Teaching No

Document technical information

Format pptx
Size 8.2 MB
First found May 22, 2018

Document content analysis

Category Also themed
Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Organizations

Places

Transcript

Motivating Operation / Establishing
Operation
 Establishing Operation – makes some
stimulus or event more reinforcing
 Example (food, drink, break)
 Every time you present a reinforcer, it
decreases the motivation for the next one
(abolishing operation)
Tact
 Naming or labeling objects, actions,
experiences (what you see, hear, smell, taste,
feel)
 Label is controlled by contact with
something (SD)
Discriminative
stimulus-SD
Tact
Outcome/
Consequence
Water fountain
“Water”
“Yes, that is the
water fountain.”
Crayon box
“Colors”
“The box has lots
of crayons!”
Echoic
 Repeating what you hear
 Controlled by what is heard
Discriminative
stimulus
Echoic
Outcome/
Consequence
Say “drink”
“Drink”
“That’s right!”
Say “red”
“Red”
“It is red!”
Intraverbal
 Conversing or answering questions
 Controlled by the verbal behavior of others
Discriminative
stimulus
Intraverbal
Outcome/
Consequence
“What do you
want to drink?”
“Juice”
“That sounds
good.”
Which coloring
book do you
like?
“Train” or sign
train
“I like the train
book too. Let’s
color in it”
Advanced Language
Activities
Fill-ins and Reversals
 A dog is an
________________________?
 A dog has four legs and a
____________ ?
 A horse lives in a _________on a
_________?
 A horse can run _______________?
 What can run fast?
 A bird has _________.
 What has wings?
 On rainy days you could use an
__________?
 When would you use an umbrella?
“Not” Questions
Who is not on a bike?
Teaching Intraverbals: Reversals
Verbal Behavior Quiz
 Say “mama”
 “Show me the fruit”
 Wait for child to ask
 “What is this?”
 “Where did you go last night?”
 “Which one do you drive?”
 “I want more”
 “Point to the car”
Verbal and Non-verbal
Responses
Verbal
 Echoic
 Mand
 Tact
 Intraverbal
Non-verbal/Receptive
 Matching to sample
 Receptive
discrimination
 Motor imitation
 Following directions
Match to Sample
 Match identical items (mitten to mitten)
 Match similar items (brown dog, brown &
white dog)
 Match categories (animals and food)
Match to Sample
 Match in an array of 3 and move to larger
array
 Distracter items start off very different then
become more similar
 Mitten, car, chicken (more different)
 Mitten, glove, hat (more similar)
Discrimination Teaching
How many skills depend on discrimination?
 Using pictures/visuals
 Following directions
 Identifying people
 Yes/No
 And much more
Receptive by Feature,
Function, and Class (RFFC)
Children need to know more than identification
of an object than just its label, they need to
learn information about objects such as:
Feature – characteristics of object (e.g., color,
size, shape, says quack, wear on your hands)
Function – purpose of object (what do you do
with a pencil, what is a cup for, what do you
ride on)
Class – category (what is a dog, what is a shirt)
Teaching Communication
 Manding
 Yes/No
Just a couple important aspects of
