is applied in property tables for tabulating (sg – sf) from known values of (hg – hf). Calculating Entropy Change ►For example, consider water vapor at 100oC (373.15 K). From Table A-2, (hg – hf) = 2257.1 kJ/kg. Thus (sg – sf) = (2257.1 kJ/kg)/373.15 K = 6.049 kJ/kg∙K which agrees with the value from Table A-2, as expected. ►Next, the TdS equations are applied to two additional cases: substances modeled as incompressible and gases modeled as ideal gases. Calculating Entropy Change of an Incompressible Substance ► The incompressible substance model assumes the specific volume is constant and specific internal energy depends solely on temperature: u = u(T). Thus, du = c(T)dT, where c denotes specific heat. ► With these relations, Eq. 6.10a reduces to give ► On integration, the change in specific entropy is ► When the specific heat is constant (Eq. 6.13) Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas ► The ideal gas model assumes pressure, specific volume and temperature are related by pv = RT. Also, specific internal energy and specific enthalpy each depend solely on temperature: u = u(T), h = h(T), giving du = cvdT and dh = cpdT, respectively. ► Using these relations and integrating, the TdS equations give, respectively (Eq. 6.17) (Eq. 6.18) Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas ► Since these particular equations give entropy change on a unit of mass basis, the constant R is determined from R R / M. ► Since cv and cp are functions of temperature for ideal gases, such functional relations are required to perform the integration of the first term on the right of Eqs. 6.17 and 6.18. ► For several gases modeled as ideal gases, including air, CO2, CO, O2, N2, and water vapor, the evaluation of entropy change can be reduced to a convenient tabular approach using the variable so defined by (Eq. 6.19) where T ' is an arbitrary reference temperature. Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas ► Using so, the integral term of Eq. 6.18 can be expressed as ► Accordingly, Eq. 6.18 becomes (Eq. 6.20a) or on a per mole basis as (Eq. 6.20b) ► For air, Tables A-22 and A-22E provide so in units of kJ/kg∙K and Btu/lb∙oR, respectively. For the other gases mentioned, Tables A-23 and A-23E provide s o in units of kJ/kmol∙K and Btu/lbmol∙oR, respectively. Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas Example: Determine the change in specific entropy, in kJ/kg∙K, of air as an ideal gas undergoing a process from T1 = 300 K, p1 = 1 bar to T2 = 1420 K, p2 = 5 bar. ► From Table A-22, we get so1 = 1.70203 and so2 = 3.37901, each in kJ/kg∙K. Substituting into Eq. 6.20a s2 s1 (3.37901 1.70203 ) kJ kJ 8.314 kJ 5 bar ln 1 . 215 kg K 28 .97 kg K 1 bar kg K Ideal Gas Properties of Air T(K), h and u(kJ/kg), so (kJ/kg∙K) when s = 0 Table A-22 T 250 260 270 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 h 250.05 260.09 270.11 280.13 285.14 290.16 295.17 300.19 305.22 310.24 u 178.28 185.45 192.60 199.75 203.33 206.91 210.49 214.07 217.67 221.25 so 1.51917 1.55848 1.59634 1.63279 1.65055 1.66802 1.68515 1.70203 1.71865 1.73498 pr 0.7329 0.8405 0.9590 1.0889 1.1584 1.2311 1.3068 1.3860 1.4686 1.5546 vr 979. 887.8 808.0 738.0 706.1 676.1 647.9 621.2 596.0 572.3 T 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 h 1515.42 1539.44 1563.51 1587.63 1611.79 1635.97 1660.23 1684.51 1708.82 1733.17 when s = 0 u 1113.52 1131.77 1150.13 1168.49 1186.95 1205.41 1223.87 1242.43 1260.99 1279.65 so 3.36200 3.37901 3.39586 3.41247 3.42892 3.44516 3.46120 3.47712 3.49276 3.50829 pr 450.5 478.0 506.9 537.1 568.8 601.9 636.5 672.8 710.5 750.0 vr 8.919 8.526 8.153 7.801 7.468 7.152 6.854 6.569 6.301 6.046 Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas ►Tables A-22 and A-22E provide additional data for air modeled as an ideal gas. These values, denoted by pr and vr, refer only to two states having the same specific entropy. This case has important applications, and is shown in the figure. Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas ► When s2 = s1, the following equation relates T1, T2, p1, and p2 p2 pr (T2 ) (s1 = s2, air only) (Eq. 6.41) p1 pr (T1 ) where pr(T ) is read from Table A-22 or A-22E, as appropriate. Ideal Gas Properties of Air T(K), h and u(kJ/kg), so (kJ/kg∙K) when s = 0 Table A-22 T 250 260 270 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 h 250.05 260.09 270.11 280.13 285.14 290.16 295.17 300.19 305.22 310.24 u 178.28 185.45 192.60 199.75 203.33 206.91 210.49 214.07 217.67 221.25 so 1.51917 1.55848 1.59634 1.63279 1.65055 1.66802 1.68515 1.70203 1.71865 1.73498 pr 0.7329 0.8405 0.9590 1.0889 1.1584 1.2311 1.3068 1.3860 1.4686 1.5546 vr 979. 