Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious

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Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
Available at www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.8/November-2015/11.pdf
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open Access
Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious
bursal disease in poultry birds
J. Singh, H. S. Banga, R. S. Brar, N. D. Singh, S. Sodhi and G. D. Leishangthem
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
Corresponding author: J. Singh, e-mail: [email protected], HSB: [email protected],
RSB: [email protected], NDS: [email protected], SS: [email protected], GDL: [email protected]
Received: 27-06-2015, Revised: 04-10-2015, Accepted: 15-10-2015, Published online: 24-11-2015
doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1331-1339 How to cite this article: Singh J, Banga HS, Brar RS, Singh ND, Sodhi S,
Leishangthem GD (2015) Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry
birds, Veterinary World 8(11): 1331-1339.
Abstract
Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD) using gross, histopathological, and
immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic
techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the
nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of
proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.
Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size.
Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and
atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic
cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific
viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s), in conjunction to inner
lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle,
respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV) antigen. Advanced
immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal
within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation
(r=0.64623) was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis
of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and IHC staining is a precise, specific, rapid, and reliable method to
demonstrate the IBDV antigen in the altered tissues due to IBDV infection.
Keywords: histopathology, immunohistochemical, infectious bursal disease.
Introduction
Poultry farming has always been an integral component of livestock production. Besides providing egg
and meat, it proves to be a good and reliable source of
income in rural areas [1]. There are several viral, bacterial, parasitic, and managemental diseases of poultry that cause direct financial loss to farmers. Among
these, infectious bursal disease (IBD) ranks high.
IBD, also known as Gumboro disease [2], based
on the area of its first identification (in Gumboro,
Delaware United States of America, USA); avian
nephrosis [3] and avian infectious bursitis, is classified as an economically important disease of poultry. It is caused by a virus that is member of genus
Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae with two serotypes of this virus, which have been recognized so
far, i.e., serotype 1 and serotype 2 of which serotype 1
is considered pathogenic [4]. On account of the high
Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributin License (http://
creative commons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted
use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the
work is properly cited.
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
mutation rate of the IBD virus (IBDV) genome, the
virus changes its properties such as antigenic variation
with increased virulence [5].
The disease manifests as acute and subclinical
form(s) in chicks of age 0-3 weeks as immunosuppression or also in clinical form depending on the
age of the bird. The chicks become anorectic, become
reluctant to move, and show ruffled feathers with
watery diarrhea, trembling and severe prostration.
The characteristic gross lesions of the disease include
dehydration of the muscles with ecchymotic hemorrhages, enlargement, and orange discoloration of kidneys. The bursa of Fabricius becomes enlarged and
shows pale yellow discoloration. Intra-follicular hemorrhages may be found and pin point hemorrhages on
the skeletal muscles are usually prominent [6].
The acute phase of the disease lasts for 6-10 days
and is characterized by atrophy of bursa along with
depletion of B-cells [7] in bursal follicles, the other
lymphoid organs such as spleen and cecal tonsils are
also affected. Immunosuppression occurs in clinical
and subclinical form where both humoral and cellular
immune responses are compromised and thus making
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birds more vulnerable to other secondary infection(s)
and reduced response to vaccination [8].
Due to this, IBD is a major threat to the poultry industry both at the national and international
level; as evidenced by the concluded submission of Farooq et al. [9], who calculated losses of
Rs. 4523.99±447.56/- and Rs. 18,276.96±2388.91/- as
amount of rupees loss per flock and per year for 1000
broilers, respectively, due to IBD in Mirpur and Kotli
districts of Kashmir. The potential for economic losses
in the poultry industry also exists when anytime a new
antigenic or pathogenic strain of IBDV is introduced
into a country or geographic region [10]. Internationally,
IBD is also reported endemic in certain areas [11-13].
A total monetary loss of over three billion Nigerian
currency was reported by Musa et al. [14] over a period
of 3-year recurrent outbreaks during years 2009, 2010,
and 2011. List of OIE, 2015 [15], has included the disease in the list of notifiable diseases.
