Blue and green water use in crop production in Cyprus;
exploring pathways towards climate change adaptation
A. Bruggeman1, C. Zoumides2, Stelios Pashiardis3,
Panos Hadjinicolaou1, M.A. Lange1 and Theodoros Zachariadis2
Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute
2Dept of Environmental Science & Technology, Cyprus University of Technology
3Cyprus Meteorological Service
Green and blue water resources in Cyprus
Renewable water resources
Crop water demand
Oct 1980 – Sep 2009
Green water (Mm3)
168 – 440
Blue water (Mm3)
150 – 219
Bruggeman et al, 2011
To assess the effect of climate variability and changes in water
supply on changes in agricultural land use, production and
irrigation water demand in Cyprus
Methods: a daily soil water balance model, based on the FAO dual crop
coefficient approach, was developed to compute the crop water use,
originating from precipitation (green water) and from irrigation (blue water)
Methods: daily meteorological data from 34 stations and precipitation data
from 70 gauges from the Cyprus Meteorological Service (Oct 1980 – Dec 2010)
Methods: soil physical data based on 1:250,000 soil map of Cyprus
Methods: crop area and production data for 87 different crops and 30
seasons (1979/80-2008/09) from the Cyprus Agricultural Statistics
Methods: location of crops in 431 communities from the Agricultural
Census (2003) and the Cyprus Agricultural Payment Organization
• Crop production in Cyprus makes efficiently use of the
precipitation, which may otherwise evaporate back to the
atmosphere with little local benefit.
• Land use change, water policies and climate change may
reduce national crop production by 46-49% for rain-fed crops
and by 38-42% for irrigated crops, for 2014-2020, relative to
• Computations indicate that the value of crop production could
range from 0.02 €/m3 for alfalfa to 35 €/m3 for cucumbers.
• Research is ongoing to identify climate-resilient,
environmentally-friendly, and economically-efficient crop
production options for Cyprus and the Mediterranean region.
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Bruggeman, A., C. Zoumides, S. Pashiardis, P. Hadjinicolaou, M.A. Lange, and T. Zachariadis. 2011.
Effect of climate variability and climate change on crop production and water resources in Cyprus.
Study for the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, led by the Agricultural
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