887.8 808.0 738.0 706.1 676.1 647.9 621.2 596.0 572.3 T 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 h 1515.42 1539.44 1563.51 1587.63 1611.79 1635.97 1660.23 1684.51 1708.82 1733.17 when s = 0 u 1113.52 1131.77 1150.13 1168.49 1186.95 1205.41 1223.87 1242.43 1260.99 1279.65 so 3.36200 3.37901 3.39586 3.41247 3.42892 3.44516 3.46120 3.47712 3.49276 3.50829 pr 450.5 478.0 506.9 537.1 568.8 601.9 636.5 672.8 710.5 750.0 vr 8.919 8.526 8.153 7.801 7.468 7.152 6.854 6.569 6.301 6.046 Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas ► When s2 = s1, the following equation relates T1, T2, v1, and v2 v 2 v r (T2 ) (s1 = s2, air only) (Eq. 6.42) v1 v r (T1 ) where vr(T ) is read from Table A-22 or A-22E, as appropriate. Ideal Gas Properties of Air T(K), h and u(kJ/kg), so (kJ/kg∙K) when s = 0 Table A-22 T 250 260 270 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 h 250.05 260.09 270.11 280.13 285.14 290.16 295.17 300.19 305.22 310.24 u 178.28 185.45 192.60 199.75 203.33 206.91 210.49 214.07 217.67 221.25 so 1.51917 1.55848 1.59634 1.63279 1.65055 1.66802 1.68515 1.70203 1.71865 1.73498 pr 0.7329 0.8405 0.9590 1.0889 1.1584 1.2311 1.3068 1.3860 1.4686 1.5546 vr 979. 887.8 808.0 738.0 706.1 676.1 647.9 621.2 596.0 572.3 T 1400 1420 1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 h 1515.42 1539.44 1563.51 1587.63 1611.79 1635.97 1660.23 1684.51 1708.82 1733.17 when s = 0 u 1113.52 1131.77 1150.13 1168.49 1186.95 1205.41 1223.87 1242.43 1260.99 1279.65 so 3.36200 3.37901 3.39586 3.41247 3.42892 3.44516 3.46120 3.47712 3.49276 3.50829 pr 450.5 478.0 506.9 537.1 568.8 601.9 636.5 672.8 710.5 750.0 vr 8.919 8.526 8.153 7.801 7.468 7.152 6.854 6.569 6.301 6.046 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas Assuming Constant Specific Heats ► When the specific heats cv and cp are assumed constant, Eqs. 6.17 and 6.18 reduce, respectively, to (Eq. 6.17) (Eq. 6.18) (Eq. 6.21) (Eq. 6.22) ► These expressions have many applications. In particular, they can be applied to develop relations among T, p, and v at two states having the same specific entropy as shown in the figure. Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas Assuming Constant Specific Heats ► Since s2 = s1, Eqs. 6.21 and 6.22 become ► With the ideal gas relations where k is the specific ratio ► These equations can be solved, respectively, to give ► Eliminating the temperature ratio gives (Eq. 6.43) (Eq. 6.44) (Eq. 6.45) Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas Example: Air undergoes a process from T1 = 620 K, p1 = 12 bar to a final state where s2 = s1, p2 = 1.4 bar. Employing the ideal gas model, determine the final temperature T2, in K. Solve using (a) pr data from Table A-22 and (b) a constant specific heat ratio k evaluated at 620 K from Table A-20: k = 1.374. Comment. (a) With Eq. 6.41 and pr(T1) = 18.36 from Table A-22 p2 1.4 bar pr T2 pr T1 18 .36 2.142 12 bar p1 Interpolating in Table A-22, T2 = 339.7 K Ideal Gas Properties of Air T(K), h and u(kJ/kg), so (kJ/kg∙K) when s = 0 Table A-22 T 315 320 325 330 340 350 h 315.27 320.29 325.31 330.34 340.42 350.49 u 224.85 228.42 232.02 235.61 242.82 250.02 s 1.75106 1.76690 1.78249 1.79783 1.82790 1.85708 o pr 1.6442 1.7375 1.8345 1.9352 2.149 2.379 vr 549.8 528.6 508.4 489.4 454.1 422.2 T 600 610 620 630 640 650 h 607.02 617.53 628.07 638.63 649.22 659.84 when s = 0 u 434.78 442.42 450.09 457.78 465.50 473.25 s 2.40902 2.42644 2.44356 2.46048 2.47716 2.49364 o pr 16.28 17.30 18.36 19.84 20.64 21.86 vr 105.8 101.2 96.92 92.84 88.99 85.34 Calculating Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas (b) With Eq. 6.43 T2 T1 p2 p1 k 1 / k 1.4 bar 620 K 12 bar 0.374/ 1.374 T2 = 345.5 K Comment: The approach of (a) accounts for variation of specific heat with temperature but the approach of (b) does not. With a k value more representative of the temperature interval, the value obtained in (b) using Eq. 6.43 would be in better agreement with that obtained in (a) with Eq. 6.41. Isentropic Turbine Efficiency ► For a turbine, the energy rate balance reduces to 1 2 2 (V V ) 1 2 0 Qcv Wcv m (h1 h2 ) g ( z1 z2 ) 2 ► If the change in kinetic energy of flowing matter is negligible, ½(V12 – V22) drops out. ► If the change in potential energy of flowing matter is negligible, g(z1 – z2) drops out. ► If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible, Q cv drops out. W cv h1 h2 m where the left side is work developed per unit of mass flowing. 2 Isentropic Turbine Efficiency ►For a turbine, the entropy rate balance reduces to 1 ► If the heat transfer with surroundings is negligible, Q j drops out. cv m s2 s1 0 2