Thus, regular vaccination and adoption of proper
prophylactic measures are mandatory to diminish
the occurance of this disease. In this context, study
by Fantay et al. [16] showed that the proper time for
administration of the vaccine is 18 days post hatch
with the management conditions in place at the farm.
As this disease has been focused in recent reviews
regarding its causative agent [17] and the vaccination [18,19], the present study is, therefore, mainly
inclined toward the timely and reliable diagnosis of
this threatening disease using gross, histopathology
(HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and immunofluorescent methods.
University [GADVASU]) as well as from owners of
respective farms.
The mortality recorded in these farms ranged
from 3% to 18%. Morbidity was although high. Stress
was put on considering only the representative samples from each outbreak. 33 birds suspected for disease were necropsied and gross lesions were noted.
The relevant representative tissue samples such as
bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard,
and heart were subsequently collected in 10% neutral
buffered formalin.
The tissues were processed and the 4 μ thick
tissue sections were cut out of the paraffin embedded tissue blocks and stained with hematoxylin and
eosin staining as per the protocol of Bancroft and
Gamble [20] for routine HP.
IHC
Materials and Methods
For IHC studies, section(s) were taken on poly-LLysine coated slide and then subjected to clearing and
then rehydration. The antigen retrieval was carried out
in citrate buffer using EZ-Retriever® (Biogenex, USA).
These slides were then washed in phosphate buffer
saline for 20 min. Serum blocking was done using normal goat serum and subsequently non-specific binding
and endogenous peroxidase blocking was followed by
overnight incubation with chicken polyclonal to IBDV
(Abcam, United Kingdom). It was then followed by
20 min incubation with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat polyclonal secondary antibody to chicken
IgY-Fc (Abcam, UK). Color was developed with substrate diaminobenzidine (vector) and counterstained
with Mayer’s hematoxylin stain. Omission of primary
antibodies was used for negative control.
Ethical approval
Immunofluorescence technique
The present study was conducted after the
approval of the research committee and the Institutional
Animal Ethics Committee.
Collection and processing of samples
A total of six poultry farms were visited in and
around the areas of Ludhiana and the other districts
of Punjab, as shown in Table-1. Prior to the visits to
various farms as mentioned, necessary permission
was sought with regards to collection of samples
from diseased birds and generation of data either from
the competent authority of university administration
(Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences
For IHC-fluorescent, tissue sections on
poly-L-Lysine coated slides were deparaffinized and
rehydrated, and antigen retrieval was done in citrate
buffer solution. Blocking of non-specific protein
binding and endogenous peroxide was followed by
overnight incubation in primary antibody (Chicken
polyclonal to IBDV, Abcam, UK). It was followed by
incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated
goat polyclonal secondary antibody to chicken IgY-Fc
(Merck, India) for 20 min in the dark. Counterstaining
was done using diamino phenylindole (5 mg/ml,
Sigma, USA) for 10 min and after washing mounted
Table-1: Various farms visited for sample collection for suspected IBD outbreaks.
S. no.
District of Punjab
Farm
Farm
Farm
Farm
Farm
Farm
Total
Khanna, Ludhiana
Chaukiman village
Fatehgarh Sahib
Gauhar, Ludhiana
Kot Gangurai, Ludhiana
Moga
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Number of
samples collected
Total birds
Birds affected
(~%)
Age group of affected
group (weeks)
15
2
4
7
4
1
33
20,000
16,000
100,000
25,000
10,000
Backyard farming
4
8
6
10
4
2 died out of 10
6
4
8
10
3
Variable
IBD=Infectious bursal disease
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
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in an aqueous glycerol mounting media. Omission
of primary antibodies was used for negative control.
The slides were viewed under fluorescent microscope
(Nikon eclipse).
The antibody was standardized at the dilution of
1:200 for the above two techniques.
Statistical analysis
The Graphpad Prism software was employed
to statistically ascertain the relationship between the
histopathological changes in the bursas from affected
birds and the immunohistopathological scoring of the
histopathologically positive samples. This immunohistopathological scoring was done using the scoring
scale of 0-3, as applied by Oladele et al. [21] where,
three sites in each tissue section were observed under
the microscope and scored.