communication for children with ASD
Following Directions and Motor
Imitation: What’s the difference?
 Following directions
 Emphasis is receptive understanding of verbal
request
 “Stomp your feet” “Close the door” “Get your
coat”
 Motor imitation
 Emphasis is on modeling the motor behavior of
another person
 “Do this”
REMINDER:
Top 3 Targets for Intervention
Teaching Requesting (Manding)
 Social responsiveness
 Responsive to requests (eye contact
and one-step directions)
 Responding to initiations
 Imitation Skills
First year priorities and beyond
(Weiss & Zane, 2010)
Manding
The ability to ask for
the things you want or
need
 Term “manding”
comes from Skinner’s
Analysis of Verbal
Behavior
Oliver Twist
Why is Manding Important?
In most children, manding is the first
repertoire established (e.g., infant crying to
request food)
- yet Many students with ASD have not learned to
effectively mand to obtain things they want
or need
 Successful manding reduces behavior
problems
Manding
 Communicate wants and needs
 Use the student’s motivation to teach
 Student can control the environment
Motivation
(MO)
Wants
bubbles
Response
Specific
Reinforce
-ment
Says
“bubbles”
Gets
bubbles
Plavnick & Ferreri (2012)
 Used video modeling to teach mands.
When children were taught to mand for
high preference items, they engaged in
lower rates of problem behavior
Antecedent condition
Mand
Response
High preference item that required assistance to
operate was presented
Help me
High preference item was placed in a transparent Open this
container with tight lid
High preference item was placed on a high shelf
I want ____
Movie was provided without a player
Movie
Child was provided with brief access to a high
preference event
Again
Requesting for Young Children
with ASD can Include Requests
for:
 Desired items (e.g., “Want train”)
 Necessary items (e.g., “I need a spoon”)
 Assistance (e.g., “Help please”)
 Attention (e.g., “Watch me!”)
 Actions (e.g., “Swing me”)
 Information (e.g., “What is it?”)
 Negative reinforcement – removing
something unwanted (e.g., “Go away”, “I
need a break”)
Requesting
 Students are more likely to request if
they receive what they asked for
 Initially, if the child asks, we give!
 As the requesting behavior becomes more
established, the concept of waiting can
be added
Identify Preferred Items, Activities &
Routines
Determining high preference
items to use for Mand Training
 In Plavnick & Ferreri’s study, they determined
high preference items by observing children in
a free play situation and noting which items
the children used gestures to gain access to
 Example items:
 Spinning tops, wind up toys, balloon inflators, balls
that lit up when bounced, cars that made noise
when pushed, Polly Pocket dolls, Thomas the Train
toys, puzzles, building blocks, art supplies, bubbles,
candy, potato chips
Basic Manding
For first words, avoid:
 Non-specific or too
general (more, please,
eat, toy)
 Removing aversives
(finished, break, go play)
 Hard to deliver (swimming,
playground, animal)
 Hard to remove (lollipop,
outside)
Select for first words:







Strong motivation
Slow satiation
Specific items*
Easy to deliver
Consumable or removable
Known response form
Reinforced in natural
environment
*actual foods, drinks, toys,
items, actions or people by
name (pretzel, water, push)
Teaching Requesting Using
Sign Language
• Begin with the preferred item present
• First opportunity: Provide a freebie while
verbally labeling the item, “bubbles”!
• Next opportunity:
• Model the sign while verbally labeling the item,
“bubbles”
• Then physically prompt the student to sign for the
item; label it again, “bubbles”
• Provide the item and label it again, “bubbles”
Requesting Train
Requesting with PECS
Teaching Requesting with
a Prompter
 The initial stages of PECS training require a
silent prompter
 Children with limited attention to visual
models and/or who have poor imitation
skills may also require a prompter to learn
signs
Requesting Training with
a Prompter
Fading Prompts
Fade physical prompts to form the sign or to
pick up/point to the picture:
 Fade from full physical to partial physical
prompts
 Fade from a partial physical to a time delay
prompt
Fade the model of the sign
 At first, you model, the student imitates
 Later, use time delay (bring up the item and
wait before modeling the sign to the child)
Teaching Verbal Requesting
 Again, the first opportunity is a freebie
 The label is provided, “tickle”
 Child receives item/activity immediately
upon approximating the word
Putting it All Together to
Teach Requesting:
Communication Camp
(Yes, this is Mand Training, but with a
name that’s more fun!)
What is Communication
Camp?
 A fun, 2-week adventure where the child
develops new skills that will last a lifetime
 During the 2-week communication camp, the
focus is on establishing opportunities for
requesting while teaching the student to
initiate communication
 This student’s participation in other classroom
activities may be temporarily decreased, so
that communication can be emphasized
Choose Requesting Targets
Initially, try to choose 1 target from each quadrant
Foods/Drinks/Snacks:
Toys with Multiple Pieces:
Chips
Pretzels
Juice
Water
Puzzles
Play-doh
Train tracks
Cars
Interactive/Motor
Activities:
Toys Requiring Help:
Tickles
Swinging
Trampoline
“blanket slide”
Spinning in desk chair
Bouncing on therapy ball
Bubbles
Balloons
Spinning tops, toys
Post Reinforcers
After You’ve Chosen approximately
Four Requesting Targets…
“Cleanse” the environment. The
student only receives access to
these items when you are
implementing mand training, or
when s/he spontaneously
requests the item.
Schedule Mand Training Sessions
 Implement approximately 10 requesting
opportunities per “session” across 8-10
sessions per day
 this way the child receives 80-100 opportunities
to communicate per day
Schedule Mand Training Sessions
4 requesting targets for this student:
bubbles, puzzle, cookie, spin
SCHOOL ACTIVITY MAND TARGET
WHO WILL
IMPLEMENT?
Bathroom
Bubbles
Teacher/Parapro
Table activity
Puzzle
Parapro
Speech
Cookie/Spin
SLP
Circle
Bubbles/Spin
Parapro in hallway
Snack
Cookie
SLP/Teacher
Playtime
Puzzle/Spin
Teacher/Parapro
Motor Time
Spin/Puzzle (while using
scooter)
OT
Bathroom/Packup
Bubbles
Teacher/Parapro
Other Considerations for
Mand Training Sessions
 If the child seems bored or disinterested
with any of the items you’ve selected for
mand training, switch to another selected
item or identify something else to replace it
 The child must be motivated to
communicate for the item for requesting
training to be successful
Lena’s Communication
Camp Example
 Lena high five low attention – Instructional
control
 Lena automatic reinforcement of words Echoics
 Lena communication camp - Manding
 Asking for help candy - Manding
Lena’s Communication
Camp
Lena’s Communication Camp
Teaching Communication
 Manding
 Yes/No
Just a couple important aspects of
communication for children with ASD
Why Teach Yes and No
 A child can learn to respond to a wide
range of questions to allow others to
know what they need or want
 Can answer cognitive or academic
questions
YES
NO
Communication buttons for
Yes/No
Teaching Yes
 Teaching choice through Yes and No.
 Verbal, head nod, picture cards
 Often best to start with picture cards
1. Have favorite foods and a card that says Yes.
2. Show the child the favored item and ask “do you
want it.” When the child reaches, say “Yes” while
nodding your head and have the child touch the
Yes card. As soon as the child hand touches Yes,
give him/her the item.
Teaching Yes
3. Continue to offer the item several more
times prompting to touch the Yes card if
needed and giving the item as soon as
the child touches the card.
4. End on a positive trial.
Teaching No
Teaching No doesn’t start until the child
has Yes consistently.
 Gather some highly non-preferred items as well
as some preferred items.
 Show the child a non-preferred item. When the
child doesn’t take it or pushes it away, have him
touch No, prompting if needed, while saying No
and shaking your head.
Teaching No
 Offer a few more items that they don’t want
practicing No before offering a preferred
choice.
 End on a Yes trial so the child is not frustrated.
ACTION PLAN
Go over your action
plan with us and get
something for your
classroom
We will review the
action plan at the
next meeting.
Before you
Leave Today
What we need to do to finish
the day:
1. See Team Binder –
Module 5 Tab for checklist
and folder. Leave all listed
forms in the folder on your
table.
2. Review your action plan
with the START staff
Next Steps
 Next meeting date
 March 24th - Module 6: Implementing High
Quality Preschool Programming
 Collect follow up data for independence,
engagement, and social and summarize
for the final training date
Target Student Reporting Form
Pink
Form

Similar documents

×

Report this document