Results and Discussion
A total of 33 cases during 6 outbreaks were
collected, of which 26 were suspected to be having
affected with the disease. It is worth to mention here
that the stress was put on considering only the representative samples from each outbreak, although the
number of the birds affected was more.
which led to erosion of the bursal epithelium. Sellaoui
et al. [27] also described similar degenerative changes
of the coating epithelium.
The grossly atrophied bursa(s) exhibited the
fibrosis in between the bursal follicles as evidenced
by the fibrous tracts running between them (Figure-3)
that was evidenced by pseudolobulation in histopathological examination. Hemorrhages in the bursa along
with the development of cystic cavities were quite discernible either in bursal follicles and/or in the bursal
epithelium. The presence of cystic cavities along with
the cellular accumulation in the bursal follicles was
also reported by Guvenc et al. [28], whereas Murmu
et al. [29] reported bursal lesions in vaccinated chickens, which were histopathologically characterized as
either normal follicles with or without mild to moderate lymphoid depletion and without follicular atrophy or with the development of cystic follicles. In
the present study, some of the bursal follicles showed
the degeneration of the core of the follicles along
with the presence of pink stained fluid in some of
the degenerating follicles. Typical histopathological
Gross
The bursa of Fabricius in the affected birds aged
4-8 weeks were found showing significant lesions
in the birds, which were necropsied in five different
farms and showed the atrophic changes. These observations are in accordance with those reported by
Juranova et al. [22] and Khan et al. [23], while in the
sixth farm most of the necropsied birds were found to
have an enlarged and hemorrhagic bursa (Figure-1).
Besides the bursa, the junction of proventriculus and
gizzard were also hemorrhagic, as found by Islam and
Samad [24]. Renomegaly with congestion and hemorrhages (Figure-1) was noticed in most cases which
coincided with the finding of Khan et al. [23]; however,
the hemorrhages on thigh muscles were scarcely found
in three cases. Haghighi et al. [5] also reported the
similar lesions as hemorrhages in cecal tonsils, hyperemia of the thymus, bursal edema, and hyperemia with
enlarged and hyperemic kidneys in gross examination
of the experimentally IBDV infected birds.
Figure-1: Grossly enlarged and hemorrhagic bursa. The
kidneys are also enlarged and hemorrhagic in bird affected
with infectious bursal disease.
HP
The histopathological changes in the bursa of
Fabricius mainly showed the fibrotic and atrophic
type of changes, which were in the consonance with
the gross observations, in which the bursa were found
atrophic. Histopathologically, there was rarefaction
of the bursal follicles along with the mixed cellular
infiltration in the bursal follicles. The cystic changes
in the bursal follicles (Figure-2) were also evident in
few cases. However, these findings were not in agreement to the findings of Rosenberger [25] and Sharma
et al. [26], who reported absence of any serious
inflammatory bursal lesions. The desquamation and
sloughing of bursal epithelium was a frequent finding,
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
Figure-2: Cystic changes evident in the medullary region
in the bursal follicles (H and E, ×10).
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lesions of the bursa of Fabricius was found similar to
as reported by Hoque et al. [30], Islam et al., [31] and
Rudd et al. [32] that included mild to severe lymphoid
depletion in bursal follicles, follicular atrophy, cystic
formation of follicles, and bursal hemorrhage, but the
hemorrhages in bursa were not seen in majority of the
cases which was attributed to the collection of samples
at the time of post-peak period of occurrence of outbreak, when majority of bursas had already undergone
atrophy. Ignjatovic et al. [33] reported widespread
acute lymphoid necrosis, follicular hemorrhage and
stromal edema, indicative of acute IBD, the main
findings reported by the scientists were lacking in
the present study (follicular hemorrhage and stromal
edema),which is an innuendo to the chronic nature of
the present outbreaks.
The scoring of the various IBD lesions in bursa
of Fabricius was done, as shown in Table-2, based
on the criterion and method as adopted by previous
researchers such as Moraes et al. [34].
As per the analysis of the bursal lesions in these
six different outbreaks, the lymphoid depletion was
seen the highest in the fourth outbreak (2.86±0.899),
followed by fifth (2.75±1.89), and first (2.785±0.579)
outbreak, while it was least in the third outbreak
(0.75±1.5). In the similar way, the extent to which bursas got fibrosed was also highest in the fourth outbreak
(2.57±0.786), but unlike lymphoid depletion, it was
followed by fifth (2.5±1.73) and then first outbreak
(2.285±1.20). The presence of cysts was highest in the
fifth outbreak (1.25±1.5) followed by first (0.571±1.22)
and third (0.5±1). On statistical analyses of the extent
of lymphoid depletion, fibrosis, cystic spaces, and congestion/hemorrhage in the first and third outbreaks, it
is proposed that these four histopathological changes
follow a parallel trend in the pathogenesis of the disease. The extent of proventriculitis although followed
unrelated trend to these four changes in bursa, it was
not only concomitantly found in outbreaks which were
marked by extensive bursal histopathological changes,
i.e., first (0.929±1.141) and fifth (2±0), but also in
the outbreak that exhibited minimal bursal lesions,
i.e., outbreak three (2±0). Thus, it is suggested that the
IBDV act as a contributor to proventriculitis, rather
than being solely responsible for the same. The association of proventriculitis with IBD found in three out
of six studied outbreaks goes in accordance with the
previous findings by Pantin-Jackwood and Brown [35]
and Grau-Roma et al. [36], who also reported that
naturally occurring proventriculitis can occur in the
absence of IBDV and that the IBDV strains tested do
not directly produce proventriculitis.
The section(s) from kidney(s) showed marked
congestion in the cortex and the medullary area along
with the vacuolar tubular degeneration. The kidney
showed eosinophilic fluid accumulation, suggesting the proteinaceous nature of fluid along with the
lymphomononuclear infiltration in the interstitium
and glomeruli. The cerebrum revealed congestion
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
along with the mild perivascular lymphomononuclear
cellular cuffing around the blood vessel. The lungs
revealed congestion and desquamation of the epithelia
of parabronchi. The lungs here showed the infiltrative
changes in the parabronchi leading to its thickening.
The liver samples of most of the birds from this
outbreak were normal except for some showing some
degenerative changes as evidenced by congestion and
perivascular cellular infiltration. It was also interesting to find that the liver(s) from one outbreak to be
specifically associated with excessive severe fatty
change with lymphoid cellular infiltration was seen
as aggregate, this further suggests the involvement of
mycotoxin-induced injury putatively to be attributed
to immunosuppressive effect [37]. The liver was also
found hyperemic with the round edges by Haghighi
et al. [5].
Immunohistopathology
The affected bursal sections revealed viral antigens in the lesion sites identified in tissue sections,
especially inside the cells in the rarefied areas of bursal
follicles along with the inner lining of the cystic cavities in affected follicles. In various previous experimental studies, IBDV antigens have been detected
in macrophages within follicles, the interstitium,
and the lymphoid cells of bursa of Fabricius, e.g., by
Oladele et al. [21], but in the present study, the viral
antigens were found mainly associated with bursal
lymphoid cells and in bursal epithelium in some cases
(Figure-4). The findings can be related to the findings
of Tippenhauer et al. [38] who reported higher IBDV
antigen load in bursa of Fabricius of layer type birds,
in addition to the clinical signs and death rate when
compared to the broiler type birds, in their differential
immunopathogenic study. The coinciding fact in the
present study is being the consideration of mainly layer
type birds. Nunoya et al. [39] and Tanimura et al. [40]
detected antigen in cytoplasm of lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells (mostly macrophages)
in the bursa of Fabricius of IBDV infected chickens, but
Jonsson and Engstrom [41], however, observed antigen
only in bursal lymphocytes, which goes in exact accordance with the findings of the present study. In addition
to this, the findings of the present study also coincided
with the findings of Haghighi et al. [5] in context to the
viral antigen distribution within the cells of different
tissues, where the viral antigens were found dispersed
as fine to coarse granules within the infected or degenerated cells.
The presence of viral antigen was also appreciated
in the bursal interfollicular connective tissue (Figure-5)
as well as the bursal epithelium which was also
reported by Oladele et al. [21]. The distribution of viral
antigen varied from being localized (Figure-6) to focal
to diffuse. In addition, the junction of proventriculus
and gizzard (Figure-7) was also found to be expressing
the IBDV antigen. The IBDV antigens were also localized in the respiratory ciliated epithelium (Figure-8) at
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Table-2: The scoring of the bursal lesions in six outbreaks.
Case no.
OUTBREAK 1
JB02A
JB05B
JB08A
JB10A
JB11A
JB13B
JB17C
JB18A
JB19A
JB10B
JB22B
JB23B
JB25b
JB27
OUTBREAK 2
JB34
OUTBREAK 3
JB39B
JB40
JB41
JB42
OUTBREAK 4
JB50B
JB50C
JB51B
JB51C
JB52
JB53B
JB53A
OUTBREAK 5
JB62A
JB62B
JB63A
JB65
OUTBREAK 6
JB71A
Lymphoid
depletion
Fibrosis
Cystic
spaces
Edema
Congestion/
hemorrhage
Proventriculitis
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
2.785±0.579
0
2
3
2
3
3
4
2
2
0
3
2
4
2
2.285±1.20
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0.571±1.22
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.285±0.0726
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0.5±0.855
2
2
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
2
2
0
0
0
0.929±1.141
4
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0.75±1.5
3
0
0
0
0.75±1.5
2
0
0
0
0.5±1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
2
2
2±0
3
2
4
2
2
4
3
2.86±0.899
3
2
4
2
2
3
2
2.57±0.786
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.285±0.756
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
4
0
2.75±1.89
3
3
4
0
2.5±1.73
3
2
0
0
1.25±1.5
3
0
0
0
0.75±1.5
0
2
0
0
0.5±1.0
2
2
2
2
2±0
2
2
0
0
0
0
Figure-3: Ratification of the follicular region in the bursa
along with the inter-follicular fibrosis (Masson trichrome,
×20).
the affected sites in the proventricular sections and in
the heart muscle (Figure-9), whereas Pantin-Jackwood
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
and Brown [35] did not report any IBDV antigen in the
proventriculus. Hemalatha et al. [42] also reported the
similar IHC results in 100 1-day-old experimentally
infected white leghorn male chicks, where the reaction of varying intensities was seen in isolated lymphoid cells in cortex and surface epithelium of bursa
of Fabricius. The similar reaction was also seen in the
cortical lymphocytes of thymus and in few glandular
epithelial cells of Harderian gland depending on the
days post-infection.
Besides this, the immunofluorescent technique
was also employed that further confirmed/supplemented the presence of IBDV in the cystic lesions in
bursal follicles (Figure-10), which was in consonance
with the findings of Mahgoub [17] and Van den Berg
et al. [43]. In addition, Hemalatha et al. [42] detected
the viral antigens by specific fluorescence in lymphoid cells, plical epithelium, macrophages in bursa
of Fabricius, and Kupffer cells in liver and proventricular glandular epithelial cells.
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To statistically ascertain the relationship
between the histopathological changes in the bursas
from affected birds and the immunohistopathological
scores, the immunohistopathological scoring was
done using the scoring scale of 0-3, as applied by
Oladele et al. [21], as shown in Table-3. For a statistical comparison to be drawn, the mean and the standard
Figure-4: The affected bursal section showing infectious
bursal disease viral antigens in the lesion sites identified in
bursal follicles (Immunohistochemistry, ×4).
Figure-7: The junction of proventriculus and gizzard
expressing the infectious bursal disease virus antigens
(Immunohistochemistry, ×4).
Statistical analysis
Figure-5: Bursal interfollicular connective tissue as well as
the bursal epithelium showing the presence of infectious
bursal disease viral antigen (Immunohistochemistry, ×20).
Figure-6: A bursal section demonstrating the focally
extensive localization of infectious bursal disease viral
antigens (Immunohistochemistry, ×40).
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916
Figure-8: Respiratory ciliated epithelium
the
infectious
bursal
disease
virus
(Immunohistochemistry, ×20).
showing
antigens
Figure-9: The infectious bursal disease virus antigen in
the heart muscles (Immunohistochemistry, ×20).
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deviation of the respective histopathological changes
were also calculated, as shown in Table-4. This mean
represented the overall damage to the histo-architecture, which was then compared with the IHC scoring
of the 27 histopathologically positive samples (out of
33 total samples) using the Graphpad Prism software.
The correlation coefficient between the mean
histopathological scoring and the IHC scoring was
also found to be positive, 0.64623 for the respective
cases, which proves the reliability on IHC for the positive cases. Further, it can also be represented graphically, as depicted in Figure- 1, where both of the
curves follow similar trend: At 95% confidence interval, the slope: 0.1219-0.4220, with R²=0.3580 and at
p<0.001, as shown in Table-5.
Conclusion
Figure-10: Infectious bursal disease virus antigen in the
cystic lesions in bursal follicles (IFT, ×20).
It is concluded that the bursa is the main organ
involved in the pathogenesis of IBD and thus also acts
as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen
for specific diagnosis of disease using IHC. Although
IHC method of diagnosis has previously been compared with other methods as well [44], yet here it
Table-3: Immunohistopathological scoring criterion.
IHC positive cell (per×40 objective
lens of the light microscope)
Score
<5 stained cells
5-50 stained cells
50-150 cells
Over 150 stained cells
0
1
2
3
Figure-11: Correlation between histopathology (HP) score
and immunohistochemistry (IHC) score.
IHC=Immunohistochemistry
Table-4: Overall histopathological scoring and the IHC scoring, as per Oladele et al.[21].
Slide no.
JB02A
JB05B
JB08A
JB10A
JB11A
JB13B
JB17C
JB18A
JB19A
JB10B
JB22B
JB23B
JB25b
JB27
JB34
JB39B
JB50B
JB50C
JB51B
JB51C
JB52
JB53B
JB53A
JB62A
JB62B
JB63A
JB71A
Lymphoid depletion
Fibrosis
Cysts
Edema
Congestion
Mean
Standard deviation
IHC score
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
4
2
2
4
3
4
3
4
2
0
2
3
2
3
3
4
2
2
0
3
2
4
2
3
3
3
2
4
2
2
3
2
3
3
4
2
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0.8
1
1.4
1.4
2.8
1.2
1.4
1.4
1
0.8
1.6
1
1.4
0.8
1.4
1.6
1.6
0.8
1.6
0.8
0.8
1.4
1
2.6
2
1.6
0.8
1.095445
1.414214
1.341641
1.341641
0.83666
1.643168
1.949359
1.341641
1.414214
1.095445
1.81659
1.414214
1.949359
1.095445
1.949359
1.516575
1.516575
1.095445
2.19089
1.095445
1.095445
1.949359
1.414214
1.516575
1.224745
2.19089
1.095445
0
0
2
2
3
3
2
1
0
0
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
0
3
1
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
IHC=Immunohistochemistry
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Available at www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.8/November-2015/11.pdf
Table-5: Correlation between HP score against
immunohistopathological score in different samples of IBD.
Pearson’s correlation
coefficient (r)
0.64623
Slope
(95% CI)
p value
R2
1.392±0.3288
(0.7148-2.069)
0.0003
0.4176
10.
11.
CI=Confidence interval, IBD=Infectious bursal disease,
HP=Histopathology
yielded obvious results. It is concluded that IHC staining is a precise, specific, rapid, and reliable method to
demonstrate the IBDV antigen in the altered tissues
due to IBDV infection, which is in concurrence with
gross or microscopic lesions and supplemented by
immunofluorescent technique.
Authors’ Contributions
JS and HSB initiated research concept and
design, collection and analysis of data was compiled by JS, NDS, SS, and GDL. The interpretation
of HP was done by HSB and JS. Slide’s photography
was done by JS and GDL. HSB and RSB critically
reviewed the article, while the final approval of the
article was done by JS, HSB, SS, NDS, and RSB.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Acknowledgments
Authors are sincerely thankful to the Director of
Research, GADVASU, for facilitation and funding of
this work. The Dean, College of Veterinary Science,
GADVASU, is also acknowledged for providing necessary facilities toward completion of this research
project.
Competing Interests
The authors declare that they have no competing
interests.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
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